Thursday, June 1, 2023

Moon Treaty

Moon Treaty

The United Nations has become a focal point for international cooperation in outer space due to having the power to create international law. On Outer space, the United Nations Treaties and Principles are considered as the Texts of treaties and the United Nations General Assembly has adopted the principles which govern State activities in exploration and use of outer space. The law's extension has been evolutionary, which starts with queries related to legal aspects. Then, it keeps going to the principle formulation of a legal nature and incorporates those principles in general multilateral treaties. The General Assembly adopted the Declaration of legal principles in 1963. This text indicates the genesis of the so-called "Space Law, or Moon Treaty"

The UN remains the witness to the development of five multilateral treaties, and the moon treaty is one of them. It offers many guidelines & provisions outlined in 21 articles. According to the agreement, the Moon, with its natural resources, belongs to mankind's common heritage. It states that people should use the Moon for peaceful purposes & the benefit of the whole international community. Eighteen states are parties to the Moon Treaty, seven of which have ratified the same, whereas the rest acceded. There are four states which have signed but not ratified yet.

What is the Moon Treaty?

Moon Treaty is an agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. It is actually a multilateral treaty that can turn the jurisdiction of all celestial bodies, even the orbits around such bodies, over to the participant nations. In this way, each activity will conform to international law, including the United Nations Charter.

It was signed in New York, USA, on December 18, 1979. Later, it became effective on July 11, 1984. Languages used are English, French, Russian, Spanish, Arabic, and Chinese. Any state which engages in self-launched human spaceflight has not ratified this (e.g. the United States, Russia, or the predecessor of it, the Soviet Union, or the People's Republic of China) . Eighteen states are the parties to the Treaty as of January 2022.


Once the 1967 Outer Space Treaty was signed, it was followed by the United Nations convened UNISPACE, the United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, after a year. It belonged to the first UN-sponsored conferences which wanted to generate an international law framework and offer guidance letting humans learn how to use outer space resources.

The Moon Treaty was made after ten more years of negotiations in 1979 as a law framework to create a regime of detailed processes. According to Article 11.5, an international regime has to govern the exploitation of nature, establishing the accurate processes. Therefore, several UN-sponsored conferences have occurred to define laws or the regime. But there was no consensus. The continuing disagreement depends especially on the "Common Heritage of Mankind" with the rights of each nation to the Moon's natural resources.

Moon Treaty Ratification:

In 1979, it was confirmed. Once the need for five ratifying states was satisfied, this Treaty entered into force after five years for the ratifying parties. As mentioned above, eighteen states are parties to the Treaty as of January 2019. Seven states ratified the agreement, whereas the remaining ones acceded. Four extra states have signed but not ratified yet. The L5 Society and others opposed the signing of the Treaty by the US.

National considerations:

The Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space held hearings on the Moon Treaty In the United States on July 29 and 31, 1980. It belonged to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

S. Neil Hosenball was a great supporter of this Treaty. He tried to compare it to mining rights within the US. But he couldn't convince the committee by saying that the US must ratify the agreement. His opposition was Leigh Ratiner, the leader of the L-5 Society. According to Ratiner, the Treaty was opposed to free enterprise & private property rights. So, Leigh gave a potential solution to this Treaty by proposing legal claims to the Moon, such as a system to register such claims, which need to be there.

S. Neil Hosenball is the NASA General Counsel and chief US negotiator for the Moon Treaty. COPUOS held a high-level meeting after eight years of negotiations. This meeting took place to create a consensus on a framework of laws so that outer space can be sustainably developed. But Hosenball decided that the international regime's rules should be delayed until the establishment of the exploitation's feasibility. Therefore, the meeting also failed.

The "national" Treaty allows commercial mining. But experts are having an argument about the new national laws. They ask that the laws are inconsistent with the Moon Treaty and customary international law.

Implementation agreement:

The main topic of discussion around the laws which govern the Moon is dominated by the controversy on the claims and on mining rights for profit. According to the experts, the agreement must allow commercial mining because it allows extraction after the international regulatory regime. So, it can be said that the Treaty is not complete due to the lack of an "implementation agreement" that answers unresolved problems.

Moon Treaty Objective:

Since the 1967 Outer Space Treaty was signed, technologies have evolved, and it needs a redefinition of the citizens' & governments' rights in use and development of outer space. The initially stated objective of the agreement is to offer the essential legal principles to govern the behavior of states, international organizations, individuals exploring celestial bodies other than Earth, and the administration of the resources.

It proposed that state parties can create an "international regime" which sets up the appropriate procedures (Article 11.5).

