Monday, November 28, 2022

Rhodopis — History Mystery

Rhodopis — History Mystery

Rhodopis is one of the old Greek tales which was revolved around a Greek slave girl. This slave girl married the king of Egypt. In Greek, the term Rhodopis is known as Ῥοδῶπις Rhodôpis. Strabo, a Greek historian, recorded the Rhodopis Cinderella story first in the late first century BC or early first century AD (64 or 63 BC – c. 24 AD) in his Geographica (book 17, 33). People know it as the first variant of the "Cinderella" tale. If you want to find the origin of this fairy tale, then return to the 6th-century BC hetaera Rhodopis. Now, let's know about Rhodopis in detail, what are its sources, how the girl became the queen, and so on.

What is the Plot?

Geographica (book 17, 33) was the book where Strabo wrote the tale between c. 7 BC and c. 24 AD. According to the story of Rhodopis, an eagle came to snatch sandals from her maid when she was bathing. Then, the eagle took it away to Memphis. After a while, the eagle flung it into the king's lap when he was administering justice. The king was surprised at the beautiful shape of the sandal and the strangeness of the incident. After watching the sandal, he sent men in all directions to find the woman to whom the sandal belonged. Later, those men found her in the city of Naucratis. Then, they brought her up to Memphis, and she became the king's wife.

Who is Rhodopis?

Rhodopis is known as the oldest Cinderella story, or you can say this is the first Cinderella story. This story is loosely based on a real person. The time was around the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD when the tale appeared in Aelian's Varia Historia. Generally, people know this tale as Rhodopis Egyptian Cinderella during the 19th century.

Sources for Rhodopis Story:

We know that Strabo, a Greek geographer, first recorded the tale. But, later, Roman orator Aelian reported a similar tale in Miscellaneous History. It was written in Greek and quite identical to the story Strabo told. But in Aelian's story, the Pharaoh's name was Psammetichus. According to Aelian's account, the Rhodopis story remained famous throughout antiquity.

In this regard, you should know that the arrival of Herodotus was about 500 years before Strabo. Nevertheless, in his History, he recorded a renowned legend about courtesans named Rhodopis.

He claimed that Rhodipis, who was the slave of a landman of Samos, came from Thrace. Samos was the fellow slave of the story-teller Aesop. It was the time of Pharaoh Amasis when she was taken to Egypt. Freed there for a large sum by Charaxus (Χάραξος) of Mytilene, brother of Sappho, the lyric poet.


Herodotus said that she was a slave of Aesop. After that, we learned about the secret love affair between Aesop and her. Basically, they belonged to the Iadmon of Samos. A Samian named Xanthes made her his property and took her to Naucratis during the reign of Amasis II. After that, she met Charaxus, who was Sappho's brother. He went to Naucratis as a merchant.

After a while, Charaxus found himself in love with the woman. So, he decided to offer a lot of money as ransom for her slavery. Therefore, the money that she earned from her profession would belong to only her. In a poem, Sappho accused Rhodopis of robbing Charaxus of his property. Besides, her brother got ridiculed in a poem written by Sappho because he got entangled with Rhodopis.

After liberation: Rhodopis lived at Naucratis once she was liberated from slavery. Later, she donated 1/10 of her income to Delphi's temple. The tithe was converted into big iron spits for cooking oxen. After that, she sent these to Delphi. To this day, you can find these lying in a heap, in front of the shrine and behind the altar that Chians set up. Moreover, Ten iron spits were dedicated in her name. It was Herodotus who saw the spits.

Tales and legends:

After four hundred years, Herodotus, according to the statement of Strabo, Rhodopis, was called "Doricha" by Sappho. Then, after two hundred years of Strabo, Athenaeus said that two different women had been confused by Herodotus.

Strabo and Diodorus Siculus mentioned a variant of the tale where they told that people who loved Rhodopis built the pyramid to be her tomb. Although the story's origin is false, Georg Zoega and Christian Charles Josias Bunsen explained it very well. In inconsequence of the name Rhodopis, she was confounded with Niticris, who was the queen of Egypt. However, she had been the heroine of many Egyptian legends.

