Saturday, January 30, 2010

Analysis of Intelligence of gifted children

Until the teachers and the parents recognize gifted children as exceptional. Their developments may be retarded once their ability is accepted and favored with a environment, their ability will bloom.

For this a good example was Louis Pasteur, a French scientist who was a very ordinary student while he was studied. But after he had setup his own laboratory he proved his intelligence and he found vaccine for rabies and anthrax.

Some results shows, though the gifted children excels in Mathematics and science their motor development is weak. For example their handwriting, hand writing will be poor because their hand could not cooperate with brains speed. And also their emotional development is not match with their mental development. As they grew older this becomes a problem and they need to be take care of by their parents.

As finding a gifted is hard to identify the modern educators and psychologists designed some group of tests called IQ test. The IQ tests are questionnaires intended to measure the mental abilities. The results of intelligence test are given on a scale of points. This test was based on Alfred Binet’s work. In 1905 Binet introduced first IQ test. He developed short tests to identify the children having learning disabilities, who required different method of teaching.

IQ tests do not provide full measure of Intelligence they do not take into account the creativity or the imagination onto account, hence low IQ does not indicate the low level of Intelligence. A gifted child exceeds 125 points in the IQ tests.

The skills of gifted children are evident then where it comes from? The answer for this question is not clear. It seems it is a combination of genetics and pure chance. As for as now parental genes are greater significance for Intelligence but still we have not decipher how genetic transmission or intelligence takes place?

In 19960’s sperm banks in USA have offered woman the opportunity to be inseminated with sperm collected from carefully selected men- leaders in various fields, in the belief that the genes of these members of the elite will passed on to the next generation. Practically it is not so if you look at the children of Nobel Prize winners they turn out to be normal in most aspects. This is not quite surprise there is a immense number of possible combination of the parents genes on the grand parents side, hence the IQ of the gifted is largely a matter of chance. Either Hans Albert or Edward Einstein the sons of Albert Einstein are not noted for their talent.

There is no doubt the environment also plays a vital part as the genetics for his or her mental development. The education, social and family setting all have a greater influence on the individual development. If a child needs and talents are given necessary attention then the child has more chances of developing certain abilities. if this does not happen his intellect will not be stimulated and his exceptional talent will retain as hidden. But the behavioral scientists still disagree about the relative importance of inheritance and acquired abilities.

In Israel, they offer many extra mural activities on number of level. Instead of covering the curriculum more quickly the students can enjoy more intensive learning experience. The system is more flexible and caters for the gifted to excel in one subject.

Just like our body the brain needs exercise to keep it in optimum. It is vital to keep the brain challenged in order to stimulated and even increase the intelligence

Collective intelligence of Insects

There are countless species of Insects and new ones are named every year. The insect’s body is very adoptable and its wide distribution is largely due to social system which put the colon rather than the individual in the fore ground.
Some African termite species build their home up to seven meter high. Inside it would be like passing through huge fortress and in side is a network of walkways and chambers, the layout of which guarantees co operation with in the community. Termites build an efficient ventilation system too. This ventilation allows the exhaled carbon dioxide to escape and fresh air to enter. No individual is responsible for this colony action except the group it self.
Termites are blind since birth and lack of intelligence as a individual but as a collective community they are brilliant builders. Ants, Bees, Wasps are all also forms colonies and their brilliance fascinates the scientists. The researchers find many similarities to human society – including hierarchical structures, with queens, drones or king, workers and soldiers. Previously the scientists thought that the individuals are controlled by instinct – build in patterns of behaviors but in recent past only researchers found that the insects releases pheromones which when released influence of the behavior of the individual of the same species.
The termite mound starts to take shape when workers form little mud balls mix them with saliva then arrange them into small piles in random. Since the saliva is strong the termites make their mound increasingly larger. If two columns are close together the workers of the each tower attracted with their scent and they immediately bridge them. With out their chemical signals there won’t be any community life.

For example, in a bee hive the queen secretes a specific pheromone that renders the worker bees infertile by retarding the development of ovaries by liking the queen bee. The other bees absorb the chemical substance and spread it guaranteeing that queen will be the only one capable of reproducing.
Scientists explain how ants tell each other about food supplies if one finds foodstuff it secrets a pheromone from its abdomen which then marks the way to the ant hill. As soon as another ant cross this path it will react in a similar manner, then the trail will be come as a wider river of scent. Pheromones helps them to detect them of same group similarly the termite uses its feeler which are covered with smelling cells. Each individual colony has a distinctive smell which comes from specific carbohydrate molecules that form the cubicle. In 1920 the scientists found that honey bee uses a famous “waggle dance” to inform the source of food to their group.

Friday, January 29, 2010

Was the Trojan War really took place?

Iliad Homer’s epic story of Trojan War is one of the most famous works in the ancient literature. The tragic story of the terrible war between the Greeks and the Trojan is filled with the unforgettable events and beautiful characters like Queen Helen and Prince Paris etc.

