Friday, June 26, 2015

Flower of Life

Flower of Life – Patterns of Creation 

The Flower of Life – FOL is found in several major religions all over the world and contains the patterns of creation as it appears from the Great Void, made from the Creator’s thought. The flower of life has secret symbol which is created by drawing thirteen circles out of the Flower of Life and by doing so, one could realize the sacred and most important pattern in the universe.

 This is the Fruit of Life which is the source of everything that exists. It comprises of thirteen informational systems where each one clarifies another aspect of truth. Hence these systems give rise to access to everything that could range from the human body to the galaxies. For instance, in the first system, there is a possibility of creating any molecular structure and any living cellular structure that may exist in the universe which in short is every living creature.

The most common type of the Flower of Life is in a hexagonal pattern from which the centre of every circle is on the circumference of six surrounding circles of the same diameter and is made up of 19 whole circles with 36 partial circular arcs, that is enclosed by a big circle.

Information & Knowledge from Understanding FOL

It is a geometrical pattern which is made of multiple overlapping circles of the same size. One can derive a lot of information and knowledge which can be gained from understanding the Flower of Life. It is considered to be sacred geometry comprising of ancient religious value and to sum it up, it portrays the fundamental forms of space and time and yet there is a lot more to learn from it.

The Seed of Life is designed from seven circles placed with six fold symmetry giving a shape of circles and lenses which tend to act as a basic component of the design of the Flower of Life. The symbol of the flower of life signifies important implication to many, throughout history and can be found in temples, manuscripts and art in all cultures around the world. At Abydos, in Egypt, the temple of Osiris, has the oldest known specimens of the Flower of Life which are at least over 6,000 years old, dating back to as long as 10,500 BC or could be earlier. It seems that it had not been carved into the granite but rather have been burned into the granite or drawn on it with unbelievable accuracy.

Represent the Eye of Ra – Symbol of Authority of Pharaoh

It is presumed to represent the Eye of Ra, which is a symbol of authority of the pharaoh. One will observe other examples in Assyrian, Asian, Indian, Middle Eastern, Phoenician and medieval art. An interesting illustration of the flower of life is found in The Forbidden City, in Beijing, China where the flower of life is discovered in a spherical form beneath the paw of the `Fu-Dog’ or the `Guardian Lion’.

The palace had been a home to 24 emperors of the Ming and Qing dynasties and the Fu-Dogs were a symbol of protection to the buildings and their inhabitants. Besides this, they were also considered as the guardians of knowledge. In the New Age, the Flower of Life has provided to what is considered as a deep spiritual meaning and methodsof enlightenment to the ones who have studied it as sacred geometry. There are several groups of people all across the world who tend to obtain particular beliefs and forms of meditation established on the Flower of Life.

Dream Home If It Gives You All Required Facilities

The definition of dream home varies from person to person. For a homeless person, a roof supported by four walls could be a paradise, whereas for a financially affluent person a house reflects his taste and preference. Along with that, the facilities expected also varies: the importance of facilities to make your house a dream house always depends on the purchasing power and willingness to afford the same. This can simply can be explained by two scenarios:

In a week’s time, I have had the opportunity to visit one of my friend’s friend’s house as well as my maid’s house and I found that dreams are nurtured and moments are cherished in both the houses. The facilities one opts for, to accessorize the house has implications two fold:

The first one primarily revolves around meeting the daily needs and requirements

The second one is taking a step to ensure the luxuries of life

While you think of getting a house, it could be through real estate agents or from personal references But remember, he gets you only four walls with a roof. It is the dwellers who are living there who treat it as a canvas, paint their dreams and make it vibrant with their aspirations

Before I share my experience, I would like to take an attempt to describe what a dream house would be. Generally, it would be something we see in a fairy tale’s castle. But yes, life has a different equation than that of a fairy tale

So, I visited my maid’s house to attend a religious ceremony and it was a 1RK where she, her husband and her son lives and yes the basic amenities are all present like fridge, TV, oven, bed, cupboards etc. and she was more than happy to show me her house. Cleanliness and hygiene has been taken care of with utmost priority. As per her, this is her dream home since it has everything she wanted to have for happy living and she also introduced me to the property dealer who got her this house

Two days later, I had been asked to accompany my friend since she was planning a surprise party for her on her birthday. And trust me when I entered her house, I was bedazzled with the interiors which is nothing less than what I have seen in movies. The walls and flooring have been recreated by mahogany wood, shimmering chandeliers to light up the mood, technically sophisticated music system, latest gadgets, opulent bath-ware and bedroom are a sheer reflection of extravagance. Also, this penthouse is positioned in one of the prime locations of the city at the 45th floor and from the balcony, you actually have a bird’s eye view of the city. The real estate broker who sold this house to her actually went for a Thailand vacation after this deal. The utility items like fridge, oven etc… everything speaks the language of indulgence or perhaps over – indulgence will not be an understatement! The open terrace has been complemented with the roof – top Jacuzzi and this is her dream home, which implies that a dream home undoubtedly provides you with the required facilities as per your requirement and aspirations, and yes, different people have different expectations out of their life.