Moon Treaty Provisions:

The Moon agreement suggests setting up an "international regime" or "framework of laws" which are applicable to the Moon and other celestial bodies within the Solar System, even the orbits around or other trajectories to or around them.

It lays many provisions, which are outlined in 21 articles. This Treaty declared in Article 1 that humans should use Moon for the advantages to all states and peoples of the international community. Moon Treaty lays many provisions. We have given here a few of these below:

  • Article 3.4 bans any type of military use of weapon testing, nuclear weapons in orbit, or military bases. Military personnel's use in scientific research won't be prohibited. 
  • Article 11.5 gives a framework of laws to set up an international cooperation regime for governing the exploitation of Moon's natural resources. 
  • Article 11.7 says all parties' safe use of natural lunar resources in the benefits derived from the resources. 
  • Article 11 says that the placement of equipment or personnel on or below the surface will be unable to create a right of ownership.
  • Article 6 says that the freedom of scientific research & exploration must be present. 
  • Article 6.2 says that samples received during research should be made available to all nations for research. 
  • According to Article 7.3, if any area draws special attention or interest in scientific research, it will be designated as an international scientific preserve. 
  • Article 5.3 says that it will say the United Nations and the public of any phenomena which could become a big risk for human life or health. 
  • Article 14 says state parties need to ensure that non-governmental entities under their jurisdiction will involve in activities on the Moon only under the authority. 
  • Article 5 says each party must inform the United Nations & the public regarding the activities concerned with the exploration and use of the Moon.


The Moon Treaty 1979 has both some benefits and some drawbacks. Considering them both, making a few major changes before binding this on parties & non-parties with the ratification of major space-faring powers is necessary. In this way, the UN needs to review its current provisions & incorporate the essential changes along with giving an improved clarification of the existing clauses. Once exploitation of the additional territorial resources becomes feasible economically & technically, the agreement's test will be possible as a treaty and a customary law.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. Has India signed the Moon Treaty?

The answer to this question is in the Moon agreement of 1979, which was brought in the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA). Yes, India signed the agreement governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. However, it never ratified this.

Q. What countries signed the Moon Agreement?

The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs says that France, Guatemala, India, and Romania have signed the Treaty.

Q. What is the Moon Treaty in India?

The Legal Subcommittee considered as well as elaborated the agreement and elaborated from 1972 to 1979. Then, the General Assembly adopted this in 1979 in resolution 34/68.

Monday, May 15, 2023

Ghost Army - History Mystery

Ghost Army - History Mystery

The Ghost Army, also called 23rd Headquarters Special Troops, was a United States Army tactical deception unit during World War II. This unit consists of 1100 men and its mission was to deceive and mislead Hitler's forces. It was activated on January 20, 1944. Later in May, it arrived in Europe shortly before D-Day. When the war ended, it went back to the United States in July 1945. It carried out over twenty deception campaigns during its tenure, putting on a "travelling road show” and used inflatable tanks, sound trucks, fake radio transmissions, scripts and pretence. Until the misclassification in 1996, they kept their story a secret after the war for over fifty years. Unit members got Congressional Gold Medal in February 2022 for their top-quality distinguished service.

History And Deployment of Ghost Army:

Ralph Ingersoll and Billy Harris, the army planners of the United States, created the Ghost Army. While the unit's leader was Colonel Harry L. Leeder, the British units inspired the unit. It also had been honed the deception technique for Operation Bertram by these units at the end of 1942 during the El Alamein battle.

The Ghost Army was formed completely at Camp Pine, New York (now Fort Drum) before sailing for the UK in May 1944. And, it had its barracks at Camp Forrest, Tennessee. Their location was near Stratford upon Avon in Britain. Troops joined Operation Fortitude.

After fourteen days of D-Day, a few troops went to Normandy. Once they reached there, they simulated a Mulberry harbour at night with lights. Their plan was to draw German artillery from the actual ones. Later, all the members of the unit helped to tie up the German defenders of Brest. So, they stimulated a very large force.

Allied armies moved east. Therefore, the unit also did this and was based in Luxembourg. The unit engaged from this place in deceptions of the Ruhr river crossings, located along the Maginot Line, Hürtgen Forest. At last, they crossed the Rhine with the intention of drawing German soldiers away from the actual sites.


The intention was to give encouragement to the Ghost troops so that they could mislead, deceive, & befuddle the German Army by using their talent. Several soldiers were from advertising agencies, art schools, & other occupations which have encouraged soldiers with creative thinking. The unit's members had been actors, artists, architects, set designers, engineers and lawyers in civilian life.