The queen Helen, whose love with Trojan prince is the root cause of the 10year old war. The Greek king Agamemnon and his brother Menelaus together with their great army fought to win back Menelaus wife Helen. The brave warrior Achilles and his Trojan counterpart Hector, Trojan king Priam and his daughter Seer Casandra area the some more important characters in it. Cassandra fore saw the terrible tragedy that will engulf the city Troy but nobody was believed her words and the great wise warrior Odysseus’s skillful tactics balanced the war in favour of Greeks.

For the people of classical antiquity, the people had really lived and the Trojan War had taken place. Even Romans attached great importance to warrior Aeneas, who is the decent from Trojan who settled in Italy after his fight from burning Troy. Romulus the founder of the city Rome was the descendent of Aeneas. But over the time the popularity of Troy faded all the remained was the mystic place, consigned with realm of fairy tales.

But a century ago a German business man Heinrich Schliemann strongly believed that the war was taken place in the 800BC. He was already traveled through out the world and he wished to study the classical antiquity and search the site of Troy. Unlike other archeologists he strongly believed that the Troy was a hilled Hisarlic situated near the coast of Aegean Sea in Turkey.

He started his excavation in 1870 the most sensational finding was the so called Treasure of Priam, a hoard of gold dating from about the 2400BC. But he judged it as that of era of Homer.

Today more items like metal tools plant seeds broken pottery represent the real treasure. But with humble objects the archeologists derived astonishing conclusions. And a clear picture of ancient Troy.

A total of ten settlements of densities have been identified by archaeologists at Hisarlik site. The oldest level walled village called Troy I is dated 2900-2600 BC. Homers Troy was hidden in the fourth layer (1700-1250BC) and it was about ten times larger than previously guessed. Next to the Citadel with its palaces there exists a large sub city.

Manfeed Kenfmann head of the excavation team believes the following: Long before the war Troy was a rich and powerful city therefore often targeted for raiders. Instead of Trojan War it likely that many violent clashers for control of the trading centre took place from the Bronze Age onwards. The reason for its sudden fall around 1250 BC may be a strong earth quake.

A bronze seal bearing Hittite hieroglyphics not of a Greek letters suggests that the city of Troy might not have been Greek at all, But part of the Hittite culture of central Anatolia. The implication is that among the many Hittite documents found in Antolia. There could soon emerge. Some hints regarding the fate of Troy and perhaps proof of Homer’s Trojan War.

Until than please wait!!!!!!!!!

Tuesday, January 26, 2010

Was Napoleon poisoned with Arsenic?

After Napoleons defeat at the battle of waterloo the Napoleon Bonaparte, The French Emperor was sent into exile on the tiny Island St. Helena in the south Atlantic. He spent five years in exile and died on May5th 1921. During his exile his health declined rapidly.

From 1819 Napoleon was under the care of Dr. Antommarchi, he performed the post mortem and it was supervised by five British doctors. He confirmed that he was died of stomach cancer but many people did not accept that official postmortem as genuine one. And they suspected the Bonaparte was poisoned with arsenic.

Napoleon was first treated by Dr.O’Meara., In 1817he had written an report , In that report he stated that his gums were full of holes and he was suffered insomnia, swollen legs ,attacks of migraine and hot flushes. In his view napoleon was suffered from scurvy because of unbalanced diet.

But modern scientist Rene Maury saw in his description the symptom of arsenic poisoning, which was unknown till 19th century. Forensic scientists dismissed his report. Maury put forward a second argument which pointed out that when the rulers body was returned to France in 1840 the corpse inside the coffin was not decomposed because of arsenic fed to his body, but the climatic condition of St Helena may be slowed the process of de compose and also his coffin was placed in the nest of three progressive coffins which may kept the body in air tight condition which slowed the decomposing.

If he was murdered means who was the murderer, possible suspects included an agent of the Bourbons, the French royal family who were restored to the throne in 1814 and owed their positions to Napoleons defeat. Another view was also pointed the British doctors who would certainly wished to get rid of him, Maury how ever claimed to have discovered the real suspect in the Count de Mantholen who was responsible for the house hold of the exile emperor. One of his tasks was to procure wine from South Africa. Hence he could easily add the poison. There is a strong motive behind it. According to the emperors will Count stood to receive a large sum of money so that may be a motive behind him.

In 1960 and 1994 tests were conducted and that revealed the traces of arsenic hence the poison could have come from food or water of St. Helena.

The historian concerned was how to evaluate the cause of death apart from cancer. Antommarchi also diagnosed an enlargement and inflammation liver as well as diagnosed tuberculosis in his lungs.