Monday, June 22, 2015

Facts about Indian National Flag

Indian National Flag – Adopted on July 22, 1947

The Indian National flag had been adopted in its present form at the time of a meeting of the Constituent Assembly which had taken place on July 22, 1947, and became the official flag of the Dominion of India. The national flag symbolizes a country and is flown by the government though it can also be flown by citizens of the country.

The first national flag in India had been hoisted on 7 August, 1906, in the Parsee Bagan Square – Green Park in Calcutta now known as Kolkata. The second flag was hoisted by Madame Cama and her band of exiled revolutionaries in Paris in 1907 while the third flag had been hoisted in 1917 when the political struggle had taken a definite turn and Lokmanya Tilak together with Dr Annie Besant hoisted it during the Home Rule Movement.

At the time of the session of the All India Congress Committee that had gathered in 1921 at Bezwada, presently Vijayawada, Pingali Venkayya had prepared a flag which was made of two colours, namely red and green, representing the two major communities – Hindus and Muslims. He had taken it to Gandhiwho recommended the inclusion of a white strip to represent the remaining communities of India as well as the spinning wheel symbolising the progress of the Nation.

1931 Landmark in the History of the Flag

1931 was a landmark in the history of the flag and a resolution was passed to adopt a tricolour flag as the national flag. The flag was saffron, white and green and Mahatma Gandhi’s spinning wheel at the centre was the forbear of the present one.

On 22 July 1947, the Constituent Assembly had adopted it as Free India National Flag and after independence; the colours together with their significance remained the same with the exception of the Dharma Charkha of Emperor Asoka which was adopted instead of the spinning wheel as the emblem of the flag.

Thus eventually, the tricolour flag of the Congress Party turned out to be the tricolour flag of independent India. The national flag of India is also known by the term `tricolour’, Tiranga in Hindi due to its three dominant colours in the flag and these two terms tend to always refer to the national flag.

By law, the national flag of India is to be made of khadi, which is a special kind of hand spun cloth of cotton or silk, popularly made by Mahatma Gandhi. The only licenced flag production and supply unit in India is Karnataka Khadi Gramodyoga Samyukta Sangha which is based in Hubli.

Original Indian Flag Code - Amended

The largest flag, 21 x 14 ft.; is flown by the government of Maharashtra on top of Mantralaya building, the state administrative headquarters. The original flag code of India did not permit private citizen to fly the national flag but were only allowed on national days like the Independence Day or Republic Day.

Naveen Jindal, an Indian industrialist had filed a public interest litigation petition in the High Court of Delhi in 2001, against this, debating that hoisting the national flag with due honour and decorum was his right as a citizen as well as a way of expression of love for the country. Eventually the Union Cabinet of India amended the Indian Flag Code with effect from January 26, 2002 enabling private citizens in hoisting the flag on any day of the year subject to their preserving the dignity, honour and respect of the flag.

The general rule when the India flag is flown on Indian Territory together with the other national flags, it should be the starting point of all flags. The flag, whenever is displayed indoors in halls at public gatherings or meetings should always be on the right – observers’ left, since this is the position of authority.

Amended Code Bans Usage in Clothing Below Waist

Moreover if the flag is displayed near a speaker in the hall or a meeting place, it should be placed on the speaker’s right hand and when it is displayed at any other place in the hall, it must be to the right of the audience.Whenever a foreign dignitary tends to travel in a car which has been provided by the government, the flag should be flown on the right side of the car while the flag of the foreign country should be flown on the left side.

On May 29, 1953, the Indian national flag had been hoisted on Mount Everest, which is the highest peak in the world together with the Union Jack and the Nepalese National flag. The India flag went in space in 1971 on board Apollo-15 and flew in space as a medallion on the spacesuit that was worn by Cosmonaut Wing Commander Rakesh Sharma at the time of the Indo-Soviet joint space flight in April 1984.

The original flag code prohibited the use of the flag on uniform, costumes and other clothing, but the Government of India, amended the code in July 2005, enabling some forms of usage. However, the amended code bans usage in clothing below the waist and on undergarments as well as embroidering onto pillowcase, handkerchiefs or any other dress material.