While the team had only 1,100 soldiers, the contingent used equipment like dummy tanks & artillery, fake aircraft, and giant speakers. With the help of these speakers, they broadcasted artillery & men's sounds so that Germans thought it was a two-division 30,000-man force. This unit comprised 603rd Camouflage Engineers, 406th Combat Engineers to handle security, the 3132 Signal Service Company Special, and the Signal Company Special.

What Are The Tactics Used By The Ghost Army Unit?

Visual deception:

This arm was the 603rd Camouflage Engineers. There were inflatable tanks, cannons, jeeps, trucks, and aeroplanes. After that, they camouflage imperfectly to let the enemy aerial reconnaissance see them. They were able to make dummy airfields, motor pools, artillery batteries, troop bivouacs, and tank formations in some hours.

The unit had several men who were artists by profession. They were recruited from New York and Philadelphia art schools. Ghost Army was like an incubator for young artists, and they were the ones who sketched & painted their route through Europe. Many of them went on so that they could have a major impact on art in the postwar US. A few names of artists who served in the 603rd were Bill Blass, Ellsworth Kelly, wildlife artist Arthur Singer, and Art Kane.

Sonic deception:

It was handled by the 3132 Signal Service Company Special. The team from 3132 was aided by engineers from Bell Labs. Then, it moved to Fort Knox for recording the sounds of armoured & infantry units onto the sound effects records which they brought to Europe. For every deception, they needed to mix sounds with the scenario in that way the enemy could believe. State-of-the-art wire recorders were used to record the program. After that, it was played back using strong amplifiers & speakers. In that case, you need to know that a state-of-the-art wire recorder is a predecessor to the tape recorder. It was possible to hear sounds 15 miles (24 km) away.

Radio deception:

We know this as"Spoof radio" that the Signal Company handled. It was the Special Operators who created traffic nets to impersonate their operators from real units. Every Morse Code operator follows an individual sending style. The operators of the Signal Company copied the style of a departed operator to prevent the enemy from detecting the actual unit.


With the intention of complementing existing techniques, Ghost Army employed theatrical effects to supplement deceptions. It is known collectively as "atmosphere."

The Ghost Army of WWII Congressional Gold Medal Act:

The Ghost Army Legacy Project campaigned for 6.5 years to make the unit famous when Rick Beyer was the leader through four Congressional terms. He was also the producer and director of The Ghost Army 2013 PBS documentary.

On May 18, 2021, the voting was done by the House of Representatives to pass H.R. 707. There were seventy-one co-sponsors in the Senate bill, S. 1404. The 67th Senate co-sponsor was Senator Catherine Cortez-Masto (D-NV).

The Housing and Urban Affairs Committee, the full U.S. The Senate, passed S. 1404, called the Ghost Army Congressional Gold Medal Act, on the evening of December 15, 2021, after a unanimous vote by the Senate Banking for passage. Whereas, the House of Representatives passed S. 1404 on January 19, 2022. The law: S. 1404, the Ghost Army Congressional Gold Medal Act, was signed by President Biden on Tuesday, February 1, 2022. It awarded the unit a Congressional Gold Medal for exceptional service in conducting European deception operations during World War II.

Representative Kuster and Senators Markey, Portman, Collins, and Blumenthal even appreciated President Biden's leadership. The effort of the Ghost Army of WWII Congressional Gold Medal got support from the American Legion, the National World War II Museum, the American Veterans Center, the National D-Day Memorial Foundation, and so on.


In this article, we have covered everything that you should know about the ghost army which was created by the United States. Still if you have any doubts or queries, do ask us via comments.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. What is a ghost in the army?

It indicates the army soldiers whose names are seen on military rolls but not in military service. Q. What are the Famous members of the Ghost Army?

The names of the popular members are:

  • Mickey McKane. 
  • Fred Fox. 
  • John Jarvie. 
  • Bill Blass. 
  • Ned Harris.
  • Arthur Singer
  • Jack Masey. 
  • Bill Sayles.

Q. How did the Ghost Army start?

It was created by the U.S. Army in January 1944.

Thursday, April 27, 2023

Chicxulub Crater — History Mystery

Chicxulub Crater — History Mystery

The Chicxulub crater, also called an impact crater, is near the community of Chicxulub and buried underneath the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. It's named according to its position. This crater was formed more than 66 million years ago when a big asteroid struck Earth. The diameter of that asteroid was about ten kilometres (six miles). Its diameter is assumed to be 180 kilometres (110 miles), while its depth is 20 kilometres (12 miles). This one is the 2nd biggest impact structure on Earth. It is the only crater whose peak ring is intact; people can access it for scientific research.

The culprit that is behind the end of the dinosaurs is accepted as an extraterrestrial collision of epic proportions. It has left behind the gargantuan crater of Chicxulub in Mexico. However, the evidence behind this theory increased over time.