The French authors asserted that the condition of the island were unhealthy for hasten the emperor’s death only, the British sent the emperor to St.Helina. But British stated that the reports of personal physician of Napoleon was manipulated in the later stage and they also pointed out the stomach cancer was common in Napoleons family and that his death could not be liked to the unhygienic condition of the Island.

Monday, January 25, 2010

Big bang Theory Part.II

The term Big bang was coined by the British astronomer Fred Hoyle who was actually a opponent of this theory. He developed an alternative The Steady state theory. According to this steady state theory the universe remains stable since the decreasing density caused by expansion is balance by the constant creation of new matter.

In 1929 after spending many nights in taking photographs of the universe with the latest telescopes he concluded a fascination discovery otherwise called Red Shift theory. According to this the galaxies appear to be moving away from our own and they are receding at faster speed the farther away they are. The spiral arms of the various galaxies are expanding this concludes that at some point of time the universe was a small un imaginable dense mass of matter.

In 1946 astrophysicist George Gamow suggested that if the big bang theory is correct, the receding energy would have to leave the traces in the form of cosmic noise or backward radiation. The existence of this radiation was conforming in 1965 by two American radio astronomers. They detected a background radiation present in all parts of the heaven.

Years later the uniformity of temperature becoming puzzling for the supporters of the big bang theory the background radiation indicates the matter was distributed uniformly in the space. But the matter is concentrated into galaxies this raised the question of the origin of Spiral galaxies.

The Big bang theory rest pm the quantity of helium present in the universe most of the chemicals are born from the stars. However helium accounts for 23% of all matters of universe, it is impossible that all originated from the stars. Therefore we have to assume that they were existed before the formation of stars.

There are so many unsolved mystery and doubts in the big bang theory:
1) It is not possible to study the first moments of Cosmos- The very beginning of time and space.
2) Many scientists regard the existence of quasars as another obstacle to the big bang
theory. Quasars are the cores of active galaxy and hence some scientists believe that their properties are in conflict to the big bang theory.

The observation made so far revealed the universe is still young but the astrophysical theories based on the assumption that they were 13 thousand million years old.

Big bang Theory Part.I

The creation of the stars and the in the universe had created with a explosion – is called Big bang. In spite of some reservation the big bang theory remains well founded and most convincing theory till date.
According to the cosmologists and astronomers the space and time began with a mighty explosion called as “Big Bang” Most of the scientists supported it. But still we don’t know exactly what happened at the down of universe.
According to the big bang theory the age of our universe is 13thousands million years. If you want to tell more accurately the universe came into existence some (10^-43) seconds after big bang.
When it was 10^-43 seconds old the universe was indefinitely dense and hot. It was 10^32 degree centigrade. By that time matter and energy were in separable densely bonded and they compress to a mass of less than 10^-50 cm in radius. The new born universe immediately expands at a tremendous rate more it expand more it cooled down. Then gradually matter and its opposite antimatter emerged from this energy bundle. After10^-10 seconds the temperature fallen down to thousand billion degrees Celsius impossible to conceive except in theory.
At this point the cosmos contains the basic particles- quarks, electrons, neutrinos, as well as particles of anti matter at 10^6secondsthe temperature had fallen down to 10billion degrees. The particles of matter and antimatter collided with each others. The more the temperature falls down the more the matter and antimatter formed which then collide and disappear since the quarks and electrons are more than the anti matter hence the matter prevailed after about three seconds the last positron was destroyed and the present matter which contain electrons protons neutrons came to existence. After the first three seconds the universe continued to expand and cool only 800000 years after the big bang the temperature had reached the 3000C and the protons and electrons began to combine as hydrogen atom. At this point of time energy separated from the matter and the first photon-light quanta were released.

Over the next thousand years the stars took shape. In their cores, the nuclear fusion was ignited. this the energy that fuels our sun. As the temperature continued to reduce the first galaxies appeared, as did quasars- on the edges. Galaxy after galaxy the universe took its present form. 4.5 thousands million years ago our solar system made its appearance.
(to be continued)

Saturday, January 23, 2010

Rome, Was theKing Nero arsonist or any other ideal suspects?

Mid night of July 18 or19 in 64BC a great fire broke out in the capital city Rome. It raged for several days and nights. The flame consumed 40,000 blocks of apartments; 132villas all belonged to the Nobles of Roman Emperor even a major part of the Emperor’s palace and many shrines and temples were burnt in to ashes.

When the fire broke out the Roman Emperor Nero was not in the capital city. Later he returned to the capital and had taken the emergency measures like temporary shelters for the homeless, supplies of food and supply of Wheat for the fair prize. The Romans were deeply hurtled by the catastrophe and held ceremonies of penance to appease the Gods.

There was a great mystery surrounded the real cause of the fire. Some suggested that was an accident because of in adequate town planning. There was no proper plan adapted to the expansion the seven hill city that expanded beyond the hills. The poor construction methods also another major reason for the rapid spread of the fire. Apart from these reasons the metropolis was over populated.