Thursday, June 18, 2015

Thousand-Year Rose

Thousand-Year Rose – Rose of Hildesheim

The Thousand-year Rose also known as the Rose of Hildesheim grows on a wall of the Hildesheim Cathedral, a Catholic cathedral in Hildesheim, Germany and has been dedicated to the Assumption of Mary. The cathedral together with the adjacent St, Michael’s Church since 1985 has been on the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites.

It is believed that the rose which climbs up the wall of the cathedral’s apse is said to be the oldest living rose in the world, a Rosa canina which is commonly known as a wild dog rose. It tends to grow against the eastern apse of the cathedral that is about 21 metres high with 9 metres wide and the rose bush reaches a height of about 10 meters. As per verified documentation, its age is said to be around 700 years.

There are slight variations in the tale of the establishment of the diocese by Kind Louis the Pious at Hildesheim in 815 though the rose bush seems to be a common theme in all the versions. In 1945, the Cathedral had been ruined by Allied bombers at the time of the Second World War. However the roots of the rose bush survived and blossomed again inspite of the ruins. As per the legend, it is said that Hildesheim will prosper while the rose bush flourishes.

Poem Published Regarding the Rose – 20th Century

In 1896, a poem had been published regarding the rose and in the early 20th century, author Mabel Wagnall, on visiting the Cathedral and seeing the rose was inspired to write a book which went to form the basis of a silent film. According to legend, Emperor Ludwig the Pious, son of Blessed Charlemagne, the Great, had left his palace in Elze and had gone hunting and arrived in the area of modern Hildesheim along with his entourage which was around 18 km from the Elzer Palace.

After a successful hunting party, he had struck up a tent and celebrated Mass, on a quarter of the wood and at that time a relic was taken from the village chapel along with him. On returning to the palace he remembered that he had forgotten the reliquary in a nearby bush and hurried back to find the priceless reliquary. Inspite of his various efforts, he was unable to take it from the thick wild branches of the dog rose. He recognised `clear divine will’ and build a chapel at that place in honour of Our Lady amid the branches of the rosebush. Till date this rose bush entwines the eastern apse of the Cathedral and is popularly known as `Thousand Year Rose Bush’, since then

Rose Bush Unearthed from Rubble

In 852, the place where Ludwig the Pious had built the Chapel and the Diocese of Hildesheim, was found by Bishop Altfrid, was the keystone of the first Cathedral and after the Cathedral was damaged by fire in 1046, Bishop Hezilo rebuilt and consecrated the second Cathedral in 1061.

However, the Cathedral was totally destroyed on 22 March 1945. The rose bush or the dog roses was unearthed from the deep rubble and started to bloom again. Dog roses, which is a section of Caninae of the genus Rosa has around 20 – 30 species and subspecies that tend to appear in various shapes, occurring mostly in Northern and Central Europe. The rose growing on Saint Mary Cathedral tends to belong to the Rosa canina and shows certain features of canina which is a deciduous shrub ranging from one to three metres in height but tends to climb if provided with support.

Not All Roses as Durable as Dog Rose

The stems are covered with sharp, small hooked spines for assistance in climbing while the leaves are between five and seven leaflets. The leaves are shiny dark green on the upper side and hairless on the underside. The flowers tend to have an unusual pale, pink colour with a slight white colouring at the centre and are of medium size having a rather light fragrance with five petals developing into oval of 1.5 to 2 centre metred red orange coloured hips.

The fruit is said to contain high vitamin C level and is used to make tea and marmalade while the rose hips are used in traditional folk medicine for inflammatory related diseases. It is said that the rose blossom generally tends to survive for a fortnight and appears towards the end of May. However, it could vary as per weather conditions. When the cathedral had been destroyed during the Second World War the rose bush had survived the damage and remained alive under the ruins which later regrew.

Not all roses tend to be as durable as the dog rose and the longest living rose bushes are classified as wild roses. Garden roses together with other rose cultivars tend to have a much lesser lifespan of a couple of hundred years. The tea rose is said to have the shortest lifespan and may not survive for more than 30 to 50 years.

Sunday, June 14, 2015

Red Hand of Ulster

Red Hand of Ulster

Red Hand of Ulster – Official Seal of O’Neill Family

The Red Hand of Ulster is considered to be the official seal of the O’Neill family and is believed to be initiated from a mythical tale where it is said that two chieftain raced across a stretch of water to bid the first to reach the land and claim it as his own.

One chieftain on realising that his foe would be the first to touch the land cut off his hand and threw it on the shore, claiming the land before his opponent has reached it and the Red Hand is said to be the only emblems in Northern Ireland that is used by both communities in Northern Ireland.