Antonio Camargo and Glen Penfield were geophysicists by profession. They found the crater. During the late 1970s, they had been finding petroleum in the Yucatán Peninsula. Penfield could not prove that the geological feature was a crater. So, he stopped his search. Later, he contacted Alan R. Hildebrand in 1990 and collected samples, according to which it can be concluded that the feature was impacted. Proof for its impact origin contains shocked quartz, a gravity anomaly, and tektites in these areas.

The impact date coincides with the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. We can also call this the K–Pg or K–T boundary. People now accept that the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event was caused due to the result of devastation and climate disruption.

Thick Impact Ejecta Deposit at the K-T Boundary in Haiti:

The event took place in Haiti, on the southern peninsula of the island of Hispaniola. In the year 1990, Alan Hildebrand and David Kring measured the thick deposits of impact melt spherules, capped with a layer of iridium-rich and shocked quartz-bearing sediment. Around 46 centimetres is the impact ejecta deposit's primary thickness adjacent to Beloc, Haiti. In other places, impact ejected materials seem like seafloor bottom currents have been reworked, generating deposits up to 125 centimetres thick. The thickness of impact debris in Haiti was more than it was at other locations known at that time.

Impact Melt Spherules at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) Boundary:

Impact melt is a vital product of an impact cratering event. The melt fraction is ejected from the crater. As soon as the melt is ejected, it will separate into molten droplets. These quench the glass before landing. Due to the glassy beads, a layer of ejecta can be formed on land or a seafloor. The discovery of impact melt spherules means that the source crater was in the region. Besides, you should know about the composition of the impact melt spherules. The reason is that it refers to the impact occurring in a place where continental crust exists, not oceanic crust.

Shocked and Unshocked Quartz at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) Boundary:

One of the most common minerals present in Earth’s continental crust is Quartz. Once the comet hits, a huge shock pressure is produced. Therefore, the pressures can produce shock lamellae or planar deformation features via quartz crystals. It has finished the planes and the crystal structure. No geologic process except that can cause damage. Therefore, it can be concluded that the features are diagnostic proof of an impact event. A shocked quartz crystal was ejected from the Chicxulub impact crater while placed in its sediments in Haiti. The length of a quartz crystal is 0.45 millimetres. D. A. Kring, A. R. Hildebrand, and W.V. Boynton described the crystal.

Chicxulub Impact Breccia:

As per the discovery of shocked quartz, shocked feldspar, and impact melts in the Yucatán-6 exploration borehole from the interior of the Chicxulub structure, it was proved that the impact crater generated at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. There is a melted rock sample under the polymictic breccia. In this regard, you should know that the sample of melt rook was found deep from the ground, around 1.3 kilometres. David A. Kring, Alan R. Hildebrand, and William V. Boynton were the founders at the 1991 Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.

Chicxulub Gravity Map and Boreholes

You can see its subsurface structure in a gravity map of the northwestern margin of the Yucatán Peninsula, where the crater is outlined by a black Circle. Its diameter is around 180 kilometres. The crater was more than enough to ensure that it had an impact source. Near the Haciende Yaxcopoil (Yax-1) in 2001-2002, a scientific borehole was drilled.

Radar Tomography Map of Chicxulub

Shuttle Radar Tomography Mission made the shaded relief map on Space Shuttle Endeavor in 2000. There exists a deep semicircular trough of 3-5 meter in depth, and you can call this a darker green arcing line. The Chicxulub-1, Sacapuc-1, Yucatán-6, and Yaxcopoil-1 boreholes exist within the crater's rim. The dotted line outlines its ~170 to 180 km central area. Several investigators find it as the rim of the crater.

Chicxulub Zone of Cenotes:

It was discovered in the mid-20th Century and found on topographic maps of the Yucatán Peninsula. Until this crater was found, we did not know the cause of the ring. Groundwater that flows north encounters the buried rim of the crater. The direction of water flow changes around the crater & flows (visibly) into the Gulf of Mexico, whereas the crater rim overlaid the northern coastline of the peninsula. A chain of cenotes surrounds the crater like a blue pearl necklace. Jake Bailey and David Kring crafted a version of this diagram. LPI was recently modified for its collection of classroom illustrations.


On Earth, it is the only well-preserved peak ring crater connected to the K-Pg mass extinction of several plant and animal species. Geologists drilled an 83-millimetre borehole in 1990 into the peak ring of Chicxulub crater as part of the International Ocean Discovery Program and International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (IODP-ICDP) Expedition 364.