During 470-427 BC the speculation the real estate fuelled by high rents, had compounded the problem of over crowing.

Not surprisingly the fire occurred more frequently and that too spread easily, as the houses were built very close together. Cooking even done in the open, fire places and the families used pans filled charcoal for heating, those increased the risk of fire. Many houses adjoined temples and the roofs rested on thick wooden beams.

Hanging over all this was the unbalanced personality of the Emperor Nero. He was described as the tyrant, eccentric king. He had a long track of evil deeds. He got only murdered his mother and his wife. These give the ground for suspicion. Many people doubted him as the reason behind the fire.

The emperor had a great passion for the theatre leads the rumors that he wanted an opportunity to sing a poem about the burning of Troy. By coincidence the fire cleaned the land that Nero needed to build his golden palace ,of which hardly anything remains today.

The colonnade was built 1.5 Km length. He laid the responsibility at the Christians the minority people. It was easy to blame Christians because they were small in number and they were poor and they were poor and they were considered as foreigners by the Romans .The Christianity was banned in Rome but it was practiced secretly the fire gave the Emperor a good opportunity to prosecute the Christians to divert the peoples opinion in his favor.

The Christians were cruelly killed and made to torn in to pieces by the wild animals in the arenas, nailed them to the cross or set alight as living torches to illuminate the emperors garden at night.

Still the question of guilt was not completely settled. Not only the peoples belongings but also Nero’s palace also was badly damaged. The symbol of Imperial power” THE CIRCUS MAXIMUS” was reduced to rubble. After this great disaster the next coming emperors followed the Urban planning to minimize the risk of another fire.

A Costly Lesson Indeed!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

Friday, January 22, 2010

Intelligence, a curse or a boon to blooming buds?

What is intelligence? Why some children are more intelligent than others? What makes men like Thomas Alva Edison out standing? Why some child prodigies like Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart so intelligent?

If we are telling that those little gifted children as Intelligent but the psychological term for these little genius is “precocious” which means that these children posses more skill than the children of same age group.

The gifted children are exceptional in all respects in all respects. They learn quickly. They grasp very fast as the adults. They think highly as such the adults, and they often learn to read write by themselves. They often stand out from others in all areas.

They are so many examples for the child genius, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart learned to play Harpsichord at the age of four and he composed his maiden sonata at the age of six and “BASTIEN AND BASTIENEE “ , his first opera at the age of 12. The famous Italian painter Primo Conti painted his first self portrait at the age of 11. 14years old Rumanian gymnast Nadia Comaneci was the first to achieve two perfect10”s – the dream score.

There is no anatomical difference and they are in every way as a normal child, but there are specific features of the brain give them boost to excel in different fields. The term intelligence mention not a specific function of the brain but it is a combination of number of brain functions such as: The ability to understand ideas that turn them into action, the capacity for abstraction adopting ideas, creativity the capacity to recall The capacity that we use to assess a situation quickly and to take the necessary action otherwise known as common sense. Hence there are so many form of Intelligence. For that reason only the Psychologists avoid formulation an exact definition of the concept- Intelligence but they agree that there are certain criteria that researchers can determine the Intelligence level.

Then what is mean by genius? For example, Albert Einstein whose general theory of relativity revolutionist our law of physics and universe is termed as genius. In 20th century he is considered as a most renowned scientist, though many of his contemporaries were also remarkably knowledgeable. Therefore his creative inventive, intelligence made him to stand apart.

In fact gifted children never try to attract others attention. They are uncomfortable with their extra ordinary talent and they tend to be shy and reserved very few of them are out standing in their class performance. They generally try to restrain their mental ability in order to single out from their peer group. Some times they become so bored of the classes routines and they started to spend their time in day dreaming subsequently their academic marks fall rapidly.

Now my question is, “Is Intelligence a curse or blessing? Register your opinions in the comments page.

Tuesday, January 19, 2010

A Sensational Archaeological fraud ”PILTDOWN MAN”

Do you know the world most famous archaeological fraud in the world history? If you don’t know about it means no problem follow me.

In 1912 the two names Charles Dawson and Arthur Smith Woodward were in the British newspaper headlines. Charles Dawson was a prominent amateur archaeologist and Arthur Smith Woodward was a paleontologist in the England museum.

Both of them announced that they had found the remains of 500,000 years old pre historic man with the few stone tools in a gravel pit near Piltdown in the Sussex, in southern part of England.

They described their pre historic man as ‘Eoanthropus Dwasoni ‘ or else called as Dawson’s early man. The special in their finding was the long sought missing link- the common ancestor of Ape and the man.

In that pit they found some fragments of the top of the human like skull, a discolored jaw bone etc. The jaw bone was belong to the ape with a specialty their molars were worn out such that of a human. But the critical portion of between the skull and the jaw was missing.