The Rhodopis name meaning is "rosy cheeks," and accordingly, this one was a professional pseudonym. But we are not sure whether her actual name was "Doricha" or not. According to the Hellenistic biographical tradition linked with Posidippus, Doricha and Rodopis were the same person.


Strabo and Aelian relate to another Rhodopis story. In this tale, she was the queen of Egypt. But how did she become queen? What is the reason? We had told before that the king got her one of the sandals, and then he sent men to discover her. As soon as they found her, she was brought to the place. Then, the king made her queen of Egypt. It is all about Rhodopis' story, famous as the first Cinderella story. However, due to thematic similarities and Herodotus's used epithet, it is said that Rhodopis has a link with Helen of Troy.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. Is Rhodopis a real person?

It was based on a real story which was revolved around a Greek slave girl. She married the Pharaoh (the king of Egypt).

Q. What did Rhodopis look like?

She had golden, curly, and coarse hair. Her eyes were green and bright. At the same time, she had a fair skin tone.

Q. What is the story of Rhodopis?

Greece was her birthplace. But pirates kidnapped her and brought her to Egypt. Later, she was sold as an enslaved person. An older man who was kind by heart was her master. He used to spend his time sleeping under a tree. As she was different, other servant girls mocked her.

Monday, November 21, 2022

Göbekli Tepe — History Mystery

Göbekli Tepe

Göbekli Tepe is called Girê Mirazan. In Kurdish, people know it as Xirabreşkê. It is a Neolithic archaeological site located in Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia area. The site's existence is expected between c. 9500 and 8000 BCE. Here, you will get to see several big structures of circular shape. Whereas giant stone pillars are designed to support these structures.

It is the oldest megalith in the world. You can see the pillars with anthropomorphic details, clothing, and reliefs of wild animals. Thus, archaeologists can get several rare insights from these pillars. In addition, here you can see many tiny buildings in the 15 m (50 ft)-high, 8 ha (20-acre). Besides, there are quarries, stone-cut cisterns from the Neolithic, and many more.

People used the site first at the dawn of the Neolithic period. In Southwest Asia, this period marks as the time when the old human settled permanently in the world. According to the Prehistorians, Neolithic Revolution has connections to agriculture's advent. However, they disagree that humans started living there due to farming or vice versa. In this article, you will learn about Göbekli Tepe, like how old it is, who built Göbekli Tepe, etc. You will also get to know why Göbekli Tepe was buried.

What is Göbekli Tepe?

Göbekli Tepe is a monumental complex. It was made on the top position of the rocky mountain. There were no known water sources. Besides, we don't have any exact proof of agricultural cultivation.

What did Klaus Schmidt Say about Göbekli Tepe?

To describe it, Klaus Schmidt, a German archaeologist and the site's original excavator, mentioned the term "world's first temple." He said that this one was a sanctuary that some nomadic hunter-gatherers used. According to him, there were very few or no permanent inhabitants. But there were a few archaeologists who disagreed with the interpretation. So, they challenged it and said that a lack of agriculture and the population in a residential area is far from conclusion.

A survey in 1963 mentioned that Schmidt detected the site's importance first. He directed excavations from 1995 until he died in 2014. However, work has been running since then under the auspices of Istanbul University, Şanlıurfa Museum, and the German Archaeological Institute. In addition, this site was designated in 2018 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Its imprest value was recognized as "one of the first manifestations of human-made monumental architecture." However, less than the site's 5% had been excavated as of 2021.

It was one of the most startling archaeological discoveries. This old town is in southeastern Turkey and is six miles from Urfa. There were huge carved stones about 11,000 years old. It can let you know how old Göbekli Tepe is.