However, it is more associated with the Protestants community and Catholics envisage it representing the nine counties of Ulster and the Protestants consider it representing six counties of Northern Ireland. The Red Hand of Ulster seems to appear on several flags and murals. It is used as a symbol in heraldry denoting the Irish province of Ulster and is an open right hand red in colour with fingers pointing upwards and the thumb parallel to the fingers, having the palm facing forward. The symbol is embedded in Irish Gaelic culture and associated with the Ui Neill clan of Ulster while in some version, it is a left hand used and or/the thumb is opened.

Battle over Ownership Red Hand of Ulster

This Irish Gaelic symbol is generally accepted that it originated in pagan times and was first connected with the mythical figure Labraid Lamb Dhearg or Labraid Lamderg of the Red Hand of the Fenian Cycle of Irish mythology.

 As per one myth it is said that the kingdom of Ulster had at some point of time no rightful heir due to which it was agreed that a boat race to be taken place and whosoever’s hand touches the shore of Ireland shall be made the king. One of the two, desiring the kingship, on seeing that he was probably losing the race, cut off his hand, throwing it to the shore and won the kingship. The hand is most likely red to signify the fact that it would have been covered in blood.

Other version indicate that the king who had cut off his hand belong to the Ui Neill clan which probably explains its connection with them. While other versions conclude that it was none other than Niall of the Nine Hostage who severed his own hand to win his crown from his opponent.

Red Imprint of Hand on Rocks

Another myth relates that two giants who engaged in battle and had one of his hand cut off by the other and a red imprint of the hand was left on the rocks which is believed to have been used by the Ui Neill clan at the time of its Nine Years’ War against the spread of English control.

The arms of the chiefs of Scottish Clan MacNeil of Barra comprise of the Red Hand where the clan has claimed traditional descent from Niall of the Nine Hostages while several other families used the Red Hand to focus on Ulster ancestry. The Earl of Iveargh, the head of the Guinness family had three Red Hands on his arms as recently as 1891.

 In 1243, after Walter de Burgh became Earl of Ulster, the de Burgh cross was united with the Red Hand in creating a flag representing the Earldom of Ulster which later on became the modern Flag of Ulster, It was part of the arms of the Irish Society during the plantation of Ulster. While there are several who associate the Red Hand with loyalist iconography, there seems to be a cultural battle over its ownership and it still adorns the provincial and political flags of Northern Ireland and Ulster.

Red Hand of Ulster Recognized as  Symbol of Ulster

The sales of baronetcies initially helped in funding the plantation in order that baronets of England as well of Ireland together with later baronets of Great Britain and the United Kingdom were permitted to supplement their arms with hand gules.

The Red Hand could be considered as one of the few cross-community symbols which have been used in Northern Ireland and due to its origins as Gaelic Irish symbol, groups like nationalist/republican have used and tend to continue using it.

As the most recognized symbol of Ulster, it is also utilised by Ulster’s unionist as well as loyalist like its use in the Ulster Covenant and in the arms of the Government of Northern Ireland, the Ulster Volunteers and loyalist revolutionary groups like the Ulster Volunteer Force and Ulster Defence Association and various others.

The Red Hand seems to be portrayed on various Ulster counties crest like the Antrim, Cavan, Monaghan, Londonderry and Tyrone and was later on included in the abolished Government of Northern Ireland flag, It has also been utilised by several other official as well as non-official organisation all over the province of Ulster and Ireland.

Wednesday, June 10, 2015

What Caused the Great Depression

Perfect Market with No Crashes/Recessions/Bubbles - Inevitable 

The Great Depression was a global financial crisis which used up most of the developed world throughout the 1930s and the first warnings of its onset was seen at the end of 1929 though most of the countries did not notice its true effect till 1930 or much later.

 When it had also ended, it differed from country to country but again signs of recovery were seen in the later years of 1930. Things looked up for most of the economies by 1940. Several economists tend to dream of perfect market with no crashes, recessions or bubbles occurring, though these occurrences can be unavoidable when humans tend to be the players.

The Great Depression which was one of the worst blows to the world economy that served as a major example on how markets can be at risk. Stock market crash of 1929 quoted as the beginning of the Great Depression was headed by the Roaring ‘20s which was a period when the American public learned about the stock market, went in head first and the crash swiped away several people’s investments as well as the public who were terribly shaken. When the banks failures wiped away the savings of those who had not even invested in the stock market, they were devastated.