In order to complete the head the scientists had to imagine the missing pieces of the head, hence they had either to make the jaw more human or the skull to the primitive.

As the reconstruction was a cumbersome process, hence the scientists raised more doubts whether Piltdown man was a genuine fossil hominid. But over the period of three years Dawson found some tools, bones and more teeth. Remarkably in 1915 he discovered teeth and skull fragments of another human at Piltdown near the previous excavation site. These findings silenced the doubts raised by the scientists.

The remains of fossils discovered in Asia, Europe and Africa had many things in common but none of this was similar with Eoanthropus Dawsoni, hence again anthropologists doubted the findings.

But the British museum not allowed the scientists to access the fossils hence the anthropologists could not verify the creditability.

In 1949 the fossils were allowed to test. They were subjected to X ray analysis fluorine test and isotope markings. The test result showed that they were not the fossil remains of hominid and the skull remains were of a human around only five hundred years old. The Jaw belonged to that of an orangutan and it was simply colored and the teeth were filed down.

Here the question arises; who cooked the swindle? for what? The suspicion was on Dawson. But nothing was proved against that amateur archaeologist and the motives of the others involved was not clear and was not proved. Still it is a mystery only,

Tuesday, January 12, 2010

The Light , The Fantastic!!!!!

We can produce many different forms and colors of light both visible and invisible. But the most extraordinary light of all come from the laser.

A ruby laser is the original type of solid laser. It uses a large rod of artificial ruby crystal. A coil of a very powerful flash lamp is wound around the ruby rod when it is switched on its intense light excites the atoms in the ruby rod that gives them extra energy. The excited atoms in the ruby rod give of this energy as a very pure light. This builds up to a powerful beam as it is reflected back and forth by the mirrors at each end it eventually emerges as laser light.

Ordinary white light is a mixture of many different wavelengths or colors. The waves are all jumbled up and out of step. They jostle one another and lose energy as they do. A light source such as bulb gives out waves in all directions and it quickly dims if you move away because it spreading over a larger and larger area but the light from the laser is made up of a single wavelength all the waves are in step so they can build up energy and the waves travels in the single direction and their energy is concentrated to a narrow beam.

The ruby laser is the most powerful type of laser, producing its vivid red beam in pulses. These are millions of times brighter than sunlight. The drawback in ruby laser is it can produce its light on in pulses.

The continuous laser producers are gas laser and semi conductor laser. The gas leaser is a common type laser. The gas contained in a tube with parallel mirrors at each end. It’s atoms excited by passing electricity through them.

Semi conductor lasers consists of tiny slices of crystals which give out light when they placed together, they too have mirrors at the ends.

Amazing Indian Sadhus!!!!!!!!

In India more than80% to 90%of total population is following Hinduism and are classified as Hindus. Hinduism is one of the world’s oldest religions. The Islam and Christianity follow great monotheistic faiths where as Hindus worship multitude of gods and there are wide variety of religious observances and practices.

One of the most fascinating groups in Hinduism are Sadhus. The literary meaning of Sanskrit word Shadu is “good ones”. They are extremely devout individuals. They are very determined to attain Mukthi (sacking rebirth) or eternal bliss.

Their religious conviction makes them to give up their jobs, possessions and family and live as hermits in the caves of Himalayas or of wandering ascetics.

The Sadhus strive to experience Samadhi, a point of complete unity with God Shiva who is one of the supreme gods of Hindu pantheon. In achieving Samadhi a shadhu realizes that his soul entirely with in the creator. His breathing will be controlled or otherwise almost stopped. And Samadhi is their ultimate aim.

Most of the Sadhus are vegetarians because of their respect for all living things some Sadhus called as Aahoris are not like so, they are of entirely different. They voluntarily give up the earthly pleasures to follow the very difficult path of asceticism, the object of which is deliverance and eternal bliss. The one of the basic principle of Hinduism is reincarnation they are ultimately aim for that and their goal is to free themselves from rebirth. They pursue an ideal- the renunciation of worldly things. A few undertake pilgrimages to Hindu holy temples. Others perform strict rites of repentance and live alone in caves and forests. The Hindus often visit these holy saints as the part of their worship.

The entire creation is driven by the push for to unite with the divine and this gives them extra ordinary powers. They can fast for months together, walk on beds of lowing fire, can walk with the footwear made up of nails and pierce or mutilate their bodies – seemingly with out pain.

They have the ability to interpret and transmit thoughts and call back the spirit of the dead. The Sadhus have enormous power then can make their bodies float in the air. They can duplicate themselves and appear in two places at the same time. They can change the scent of a Jasmine flower into scent of a Rose.

Scientists in the field of parapsychology have studied their various mysterious abilities and conformed many of these astonishing observations. But our modern science rejects that Sadhus have extra sensory abilities because it contradicts the rationalistic thoughts.