In this regard, you should know that prehistoric people crafted and organized these. However, these people had not invented metal tools. We also got evidence of the existence of megaliths. Stonehenge was predated by some 6,000 years to these people. We know the place as Gobekli Tepe. According to Schmidt, this site is the world's oldest temple.

Brief synthesis: 

This site is situated in Upper Mesopotamia. In this regard, you should know that this region witnessed many ancient farming communities' emergence.

Groups of hunter-gatherers built the Monumental structures. We describe these structures as monumental communal buildings. These hunter-gatherers erected the enclosures in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period, i.e., 10th-9th millennia BC. Moreover, architects have found a link between monuments, social events, and other rituals. In addition, you can see there are some limestone T-shaped pillars where a few are up to 5.50 meters tall.

A few pillars come with low reliefs of clothing items like belts and loincloths. Moreover, here you can see wild animals' high and low reliefs. Now, let's know about some criteria for this site. We have given here the criteria which will let you know some information about it.

Criterion (i):

It was the most significant transition in human history when the communities lived. Basically, the megalithic structure of Göbekli Tepe was manufactured by them.

Criterion (ii):

This site is one of the humans' first manifestations of monumental architecture. Besides, it testifies to some unique building techniques. In this case, the T-shaped limestone pillars' integration is one of the examples. It met the architectural functions. People can find the imagery at contemporaneous sites in the Upper Mesopotamian area. In this way, the site has testified to a near social network in the core region of Neolithisation.

Criterion (iii):

This site is an excellent instance of a monumental ensemble of monumental megalithic structures. You can see the pillars carved from the nearby limestone plateau. They are the witnesses who saw the existence of specialized craftsmen. In addition, they saw that hierarchical forms were emerging in human society.


The site has almost all the elements required to express its Universal Value. Moreover, it can ensure that the features & procedures are represented completely. Hence, you should know that the property's physical fabric is in good condition.


In 2013, a management plan was drawn up, which was later revised in 2016. Finally, in 2017, it got finalized.

In 2016, an Advisory Board was set up. Its job is to test the management plan. Besides, it helped to submit all suggestions to make decisions and execute the plan. Also, in that year, a Coordination and Audit Board was established. Its function was to test the draft master plan and approve it also.

Frequently asked questions:

Q. Who built Göbekli Tepe, and for what purpose?

It was made around 11,000 to 12,000 years ago. People believe that hunter-gatherers built it for animal domestication or farming.

Q. Is Göbekli Tepe the oldest civilization?

It is expected that this one is the oldest civilization of humans, and it is about 12,000 years old.

Q. Why was Göbekli Tepe abandoned?

According to Klaus Schmidt's opinion, people later used the area for farming (previously used for hunting). That's why it was abandoned.

Friday, November 18, 2022

Some Simple Tips, by Following them can Reduce the Accidents on Roads

Some Simple Tips, by Following them can Reduce the Accidents on Roads

Anybody can get into an automobile accident, regardless of how carefully you were driving. A catastrophe can occur with the mere momentary distraction of other driver on the road or you while operating the vehicle. Fortunately, there are a number of things a motorist can do to reduce their risk of being involved in a crash, stay safe while driving, prevent expensive vehicle damage, and prevent expensive insurance premium increases due to a claim. We've compiled some of the best defensive driving tactics you may use to lessen the likelihood of a collision as you drive.

Think about Updating your Vehicle

Consider switching to a safer kind of car if you have the resources to do so. Because they lack all of the current safety systems, older cars are typically more likely to be involved in collisions than newer ones. Simple features like cruise control could stop you from inadvertently exceeding the posted speed limit on the highway, and parking sensors can be especially helpful to ensure that you don't hit anything in your blind spots when you're reversing into a parking place. Additionally, purchasing a newer, safer type of vehicle may result in lower auto insurance costs.

Buy a Dash Camera

While simply having a dashboard camera installed in your car won't reduce your risk of getting into an accident, being extra cautious while driving may be encouraged by the knowledge that it is being constantly recorded.