Great Depression – Originating from US

Though the market crash could not be avoided, the bank failures could have a way of preventing with improved regulation.Significantly, the Wall Street Crash that took place in October 1929 has been envisaged as an interchangeable term for the Great Depression and this occurrence is one of the causes originating from the US, leading to the longest as well as the deepest worldwide recession of the 20th century.

The Great Depression could have occurred immediately after the downfall of the stock market. There are several factors which lead to it resulting in a more far reaching economic crisis. Overproduction seems to be one of the serious faults leading to the Great Depression which was not only a problem in industrial manufacturing but an agricultural issue as well.

 From the middle of 1920s, American farmers used to produce far more food than the population used to consume. As the farmers extended their production to support the war effort at the time of WWI, they also programmed their technique which was a process that improved their output as well as cost them a lot of money, thus incurring a lot of expenses and putting them in debt.

Agriculture Struggled/Industry Progressed 

Moreover, land prices for several farmers also dropped by around 40%. This resulted in the agricultural system beginning to fail during the 20s with large sections of the population with less money and no work. With demand falling with increasing supply, the price of products dropped which in turn left the over-expanded farmers short changed and farm often foreclosed. This gave way to rise in unemployment and a fall in food production till the end of 1920.

As agriculture struggled, the industry progressed in the periods earlier to the Wall Street Crash and in the `boom’ period prior to the `bust’, many people went on purchasing household appliances, cars and consumer products. However, these purchases were done on credit and as the production continued rapidly, the market swiftly dried up resulting in too many products with less people earning enough money to purchase them. For instance, the factory workers could not afford the goods coming from the factories they worked for. The economic crisis that was going to affect Europe meant that the products were not sold across the Atlantic resulting in America’s industries creating an unsustainable excess of products.

Subject of Dispute – Historians/Economists

The cause of the Great Depression became a subject of dispute by historians as well as economists and it shaped much of the period between the two world wars for several of the developed countries and continues to serve as a lesson on a variety of economic practices. The urge to view the Great Depression as an occasion that was centred on the US stock market could be avoided, since it was a global depression which had several of its roots in 1920s and the early 30s.

Its effect was also felt throughout Europe. It is vital that the overproducing industry, together with subdued trade, followed by rising unemployment, failing banks as well as ineffective government policy was taken in consideration to gain a holistic and an accurate understanding on the happening of the Great Depression. It was the outcome of an unlucky combination of factors, a restrained Fed, protectionist tariffs and a Keynesian, government centred recovery plan.

The same could have been shortened or avoided with some change in any of these cases. Most of the groups of the government’s interference indicate that the quick recovery from other depressions/recession cycles would not have taken place as swiftly in 1929 since it was the first occurrence where the general public and not just the Wall Street elite had lost huge amount in the stock market. Likewise, the Fed could avoid error since it did not know that the government would be passing a trade-crushing tariff as well as take other uncertain measures.

Monday, June 8, 2015

Ring of Gyges

Ring of Gyges – Mythical Magical Artefact

The Ring of Gyges is considered to be mythical magical artefact which has been mentioned by the philosopher, Plato in Book 2 of his Republic granting that the owner has the power to become invisible at will. In the story of the ring, Republic considers if an intelligent person would be ethical if he had no fear of being caught and punished for doing injustices.

 The Ring of Gyges originates with a challenge put across by Glaucon, he needs Socrates to defend the just life and wants the defense to portray that justice is essentially preferable to injustice. For the purpose of argument, he proposes to present a defense of justice and starts by asserting that people tend to find it desirable or good to inflict wrongdoings on others though the wrongdoers considered being on the receiving end of offenses as unwanted.

In Glaucon’s reporting of the myth, which is not based on historical fact, an unnamed ancestor of Gyges, a shepherd was in the service of the King of Lydia, who was a historical king, the founder of the Mermnad dynasty. After a certain earthquake, a cave was exposed in a mountainside where he had been feeding his flock and on entering the cave, he observed that it was in fact a tomb with abronze horse having a corpse larger than that of a man, wearing a golden ring. This was stolen by him.

Discovered Power of Turning Invisible 

According to the customs prevailing at that time, the shepherds would meet together and send their monthly report about the flocks to the king. He then arranged to be chosen as one of the messengers to report to the king, the status of the flocks having the ring on his finger and as he sat among the assembly he chanced to move the collet of the ring in his hand when instantly he became invisible to the rest of the assembly.

He got to hear the others speaking about him as if he was not present there. He was surprised and again touching the ring he turned the collet outwards and was visible to them once again. He tried the technique several times and discovered that the ring had the power to turn invisible on adjusting it. He utilised this new power of invisibility to seduce the queen and with her help, he killed the king and became the king of Lydia.