Amazing Eyes !!!!!!!

Sight- the ability to see- is most important of our five senses. It gives us the most information about the world around us. The eyes are organs for our sense of sight. They let in light and form image of the scene before us and send the message to the brain to translate this view into a picture.

Most familiar animals such as dogs cats and horses have eyes like ours. But the eyes of some creatures are totally different. Simple animals like flatworms have eyes without lenses, consisting of hollows lined with light sensitive cells. Insects have highly complicated eyes containing literally thousands of lenses each of which forms a separate Image. The complicated eye is called a compound eye, because it is a combination of very many different elements called ommatidia, each one is effectively a tiny separate eye. It has a lens at the top and light sensitive cells lower down, Together the lens form the outer surface of the eye.

Like most insects the bee has two of these compound eyes one on each side of its head. They give it all sound vision. Each eye is made up of about 5000 lenses but the image produced by these lenses is not very sharp. The compound eyes are most useful for detecting movement.

The eyes of more advance animals, such as mammals produce sharply formed images like our own eyes do. But there are differences for example Horses do not have round pupils like ours instead horizontal ones. Cats are creatures of the night, and their eyes are well adapted for seeing in the dark. Behind the retina cats have layer called the tapetum .Cats eyes shine in the dark because the tapetum reflects back any light that passes through the retina.

The eyes of many nocturnal creatures have a tapetum to improve their night vision. Others have large eyes with particularly big pupils which can let maximum amount of light. Owls have eyes like this.

Saturday, January 9, 2010

Scientist with no education??!!

“What can a man without even primary education, contribute to the field of Science?” Our answer to this question may be “No! Nothing” But we are wrong. Such a man also contributes much if he has the will and the determination.

The best example is Anton Van Leeuwenhoek, the Dutch biologist and microscopist of seventeenth century microscopist. As his family very poor he could not complete his primary education. His father a basket maker died when young Leeuwenhoek was only sixteen and the youngster became a clerk in dry goods stores in Amsterdam. Then he opened a drapery shop in his home town Delft. Then he joined as a sinecure doorkeeper at the Delft city hall, a position he held rest of his life.

As he had much leisure time and he lived only for his hobby, grinding lenses. In his life time he ground a total of 419 lenses. Many of these lenses were focused on some permanently mounted objects and though some of which no man other than him self looked. Leeuwenhoek worked alone with his lenses. He had a passion for looking closely at small. He looked at every thing from tooth scrapings to ditch water. He studied in detail the development of tiny insects and he found parasites living on fleas which no body had noticed and reported till then.

Leeuwenhoek noticed certain tiny moving objects through his microscope and he under stood they are micro organisms and he named them as animalcules. Thus he be became the first to discover the one called animals now called Protozoa.

He was the first to describe Spermatozoa. He wrote voluminously to the Royal Society in Dutch. In all he sent 375 communications about his discoveries but the society did not gave importance to his findings.

Robert Hook built a microscope according to Leeuwenhoek’s specification and he conformed the observations of Leeuwenhoek. Leeuwenhoek found a new tiny structure which was later named as bacteria. No one else was to see bacteria again for over a century.

Hence his life history is an eye opener to all those aspiring success in life.

Friday, January 8, 2010

Do you know about Gilgamesh the world first Epic??!!

Gilgamesh was an ancient Mesopotamian hero who was the first in the world literature searched for immortality. Is there any chance that he was really lived?

Epic of Gilgamesh is the first epic text in the world. It is very much older than the great Ariyan epic, The Mahabharata or Homer’s Illiad. The first original version of Gilgamesh was written by the Sumerians in the second millennium before Christ. There are so many versions of Gilgamesh appeared and uncountable fragments of this epic were found through out the Middle East.

Fortunately the most complete part of this epic was found in the excavation site Nineveh. Nineveh is the site for famous library of King Assurbanipal, who is the most famous Assyrian King.

This legend was that of Seventh century and was written in 12 clay tablets. This version also contains the story of great flood or other wise Babylonian version of biblical flood. The Sumerian temples have the relief carvings of the heroic deeds of Gilgamesh. Hence the hero of the epic was not just a legend as it appeared, but he has lived around 2700BC. He was ruled over a city of Uruk in Mesopotamia as a powerful king. He may be a most famous ruler by that time. He built beautiful temples and strong city walls. The remains and the traces of those are still being seen today. We are not clear whether his great deed and good deeds made him immortal or his buildings.

Hero of this epic Gilgamesh was a tyrannical ruler and his people groan under the cost of his many wars. In order to get rid of their king they made him to wage a direct one to one fight with Enkidu. Enkidu was a creature, half man and half savage created by the gods of Uruk. Enkidu was a right opponent of Gilgamesh.