Additionally, a dash cam can be very helpful if you are the victim of a hit-and-run because there's a potential that it will record the licence plate number of the other car for you if you don't have the time to do so yourself. Dashcam film can be extremely helpful in proving fault and outlining what happened if you need to file an insurance claim or present your case to a car accident attorney.

Drive Slowly into Traffic

Whenever you are entering traffic from a junction, do so slowly and cautiously. Because cars frequently pull out without properly inspecting, junctions are frequently the site of the most collisions. Stop, take a glance around, and pay attention, keeping an eye out for any blind spots in your rearview mirrors, behind windshield pillars, and close by street signs. When turning right, make sure to check both directions at least twice before starting to move. Also, start moving slowly so you have time to stop if a car suddenly emerges in your blind spot.

Utilize the Hands-Free Features

The items in your car can easily cause you to become preoccupied, whether it's your phone ringing in the cup holder or changing the radio station to a different song. Use hands-free functions wherever they are available to help you maintain your hands on the wheel and your eyes on the road. When you want to change the music, answer a call, or turn the radio off, you can do so without having to look at anything thanks to the voice-activated entertainment systems found in some cars. If you frequently use your audio while driving, you might want to consider updating it to one with voice-activated controls even if you aren't in a position to change your car.

Keep your Engine in Good Working Condition

Make sure you avoid accidents by doing routine engine maintenance to prevent abrupt vehicle stalls or leaving your car broken down in the middle of the road. A good time to have your car serviced is in the fall to ensure that it is ready for the incoming winter weather and icy roads. You should take your automobile to an auto technician at least once a year for maintenance.

Maintain correct tyre inflation and regular oil changes. You may purchase a convenient tyre pressure gauge to keep in your car and use it frequently to check if your tyres are losing air. Even though the weather has been dry recently, you never know when you might need to wash your windshield while driving. For example, dirt splashed on your windshield by a passing vehicle can seriously hinder your vision of the road ahead, which is a surefire way to cause an accident.

Don't Tailgate

It can be tempting to narrow the distance between you and the car in front of you to exert pressure on a driver who is moving too slowly, but it's safer for everyone if you wait, avoid tailgating, and maintain a three-second buffer. When it is safe and permitted, only pass them.

When Backing out, look Behind you

It can be simple to fall into the habit of only utilising your rearview mirror when reversing your car or backing out of a parking space, but since parking lot collisions are among of the most frequent incidents, it's always preferable to spin around and get a clearer perspective. As you back out, keep an eye out for any cars that might be leaving neighboring parking spaces or passing, as well as for any people crossing the parking lot on foot.

Don't Rush Things; take your Time

Last but not least, it's a good idea to schedule your travel in advance. If you have an appointment or need to be someplace by a certain time, schedule extra time to arrive so that you don't have to rush. Speeding is one of the biggest causes of accidents, so try to resist the urge to do so even when you're in a rush. It will be lot less stressful if you know you have plenty of time if you get stopped in a traffic jam or behind a slow-moving car. While some automobile accidents cannot be prevented, there are several things a motorist can do to lessen their chance of an accident and increase road safety.

Can you go for a Personal Injury Lawsuit without a Lawyer?

Personal Injury Lawsuit

A person experiences significant bodily and emotional stress as a result of an accident. It drastically alters a person's life, especially if the injuries were severe or left a lasting mark. The physical trauma a person experiences may also have an impact on their psychological reactions. It is crucial to get compensation for negative events that occurred but were not your responsibility. The process of seeking compensation is official and legally binding. Serving the guilty party is one way to demand restitution. Legal action is predicated on the notion that the harm you experienced was the result of someone else's carelessness.

You are fully entitled to make a personal injury claim in the event that something similar occurs. We'll cover crucial queries about submitting a personal injury claim in this article. The most crucial query, regarding a person filing it without the assistance of an attorney, will also receive an answer.

Can you Perform it on your own?