Tale of Gyges Used to Question Imaginative Form of Query

The tale of Gyges is utilised to question an imaginative form of query which is basic for the Republic and is questioned in several other types in the dialogue - `why should one do right if they can get away with doing wrong? It could be an important and a difficult question and the answer to it would take the rest of the Republic together with its state building, philosopher-kings, the cave and the divided line, educational program for guardians the unfathomable perfect number governing all human births as well as the myth of Er, which would not be very convincing.

However Western literature provides us with another option to Glaucon’s query, which takes the premise of the ring of Gyges plainly that, is shorter, simpler and much more entertaining in H.G. Wells’ short novel – The Invisible Man.

Friday, June 5, 2015

Hidden Truths behind Jana Gana Mana Our National Anthem

Jana Gana Mana – Bore Several Controversies

Approximately 100 years since the Indian national anthem - `Jana Gana Mana’, was first sung in Calcutta, it then became India’s national anthem which bore several controversies. The national anthem has explored Nobel Laureate Rabindranath Tagore’s Jana Gana Mana and its vision of Indian universality. This national anthem has seen millions standing with reverence and attention, each time it is played.

However, there are critics who consider that the song is deferential to the British monarch, while others find that it fails to reflect totally on races and regions. However, 100 years after Rabindranath Tagore, the first Asian winner of the Nobel Prize for Literature in 1913, had written and performed the song on December 27, 1911, at the Calcutta session of the Indian National Congress, this anthem has managed to maintain its grip on the Indian people as well as political imagination.

Jana Gana Mana was written by Rabindranath Tagore in honour of King George V and the Queen of England when they had visited India in the year 1911 and to honour their visit, Pandit Motilal Nehru included five stanzas which are in praise of the King and the Queen, where most are of the belief that it is the praise of our motherland.

Indian Ocean/Arabian Sea Not Included

According to the original Bengali verses, the provinces which were only under the British rule such as Punjab, Sindh, Gujarat, and Maratha were mentioned and none of the princely states that were important parts of India now like Kashmir, Rajasthan, Andhra, Mysore and Kerala were ever acknowledged.

 Besides this, neither the Indian Ocean nor the Arabian Sea was ever included since they were under the Portuguese rule during that time. Jana Gana Mana indicates that King George V is the lord of the masses and Bharata Bhagya Vidhata or the bestower of good fortune’. Kumar Deepak Das is of the opinion that Tagore had incorporated British ruled regions of India in the Jana Gana Mana when most of the north eastern region was beyond the British authority.

He states that “there are insurgency and secessionist movement in the north-east. People there often feel neglected. If the Indian government agrees to modify the national anthem, such measures can resolve the feeling of alienation”. It was selected in 1950, as the national anthem of Indian after much debate that overruled Bamkim Chandra Chattopadhyay’s famous Bengali song `Vande Mataram’ in the face of Muslim opposition.

Petition Filed in 2005 in Supreme Court 

Towards 2005, a petition was filed in the Supreme Court with a demand in the inclusion of the word Kashmir in the national anthem and the deletion of Sindh which became a section of Pakistan after Partition.

Jana Gana Mana written in Bengali Sanskrit by Tagore remains to stimulate a spirit of regional as well as racial identity became superficial after India’s Sindhi community together opposed the deletion and claimed that the word Sindh is to be representative of the community. Eventually, the Supreme Court ruled in favour of the community and against the petition and indicated that a national anthem was a `hymn or song expressing patriotic sentiments or feelings and not a chronicle that defines the territory of the nation.

 Jana Gana Mana faced plenty of controversy from the day of its first delivery in 1911 at Calcutta during the Congress session. It is said that King George was scheduled to reach the city on 30 December and a part of the Anglo-Indian English press in Calcutta believed and reported that Tagore’s anthem was homage to the emperor. The poet refuted the claim in 1939 in a written letter stating that he should only insult himself if he cared to answer those who considered him capable of such unbounded stupidity.

Evokes a Feeling of Patriotism

However, whatever would be the story, singing the National Anthem does evoke a feeling of patriotism and connects one to their motherland, letting them to understand its meaning. If it had been written for the King and the same should not be the Indian National Anthem, then we can find several things in the form of monuments in the country that were built by British or Muslim invaders which has made us proud of these monuments.

The most noticeable shopping place in present time in Delhi is the Connaught Place which was named after the Duke of Connaught. It was the central business district and masterpiece of Lutyens Delhi. Then is the Parliament House in Delhi, with India Gate, Rashtrapati Bhawan, Teen Murti, Gateway of India and much more to inform us of British in India which are a section of praiseworthy areas of India. Official report of the Congress session wherein Jana Gana Mana had been submitted as a patriotic song together with the reports of various other newspapers also faced the same criticism of the identifications of the patriotic song.