Only one combat was take place that too was end in draw. But they both became thick friends. Their combination enabled them to perform great deeds. They together killed the giant Humbala, who was the guardian of the cedar forest of Lebanon and they also killed the Skybull. Since he refused the love of Goddess Ishtar, the goddess ordered him to kill the bull.

All these enraged the gods and they decided to separate the friends by letting Enkidu die of an illness. When Gilgamesh saw his friends corpse he was broken down went down in search of eternal life. His search leads him to the other side of the water of death. There he met a man named Utanpishtim a very wise old man. He was granted immortality by gods because he was the only survivor of the great flood.

Utanpishtim advised him not to sleep for seven days and seven nights which was the basic preparation for the immortality but he failed that. Utanpishtim took pity on him and showed him the plant of external life but that too was stolen by a snake and he was remained mortal and reigned his kingdom for 126 years.

The Epic of Gilgamesh enjoys the wide spread inters through out the world only because it seeks to address mankind’s most important unsolved questions: The human relation ship with good, the power of friend ship, love, death, war, pride, and even the meaning of human life. Because Gilgamesh tried to answer all these external question, He is immortal in legends.

Thursday, January 7, 2010

The unknown mystery about black hole!!!!!!!

What are black holes? You just imagine a void of very very small in size which is enormously dense which engulf the objects which comes with in its surroundings. Here a simple explanation for a black hole. Black hole is a star which collapsed under its own mass few times and it becomes more compact every time. Because of its enormously high density this endless chasm sucks everything with in its vicinity and absolutely nothing can escape from its attraction.

The name 'BLACK HOLE' was coined by John Weeler, a famous astrophysicist of American origin. While deriving the theory of relativity Albert Einstein told about the black holes but none of the scientist thought about it.

While we are discussing about a black hole, we are fully against the Newton's force of attraction between two objects.

For your convenience let me explain to you with sun as an example. If our sun has to be changed to be a black hole the following things has to be take place. First the diameter of the sun has to be compressed to make it a ball of one kilometer radius (now the diameter of Sun is 1392000Km) while doing so its density will be increased and hence it’s mass will be equal to 1000000000000000000000000000000 Kg. Similarly if you convert earth in to a black hole it will be a ball of 1cm radius and of mass 10 power 25Kg( 1 followed by twenty five zeros) Now the earth's diameter of earth is 12756Km.
Now I hope you have a brief outline about a black hole. Now let’s go through the general process of creation of black hole.

Stars are of huge balls of gases mostly Hydrogen. Their energy is derived from nuclear fusion of Hydrogen into Helium (Nuclear fusion is a clear source of energy occurs in very high temperature and pressure). Once the stars weight and the energy produced balances each other then they will be stable. They will not collapse as long as the energy production takes place the will be stars. But once the energy production reduced due to lack of fuels the stars implodes in on itself simultaneously its radius also reduce. After few collapses their radius reduced to a greater extent and becomes a black hole.

Here the problem for astrophysicist is discovering black hole in the universe. Since they are not visible we can not find them as visible object. But they can be finding out by using a different phenomenon of binary stars.

Binary stars are the two stars rotation around each other. If one star become a black hole the other will tumble down and will be absorbed, while it is absorbed there is a disc of dust called accretion disc form around the hole. The very hot matter inside the black hole is extremely accelerated and hence releases strong radio waves. Using these radio waves we can find the black hole. The velocity of disc rotation is directly proportional to the mass of the black hole.

According the scientists the galaxies rotate like a centrifuge. The total mass of the stars and other objects at the centre holds the stars in the outer edges hold them in place. Hence we can arrive at this following conclusion that the mass of all matter of stars is not sufficient to hold the very distant stars therefore some invisible gigantic black holes at the centre are exert force on the stars at the outer

Here a point to note: The time stops inside a black hole which is a unique and very important point in the space and time relationship.

Wednesday, January 6, 2010

The riddles behind the Shroud of Jesus!!!!????!!!!

For the last few centuries the traditional Christians believed a 4.34meters long and 1.09 meters wide ancient linen piece of shroud or a burial cloth wrapped around the body was that of Jesus while he was lay down from the cross. This shroud has a faint out line of a crucified man. This facial features in this shroud was the inspirations for the image of Christ, that too be Jesus as a beard man.

This priceless shroud was preserved in the cathedral of Turin which is in North Italy. If the shroud of Turin is the real shroud that wrapped around Jesus that too it bears the features of the saviour then it really a priceless relic of Christianity, and it should be most carefully preserved and guarded. Though in 1997 a fire broke out in the cathedral that shroud was undamaged. Since then it has been stored at a unknown place.

As usual a big question arise, whether it is a genuine shroud or not? To find out the real fact the scientists have used a latest technology. The shroud has been subjected to X- Ray, Chemical analysis,microscopic analysis,infra red photography, ultra violet and radio carbon dating.