Legally, every citizen has the right to bring a claim against another party for negligence that caused substantial harm. If you choose, you are also allowed to speak for yourself. If you intend to file a claim without the aid of an attorney, you will be responsible for the paperwork, documentation, and hearing and will have to deal with the legalese. You are the one who knows your case the best, so you can represent yourself better if you handle it yourself.

On the other side, if you are unaware of the legal requirements and how the system functions, you may find yourself spending many sleepless hours attempting to understand everything. Serious errors could result, costing you money and valuable time. You cannot afford to make mistakes that could negatively impact your case and render it unrecoverable. Everyone will tell you to get some help, especially if you don't have a background in law.

Even though it is feasible to sue someone without a lawyer, having a lawyer on your side will benefit your case in a number of ways. They will not only iron out all the kinks in your case, but they will also offer you insightful counsel that will be beneficial once the procedures get underway. There are various forms of personal injuries, therefore hiring an attorney for one of them would require a focus on experience and specialization. If you want to speak with injury law firm for advice or legal representation, just click the link.

What Injuries are Eligible for the Claim?

It is advised to review the list of injuries that qualify for a legal claim once before moving forward with the lawsuit. Depending on the severity of the accident's effects, lawyers will typically assist you with the conditions of the claim. However, if you wish to do it yourself, the following is everything that could make you liable:

  • Extensive scarring that completely alters one's appearance from the past. Compensation will also be available for disfigurement.
  • A personal injury claim will also be necessary if a limb or organ is lost. Since they limit a person's ability to live their life without interference, they can be made up for.
  • Loss of a crucial physiological function can also adversely alter one's life, therefore a claim is acceptable.
  • In the event of death, the deceased's next of kin may file on their behalf.

Although these are the most typical instances, there is no absolute standard that determines whether the severity of your harm qualifies for financial compensation. However, it is crucial to have all of the medical documents to demonstrate the whole course of the harm and any potential effects on your everyday life.

What Kind of Compensation are you Entitled to?

You are exerting all of this work in exchange for money. If and when the court rules in your favour, it's critical that you remain clear-headed about what you hope to gain from the claim. It is a good idea to have a broad notion of what you would want out of this entire procedure, even in the case of a settlement.

Fortunately, you can read about comparable cases to see what other people received for claims like yours. If you have made the decision to work independently, gathering appropriate references will be beneficial, particularly when determining the type of financial compensation, you require. In the event that you settle or win the case, you are entitled to the following three types of compensation:

  • Economic Damages: When we discuss economic damages, we only mean the monetary compensation to which a person is legally entitled. It comprises the total cost of any medical expenses and property damage that a person had to pay for. It covers medical expenses, personal property repairs, and all lost income from working when absent due to a major injury. Based on the submitted material, each of these factors may be demonstrated.
  • Non-economic Damages: Non-economic damages are compensation for all mental anguish and physical suffering a person had as a result of their accident-related injuries.

Punitive Damages: If the court rules in your favour, you will only receive punitive damages. These damages are primarily aimed to penalize the opposing party, not to provide compensation.

The Lesson

Knowing the limits of your ability to seek damages and compensation will help you build a compelling case if you decide to go it alone.

Monday, November 14, 2022



We spell Boudicca as Boadicea or Boudica. This queen of ancient Britain led a mutiny against Roman rule in 60 CE. Prasutagus was the husband of Boudicca. He was the king of the Iceni. In 60, he died with no male heir. So, he left all his wealth to Emperor Nero and his two daughters. He thought that they would win imperial protection for his family.

But it was the Romans who annexed his kingdom. Then, the Romans humiliated his family. Besides, they have plundered the chief tribesmen. In 60 or 61, Suetonius Paulinus, the provincial governor, was absent. Then, she raised a rebellion throughout East Anglia. After that, Camulodunum (Colchester), Verulamium (St. Albans), the mart of Londinium (London), and a few military posts were burned by insurgents. Tacitus, a Roman historian, said her rebels massacred 70,000 Romans and pro-Roman Britons. In addition, the rebels also cut to pieces the Roman 9th Legion.