Sunday, April 16, 2023

Titivillus: History Mystery


Titivillus was a demon who used to work on behalf of Belphegor, Lucifer or Satan for introducing errors into scribes' work. Johannes Galensis, also known as John of Wales, mentioned the name of Titivillus first in Tractatus de Penitentia, c. 1285. 


Caesarius of Heisterbach gets the attribution. Besides, to describe Titivillus, it was said that gathering idle chat during church service and any skipped as well as mispronounced well words of service for taking to Hell to be counted against the offenders. The term "patron demon of scribes" has been used to describe him because the Titivillus demon offers a simple excuse for the errors. These will later creep into manuscripts because these are copied.

Marc Drogin wrote an institution manual named Medieval Calligraphy: Its History and Technique (1980). In this manual, he noted that each edition of The Oxford English Dictionary had been coming with a wrong page reference of everything, like a footnote on the earliest mention of Titivillus for the past half-century

As physical comedy's subversive figure, Titivillus has got a border role in late medieval English pageants like the ludicium which finished the Towneley Cycle. When it comes to the Medieval English play Mankind, he has an antagonistic role. Titivillus gave his introduction in a 15th English devotional treatise named Myroure of Oure Ladye, where he said (I.xx.54): "I am a poure dyuel, and my name ys Tytyvyllus ... I muste eche day ... brynge my master a thousande pokes full of faylynges, and of neglygences in syllables and wordes."


The appearance of his demonic form is like a humanoid creature which is covered in donkey ears, greenish-blue fur, owl-like eyes, and a serpent for a tail. Besides, Titivillus comes with a long and bloody tongue with greenish poison.

which caused scribes and preachers to fumble with their words. There exists a pair of green feathered wings protruding from the lower back.

When he turns into a human, he looks like an old man with a receding hairline and a pot belly. Besides, he puts on a three pieces suit and has greenish-blue eyes. He also has salt-and-pepper hair.

In popular culture:

The devil who makes the role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons famous since 1977 is named Titivillus. Michael Ayrton wrote the book Titivillus or The Verbiage Collector, where he was the main topic.


Wright said that he belongs to some of the most caring parental figures he had in his life. He is very kind and protective towards him. He taught him about manners, etiquette, and other necessary things which are important to infernal politics, like information-gathering or assassination. But he admitted that their relationship could be vast if he were not the offspring of Belphegor, who is his master.

Source of the name:

Jacques de Vitry mentioned the topic of gathering liturgical errors in a sack in Sermones vulgares (tenth sermon, on Numbers 18:5). It mentions a demon which listens to the choir that sings psalms and gathers syncopated or omitted syllables in a sack. Johannes Galensis named the demon "Titivillus", whose task is gathering fragments of words and putting them in his bag daily about a thousand times. The Latin term "collect" is colligere, whereas for "fragments", it is fragmenta. These Latin terms are derived from John 6:12. Hence, the disciples must collect the broken pieces as they are told.


If it comes to talk about Titivillus, Vernet mentions The City of God (Book IV, Chapter 8) in a passage where Augustine mentions Tutilina, a goddess watching over grain after being gathered & stored. He mentions the goddess's name when he gives examples of Roman deities who are responsible for every step in the agricultural process. It is necessary to imagine a series of copyists' errors for arrival at "Titivillus" and other variants like Tutivillus, Tytivillum, Tintillus, Tantillus, Tintinillus, Titivitilarius, Titivilitarius.

Sunday, March 12, 2023



Druids who worked as judges, teachers & priests were the members of the learned class among the ancient Celts. We get the old druid records from the 3rd century BCE. Their name is expected to come from a Celtic word that indicates "knower of the oak tree." We don't have too much about the druids because they kept no record of themselves.

Julius Caesar is the major information source about the Druids. According to him, two men groups were there in Gaul, held in honor, including the Druids and the noblemen (equites). He also said that Druids were in charge of public and private sacrifices. Therefore, several young men went to them to get instructions. Not only they judged every public and private quarrel, but also they decreed penalties. If any person did not abide by the decree, he was barred from sacrifice. People consider this the gravest of punishments.

Previously, druids made one person chief among them. After his death, they appointed another person. Sometimes, a few Druids had equal merits. In such cases, Druids voted. They assembled once every year at a sacred place in the territory of the Carnutes, the center of all Gaul. When all of them used to assemble, the legal disputes were submitted to their judgment.

As per the record of Caesar, they abstained from warfare & they did not pay any tribute. Several people participated in the order voluntarily after being attracted by the privileges. Druids studied old verse, natural philosophy, astronomy, and the lore of the gods. Some ancient druids invested about 20 years in their training. According to them, the soul is immortal; when a person dies, the soul will pass from one person to another.