The relic owner the noble family once ruled part of Italy handed over it to Vatican in 1983. after five years the Vatican gave permission to British Museum experts to examine the shroud. The tests were conducted in the laboratories in Arizona,Tuscon, Zurich and Oxford. They finally concluded it was of 14Th century and it was not that of Jesus.

How ever the scientist of the remaining world contradicted and question the creditability of the findings. In 1989 and 1993 scientists conferences were conducted, the scientists carefully analysed the laboratory result but they came out with different conclusions.

A Russian scientist tried to prove it was younger and it was permeated with soot from fire. Some scientists considered the dating was incorrect the Patina was of fungal and bacteria. but the findings gives you following certainties.
The image was was not painted and it is indelible.
The blood stains indicates the body was wrapped some two and half an hour after death.
The blood reveals the body is that of a male.
The blood group was AB
The body had covered with this shroud more than 36 hours.

Only question unanswered is how the image is negative rather than positive?

It is here to worth mention that the image is hard to recognise in original while a negative clearly. shows The body, The limbs and The face more clearly. But any way it is a remarkable preservation!!!!!!!!!!!

Monday, January 4, 2010

The Mysteries behind Queen of Sheba!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

The King Solomon answered all the questions raised by the Queen of Sheba but a little is known about this Arabian queen. In reality we don't know what was her real name, and whether she ever lived ? There were so many tales and stories figured in middle east and Africa.

In Bible she was mentioned as queen of Sheba but was not her name. In Arabian and Persian tales and also in Quran her name was Bilqis. According to Bible's old testment (Book of Kings) The queen of Sheba heared about the great wisdom of King Solomon and gone to Jerusalem to test his knowledge but there is no description about her riddle questions.
I wish to mention few of the riddles raised by her to King Solomon. The queen showed Solomon two identical roses and asked him to find the real rose. The wise ruler then with the help of the honey bees found the right flower.
She raised another riddle in that she asked to tell her what it was , ere seven go out , nine come in, two mix the drink and one drinks? The king answered correctly that this was mensturation which last for seven days pergnancy last for nine months, the motheres two breasts and the one infant nursed by her respectively.

Now we certainly know that Yemen that situated in the south eastern corner of Arabian peninsula was her kingdom. Then what was the reason behind her to2000 KM strenuous journey to Jerusalem? Was it out of simple curiosity about the wisdom of the foreign ruler? Really there were so many substantial reasons behind her travel.

The king Solomon control of middle eastern trade endangered Sheba's lucrative trade of incense and Myrrh. According to Bible Queen Sheba's visit was successful in this regard. They entered in to an trade agreement. For that sake She gave him precious stones, perfumes,fragrance oils and 120 hundred weight of gold.

While the old testment speaks out their mutual respect and esteem. Kebra ngast (Glory of King) an Ethiopian nation's epic written in 14th century tell as the love affair between Solomon and Queen Sheba!? It tells you more, Menelik the first king of Ethiopia was their son. But Jews legends tell us a different story and they describe her as evil demon,

Saturday, January 2, 2010

Is he a fortune teller or a swindler???!!!

Some thought he is a fortune teller some thought he was a swindler some thought he is a astrologer.He was patron ed by the Kings and Royals, But how is a person knows the future is a mystery,Despite their popularity mystery still surrounded the sayings of Nostradamus.

Without no doubt Michel De Notre Dame popularly known as his Latin name of Nostradamus is still fascinates many people.He is a descendant of a Jewish family but later followed a catholic faith.He completed his studies in Avignon and Mont pellier and he became a physician.

He helped the people of France to control the epidemic disease and hence he had awarded titles The professor and The doctor.He developed a new concept of hygiene to fight against the out break of Plague in Lyon.

Later his interest turned towards writing and publishing cooking recipes, about perfumes and make ups. Then his interest and attention turned towards ocult science and astrology. He published an almanac with weather forecast.

In 1555 he published his first three of his "CENTURIES" which contained descriptions of Mystic vision. When he completed his Centuries it contained about nine hundred predictions in
in sections of hundred verses each. Soon he enjoyed the reputations for prophesying the future. Though his prophesies were popular few of his prophesy gone wrong.

For example he predicted Charles IX would have a long life however he died at the age of 24. Then He prophesied that Valois family would attain great er wealth but this was never fulfilled.

Contrary to this he foretold many historical events like Great London fire in the year 1666,1789 French revolution and the World war II

He predicted the death of Henry II in 1559. Here the verse follows:

"The young lion will overcome the
Older one.
In single combat in an arena
In a golden cage, he shall put
out his eyes
Two wounded in one,and he shall
die a horrible death."

Nostradamus writings were prohibited by the Vatican in the year 1781. One of his prophesy is the end of the mankind. Don't be afraid according to him it will happen in 3797. His four line verses have been translated in many languages with different interpretations. Here I wish to share with you the following, Most of his verses contains negative views of natural catastrophes, revolutions murders and wars.