Her husband had the authority as an independent ally of Rome. Later, he left his kingdom. But he had a will. However, his intention was not fulfilled when he died. As a result, he found his kingdom annexed. They also took the entire wealth. Tacitus said that her daughters got raped, and she was flogged.

Let's know who Boudica is, how she led the Iceni people, how she fought against Suetonius, and how she died.

Who was Boudica?

Queen Boudica was the Celtic Briton king's wife of the Iceni tribe, and we know her as Boadicea or Boudicea in Latin chronicles. She was called Buddug in Welsh.

Queen Boudica History:

We have seen many warriors produced by Britain for a long time. They have fought against enemies so that they can keep their country free. And a lady warrior was there whom we will never forget. She was also one of those who tried to keep Britain free. Her name was Queen Boudica. She was commonly called Boadicea.

She ruled the Iceni tribe of East Anglia with her husband, King Prasutagus. Her appearance was fascinating. Though, She was very tall. She had a distinctive harsh voice. Besides, her reddest hair fell to her hips. In short, she had an impressive appearance.

Suetonius was the Roman Governor of Britain, and he had other plans regarding lands and property. However, after the death of Prasutagus, Roman officers & their slaves plundered all the households and lands.

Later, other Iceni chiefs faced troubles. Besides, their families were also treated like slaves. Britons succeeded at first in an excellent way. The Roman settlement of Camulodunum (Colchester) was under the Britons.

No quarter was given by the Boudica warrior queen and her allies when they won the revolt. Therefore, the defenders fled when Londinium and Verulamium were stormed. In this regard, you should note one thing that we call Londinium, currently London, whereas Verulamium is known as St. Albans. However, after that, they burned the cities.

The Bruins desecrated the Roman cemeteries also. Besides, they mutilated the statues, and a few of these statues are still seen today in Colchester Museum. However, they also broke tombstones.

Early literature:

Her 6th-century work De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae was an early mention, which was done by the British monk Gildas. You can see a female leader here. Gildas described the character as a "treacherous lioness." People can find references to the uprising of 60/61 in Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731) and Historia Brittonum, the 9th-century work by the Welsh monk Nennius.


Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, the Roman governor, was doing campaigns on Mona island, located on the northwest coast of Wales, in 60 or 61. Queen Boudica was the leader of the Iceni and other British tribes. They finished the Camulodunum, which is known as Colchester in recent times. It was the capital of the Trinovantes.

As soon as Suetonius heard of the revolt, he went to Londinium. We currently know Londinium as London. Besides, it was the 20-year-old commercial settlement, the next target of rebels. He didn't have enough numbers to defend the settlement. So, he evacuated the city and left after that.

She was the leader of an army of Iceni, Trinovantes, and others. Not only did she lead them, but she also defeated a detachment of the Legio IX Hispana. In addition, she burnt both Londinium and Verulamium.

Those who were following Boudica killed about 70,000-80,000 Romans and Britons. Later, Suetonius regrouped his forces in the West Midlands. He defeated the Celtic Britons. As a result, Roman emperor Nero withdrew his forces from Britain. However, when Suetonius won against Boudica, it confirmed the Roman control of the province.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. What is Boudicca best known for?

She, who was a warrior queen of the Iceni people, lived in East Anglia, England. In addition, she was the leader of Iceni and other peoples in 60–61 CE against Roman rule in a mutiny. She was defeated at last though her forces massacred 70,000 Romans and their supporters.

Q. How did Boudicca die?

She died after getting defeated in her final battle. It is believed that she took poison or got shocked, so she died. Illness is considered one of the reasons behind her death also.

Q. Where is Boudicca buried?

We still don't know the location of Boudicca's grave. However, the location may be Birdlip in Gloucestershire, Stonehenge, Norfolk, or London's Hampstead area. However, a few people said that the grave could be under a train platform at King's Cross Station in London.