Druids in Mythology:

In Irish folklore, they lead a prominent role, serving Lords and kings as top-ranking priest-counselors because they had mystical abilities. Being Cathbad is the best example of these. In this regard, you should know that the presence of the chief druid in the court of King Conchobar mac Nessa of Ulster, Cathbad, is seen in many stories, and these mostly describe his ability to foretell the future.

If you read the tale of Deirdre of the Sorrows – the foremost tragic heroine of the Ulster Cycle – you will get to know that before the court of Conchobar, the druid predicted that Deirdre would grow up to be very beautiful. Moreover, you will get to know that the druid predicted that not only kings but also lords would go to war over her. They added only because of her much blood will be shed. Along with this, Druid said that the three greatest warriors of Ulster would be exiled due to her. The king ignored the prophecy, and it came true.

Amergin Glúingel was the greatest of the mythological druids. He was a bard and judge for the Milesians in the Mythological Cycle. The main intention of the Milesians was to overrun the Tuatha Dé Danann and win the area of Ireland. But once they came there, a magical storm was made by the druids of the Tuatha Dé Danann to prevent their ships from making landfall. 

In this way, Amergin called upon the spirit of Ireland itself. It chanted a strong incantation which will be called The Song of Amergin. After the landfall, they aided & divided the land between his royal brothers in the conquest of Ireland to get the title Chief Ollam of Ireland. The names of other mythological druids are Tadg mac Nuadat of the Fenian Cycle and Mug Ruith.

About Female Druids:

Irish Druids Mythology—

In Irish mythology, you will find the mention of several female druids who share prominent cultural and religious roles with male druids. The Irish give several names to the female druids like bandruí ("woman-druid"), which we discovered in the Táin Bó Cúailnge story. Bodhmall that we found in Fenian Cycle is one of Fionn mac Cumhaill's childhood caretakers. Besides, Tlachtga is the daughter of the druid Mug Ruith. As per the Irish tradition, Ruith is related to the Hill of Ward, the site of prominent festivals held during the middle ages in Tlachtga's honor.

Biróg has played a major role in an Irish folktale where an attempt is made by the Fomorian warrior Balor to thwart a prophecy foretelling that his grandson will kill him by imprisoning his only daughter Eithne in the tower of Tory Island to keep her away from the contact of any man. Hence, you should know that Biróg is another bandruí of the Tuatha Dé Danann.

Bé Chuille is the daughter of the woodland goddess Flidais, and she was also known as a sorceress instead of a bandruí. Her presence was seen in a tale from the Metrical Dindshenchas. In that tale, she joins three other Tuatha Dé so that they can defeat the Greek witch Carman. 

Whereas another bandrúi Relbeo, a Nemedian druid appears in The Book of Invasions. And we got to know that she is the daughter of the King of Greece and mother of Fergus Lethderg and Alma One-Tooth. Dornoll, a bandrúi in Scotland, trained heroes in warfare (Laegaire and Conall). In this regard, you should know that she was Domnall Mildemail's daughter.

The Gallizenae:

Classical authors said that the Gallizenae were virgin priestesses of the Île de Sein off Pointe du Raz, Finistère, western Brittany. Artemidorus Ephesius, who is a Greek geographer, mentioned their existence first. Later, the Greek historian Strabo wrote that men were not allowed to enter the island, but the women came to the mainland so that they could meet their husbands. Who Were The Druids?

Their presence is seen in many mystical tales of Prehistoric Britain. A Druid named Figol was threatened to bring fire to rage on his enemies and to prevent the men and their horses from going to the toilet. As a result, their bodies got filled with urine. However, as per our knowledge of the modern world, we know that it is not possible. However, several druids are riddled with mysticism, and magic. They remain basically concerned with the natural world and its powers. They considered oak trees sacred.

We still don't know the source of the term ‘Druid’ but most people think that ‘doire’ is its origin. This one is an Irish-Gaelic word for oak tree which represents ‘wisdom’. However, there are different mysteries regarding the history of Druids. We can compare their practices with those of priests today because they are capable of connecting people with gods. However, the roles of them varied and acted as teachers, scientists, judges and philosophers. 

What makes them special is their power. They were capable of banishing people from society if someone broke the sacred laws, came between two opposing armies and prevented warfare. In addition, they didn't need to pay any taxes in battle. People during that time considered Druid women equal to men in different respects. In this regard, you should know that it is quite uncommon for an old community. Women were able to participate in wars and divorce their husbands.

Julius Caesar was the writer of one of the oldest accounts of Druids in 59-51 BC. These were written in Gaul, where we can see the division of prestigious men into Druids or nobles. From the Roman writers, the historians have gained most of the knowledge regarding Druids. 