There are other leaders who were supportive of Tagore and Jana Gana Mana like Mahatma Gandhi who considered the song to have found a place in the national life, while the first Prime Minister of India; Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru noted that it was `a great national song, since it was a constant reminder to all people about Rabindranath Tagore.

Wednesday, June 3, 2015

9 Facts About Draupadi Which You Don't Know – Part III

Draupadi – Confesses Her Guilt

Krishna could help Draupadi in putting the jambul plucked by her back on the tree on one condition which was that there should be someone holding no secrets at all. Draupadi had no option but to confess some guilt which she had not disclosed to anyone. She had to confess her guilt and confessed to her husbands that though she was a chaste woman and loved all the five husbands equally, there seemed to be someone else that she also loved and longed for.

She had always longed for Karna, who was the arch enemy of the Pandavas. This disclosure was shocking to her husbands though none reacted to it. She was thus free of any guilt and went to place the fruit back on the branch of the tree and was saved from the sage’s curse. Many writers have explored the hidden love of Draupadi for Karna and some have also justified it that the powerful and the dynamic character of Draupadi could only find her match in Karna and not in the five brothers who seemed to be incomplete without one another.

Implication of Revelation 

It is also related that Karna regretted his behaviour of stripping Draupadi in the Kuru court after she was lost in a dice-game, where the behaviour was more as a revenge for the insult during the swayamvar of Draupadi. This unexpressed and undercurrent romance had always been suspected in the whole of Mahabharat. This myth has double purpose where one is that all have some secrets which are not disclosed.

 Others do not reveal for fear of annoying ones loved one and fearing of losing them if it is revealed. At other times, it is not revealed for fear of upsetting as in the case of the five husbands who were shocked but all the same respected the honesty displayed by Draupadi besides the cause of the revelation which was to avoid the wrath of the sage who had been fasting. The implication of a revelation is brought out well besides the fact that it does well and rarely causes any harm.

Portrayed to Be Reborn as Different Heroines 

The second reason is that through this myth, the Pandavas also tend to get the message that being the brave husbands that they were; they had failed Draupadi when she needed them the most. Moreover, when she was also being stripped after losing in the dice-game, none of her brave husbands supported her or rescued her. This portrayed the weakness among each one of them and that she had a tender spot for one who seemed to be much more than the five of them.

This seemed to be insulting which they had to bear without any hatred for Draupadi. She bore the five Pandavas five sons – Prativindhya, son of Yudhistira, Satsuma, son of Bhima, Shrutakirti, son of Arjuna, Satanika, son of Nakula and Shrutasena, son of Sahadeva.

 All her sons is said to have died in the hands of Aswathamma, who also killed her twin brother Dhrishtadyumna. Draupadi is represented as a rather helpless person in Mahabharata. However, she has been portrayed to be reborn as different heroines in her later births like Vira Shakti, Bela and Alha (Tamil folklore).

Tuesday, June 2, 2015

9 Facts About Draupadi Which You Don't Know – Part II

Image Credit: flickr. com/photos/byronic501/55833692/
Draupadi’s vessel seems like Lakshimi’s `akshaya patra’ that always remained full of food and all over India, the term `Draupadi’s vessel means kitchen that overflows with the best of foods. She is also considered as `Annapurna’.

Mahabharata portrays the value of a good homemaker and that women should not be considered for lust. On Ghatotkacha’s first visit to his father’s kingdom, he failed to pay respect to Draupadi inspite of his mother’s instruction, to which Draupadi felt humiliated and was very angry.

She yelled at him in anger stating that she was an exceptional person, the queen of Yudhisthira, the daughter of a Brahmin king and her status was much higher than the Pandavas and at his mother’s request he had dared to insult her in the assembly of elders, kings and sages.

She curses Ghatotkacha stating that his life would be short and that he would be killed without a fight which was a terrible consequence for a Kshatriya. Hidimba on the other hand could not restrain herself on hearing her curse and rushing up to her called her a wretched, sinful woman and in her anger cursed Draupadi’s children and the two queens almost killed the Pandava origin.

Draupadi’s Vessel – Remained Full of Food
Various Goddess Avatars 

Draupadi is considered to be the composite avatar of Goddess Shyamala – wife of Dharma, Bharati – wife of Vaya, Shachi – wife of Indra, Usha – wife of Ashwins and Parvati – wife of Shiva, according to Narad Purana and Vayu Purana. In her earlier avatars, she was born as Vedavati, who had cursed Raavan and then took birth as Sita, who was the cause of Raavan’s death. Her third incarnation seemed to be partial either as Damayanti or her daughter Nalayani while the fifth avatar was Draupadi..