In this regard, you must know that they were polytheistic. Besides, they had sacred figures and female gods, rather like the Romans & Greeks. But remember that the less civilised society of druids gave a sense of superiority to others. It can render a few of their accounts uncertain historically because they could be tainted with exaggerated instances of Druidic practices. Although there was a record of the Druidic human sacrifice, we don't have any specific proof to support this.

Subsections were available within the Druid class where all are color-coded robes. Arch-druid is the oldest druid who would wear gold robes. Generally, the ordinary ones used to wear white and work as priests. While the sacrificers wore red, the blue bards were artistic. The new recruits did lesser tasks to druidism. These were held in lesser esteem, where they wore brown or black.

Remember that all aspects were structured & ordered from the Druid class's hierarchy to their life pattern which followed nature’s cycles. Druids also noticed lunar, solar & seasonal cycles and based on that, they worshipped right major holy days. 

They used to celebrate New Year on Samhain which we call Halloween (31st October). This day is full of mysticism and spirituality when the last harvest would occur. The reason is that the living and deceased could reveal to each other. Yule is referred to the winter solstice when these ancient people would sit on mounds of earth like the NewGrange in Ireland waiting for sunrise at the night when they will be reborn.

Hence, you should know that Ostara indicated the spring equinox whereas Beltane as a fertility festival occurred on 30th April. The summer solstice was Litha. They believed that the ‘holy king’ took over from the ‘oak king’ of Yule at this time. The first harvest was Lughnasa on 2nd August while the autumnal equinox was Mabon. After that, the cycle of holy days used to repeat itself along with reflecting the nature cycles, planets, etc., because of the belief of Druids in reincarnation. According to them, sins committed in an earlier life might be possible to make up for in the next.

The worship place was known as the ‘Temples of the Druids.’ These were secluded areas such as clearings in woods, forests, and stone circles. Stonehenge in Britain is the most renowned stone circle which is an old megalithic monument of about 2500 BC. 

People mostly think about druids that they might congregate around Stonehenge and cast magical incantations. This spot is still a worship place today for pagans and other neo-druids. However, a disagreement is there about if the ancient Druids built Stonehenge. Although we don't know when Druids came to Britain, they are expected to arrive after Stonehenge was built.

What Do You Mean by Druidry?

It is a community-based belief and value system which depends on the animistic worldview. According to druidry, all nature is intelligent, while other living creatures are human's ancestors. Animistic beliefs can be found in all the world's religions. According to several anthropologists, it is the world religion occurring naturally as well as the spiritual root of most religious belief systems.

You should know that the Animistic cultures depend on oral storytelling and traditional knowledge in the local landscape. It lets them pass down knowledge and culture for many years, continuously mystifying Western academics.

Once the writing was invented, knowledge became more abstract after people wrote it down in books. People got several books and scriptures from folklore and traditional tales of animistic cultures. Ancient scribes wrote them down under the direction of powerful kings & Emperors, along with their patriarchal priesthoods.

Digital displays and computers meditate on the human experience increasingly for people who look at the display ten hours daily on average. It can be tried to develop a connection with the "felt presence," and it is a powerful way of unplugging, resetting & reconnecting with the nature force.

Modern Druidry and the Environment:

Nowadays, Druids remain engaged in raising awareness regarding not only pollution, fracking, unchecked mining, but also in harmful industrial farming and rewilding forests. Moreover, they keep themselves engaged in establishing more nature reserves for protecting the biodiversity of the land.

The critical foundation of Druidry is the natural balance maintenance and respect for natural law. In this regard, it is necessary to know that the old Druids were priests, magicians, doctors, lawmakers, as well as nature-based philosophers.


Time was cylindrical for druids, indicating what goes around literally comes around. Moreover, they believed that if anyone performs such actions that go against natural law, it will lead to grave and long-term consequences for future generations. It is the reason the major focus of druids is on leaving a better world for future generations instead of consuming all natural resources quickly & harvesting the world to increase profit.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. What do the Druids believe?

Druids believed that oak trees are sacred and they remain concerned with the natural world. We can describe Druidism as a shamanic religion because it depended on the combination of holistic medicines & the spirit world to treat illnesses.

Q. What country are Druids from?

The Druids' oldest detailed and earliest accounts dated back to the first century B.C. They had set up a special role within the old communities of Britain, Ireland, and France.

Q. Do Druids still exist?

They don't proselytize though we can see the existence of modern Druidry across the globe. According to the reports, 74% of world Druids work actively to keep the spiritual practice private.