While she agreed to be the common wife, she had made a condition that her household would not be shared with any other woman. This meant that the Pandavas were unable to bring their other wives to Indra-prastha though Arjuna managed in bringing his wife in.

She was Krishna’s sister, Subhadra who with Krishna’s advice was in a position to trick her way into that household.Duryodhana did not participate in Draupadi’s swayamvara since he was already married to the princess of Kalinga, Bhumati and had promised her that he would never marry and kept his promise.

Krishna – Only True Friend 

Draupadihad always considered Lord Shiva as her Sakhs or beloved friend while Krishna addressed her as Sakhi which portrayed the spiritual love prevailing between them. Krishna was the only true friend who often came to her rescue whenever she was in need of help and whose divine presence, she experienced always in her life.

As per a legend from Mahabharat, during the 13th year of the exile of the Pandavas, Draupadi had seen a jambul hanging from a tree and plucked it in order to eat it. When she had plucked it and was about to eat it, Krishna came from somewhere and stopped her from eating it which according to him, the ripe fruit was meant to be the fruit with which a sage intended to break his twelve year fast.

Not finding the fruit in its place would earn the wrath of the sage which would have resulted in more trouble for the Pandavas as well as for Draupadi. Draupadi sought the help of Krishna to get out of problem in this incident.

Monday, June 1, 2015

9 Facts About Draupadi Which You Don't Know – Part I

Draupadi – Tritagonist in Hindu Epic – Mahabharata 

Draupadi has been described as the Tritagonist in Hindu epic – Mahabharata. As per the epic she is considered as the `fire born’ daughter of Drupada, King of Panchala.In the Mahabharata, she has been described as the most beautiful woman of her time with eyes like lotus petals and flawless features with a combination of youth and intelligence.

Being of slender waist and perfect features, her body radiated a fragrance like the blue lotus for two full miles taking the breath away of those around her. She was the mysterious, fiery though compassionate queen of the five Pandava brothers and also the main reason behind the great Mahabharata war. The unknown fact is that Draupadi symbolises binding of the five chakras in human body and hence she is referred as Kula kundalini that exist in the spinal cord of the humans.

Other unknown facts are brought to light about the well-known Draupadi of epic times. Draupadi has also been referred as Panchali which means one from the kingdom of Panchala, Yajnaseni – meaning one born from a Yajna or fire-sacrifice, Mahabhaaratii – great wife of the five descendents of Bharata and Sairandhri –an expert maid, her assumed name at the time of her second exile where she worked at Virat kingdom’s queen Sudeshna’s hair stylist.

Fearless Women – Rare Culture of Ancient Times

There have been several stories about Draupadi asking for a husband having 14 qualities in her previous birth where Lord Shiva grants her a boon. Since no man owned all the qualities, she was informed that she would be the wife of five men who would collectively have all the qualities. She then asked for the blessing from Lord Shiva with a husband with five of the best qualities, a man could possess such as – dharma, archery skills, good looks, patience, strength etc.

Draupadi seemed to be fearless women, which was rare in the culture of ancient times who demanded justice directly from Dhritarashtra, the king of Hastinapur when she had been insulted. As Sairandhri, once again she demanded justice directly from king Virata for being insulted by his brother-in-law, Kichaka. She boldly condemned these kings for their failure in protecting women. Besides them, she also condemned great warriors like Bhishma, Drona, Kripacharya as well as her husbands for not saving her from the humiliation during the episode of Cheer-Haran.

Draupadi – Purpose of Destroying Kuru Household 

Drupada, her father had created her for the main purpose of destroying the Kuru household which patronized Drona who used his students like the Pandavas and the Kauravas in conquering and dividing the Panchala. Draupadi was hence born an adult with no appreciation of childhood or parenting and she had been raised in hatred with the purpose of destroying a family.

 A popular belief in south India is that she was also an incarnation of Maha Kali, born in assisting Lord Krishna, an avatar of Lord Vishnu, the brother of Goddess Parvati, to destroy the arrogant Kings of India. Hence they were considered brother and sister though Draupadi was born from fire.

She had no trust in her five husbands and had reasons in doubting them since they did not kill Jayadhrata, the husband of her sister-in-law who had dragged her out of her house onto his chariot with the determination of making her his mistress. They hesitated to kill Kichaka fearing of being exposed of their identities when he abuses her during their final year of their exile.