Wednesday, February 15, 2023

Hua Tuo

Hua Tuo

Hua Tuo was a Chinese physician of the late Eastern Han Dynasty. His courtesy name was Yuanhua. As per the historical texts Records of the Three Kingdoms and Book of the Later Han record, Hua Tuo became the first Chinese who used anaesthesia during surgery. This physician used a general anaesthetic that mixes wine, and a herbal concoction called mafeisan (literally "cannabis boil powder"). While he was popular for Hua Tuo acupuncture abilities, he was also an expert in surgery and anaesthesia. Besides, he was popular in acupuncture, moxibustion, herbal medicine, and medical Daoyin exercises. This famous physician developed the Wuqinxi after analyzing the movements of tiger, deer, bear, ape & crane. 

 Hua Tuo

Hua Tuo is especially famous for surgical operations and mafeisan uses. In this regard, you should know that mafesian is an herbal anesthetic formulation created from hemp.

Previously, Chinese doctors thought that surgery was the last task. They gave little time and didn't give much importance to describing surgical techniques. A low classed medical worker carried out the surgery. But around the beginning of the 3rd century, it was changed as Hua Tuo was there to change the surgery field in China. When he was young, he traveled and read widely. He was the first Chinese who take an interest in medicine. Besides, he tried to assist many soldiers who had been wounded in multiple wars at that time. 

 Hua Tuo Life History:

This young surgeon was very simple. He used some prescriptions only and some points for acupuncture. He prepared hemp and wine so that patients didn't need to feel the pain. It is believed that Hua Tuo is the discoverer of anesthetics. However, there is a possibility that Chinese physician Bian Qiao of the 5th century BCE might have used these.

You should know that Hua Tuo, the honored physician is involved in many surgical methods—

  • laparotomy (incision into the abdominal cavity), 
  • removal of diseased tissues, and 
  • a partial splenectomy (removal of the spleen).

He resected the viscera and washed the inside to treat gastrointestinal diseases. Besides, he performed end-to-end anastomosis (connections) of the intestines, but we still don't know which material he used for the sutures.

There is a story of Hua Tuo. In this story, we learn that Guan Di called Kuan Ti was once a General and one of the great military heroes during that period. Kuan Ti later became the god of war also. However, he came to Hua Tuo as one of his hands was wounded by an arrow. As a result, it had infected his hand badly. Then Hua Tuo made a normal anaesthetic drink to offer his patient. When General Guandi saw this, he laughed and called for a board & stones to play a game.

Once the surgeon scraped the flesh and bone free of infection to repair the wound, Guandi and his teammates stopped laughing and continued playing the game. Surgery was one of his pursuits despite being his main interest. He was an expert in hydrotherapy. That's why he did some great unique work in physiotherapy. He invented a series of exercises called the frolics of the five animals where the patient copied the movements of the tiger, deer, bear, ape, and bird. This series was very popular and widely adopted.

Historical accounts:

His biographies are officially found in Chinese history during the Eastern Han dynasty (25-220) and Three Kingdoms (220-280). The text records of the Three Kingdoms (Sanguozhi) and the fifth-century historical text Book of the Later Han (Houhanshu) said that this surgeon was from Qiao County, Pei Commandery. It is currently in Bozhou, Anhui. This famous surgeon got employment offers from high-ranking officials like Chen Gui but refused them and wanted to practise medicine. You should know that there is no certainty regarding the dates of his life. However, as per the estimations from 110 to 207 and from 190 to 265, we can say that the most appropriate time is 145-208. He was an older contemporary of the physician Zhang Zhongjing (150-219).

While Hua means "magnificent, China," whereas Tuo indicates "hunchback" or 陀, literally "steep hill ."People also called him Hua Fu, meaning "apply [powder/ointment/etc." Yuanhua was his courtesy name that indicates "primal transformation". According to a few scholars, he learned the medical techniques of Ayurveda from early Buddhist missionaries in China. Victor H. Mair said that he was several years ahead of his time in medical knowledge and practice. His name was also pronounced ghwa-thā in Old Chinese. It came from the term agada, "medicine; toxicology". Hence, the Sanskrit word agada is the source of it. As per the stories related to his biography, he was active mainly where the first Buddhist communities were set up.

According to the biography in the Sanguozhi, he resembled a Daoist xian (仙; "immortal"). We have got the details of his medical techniques from the biography. This famous surgeon was a master in nourishing one's nature. While his contemporaries thought he might be a hundred years old, he still looked hale and hardy. His great skills are illustrated through the medicines he prescribed. Besides, to cure the illnesses of patients, he prepared decoctions which needed only some ingredients.

He was excellent in different fields, such as he could easily divide up and compound based on the right proportions. This famous surgeon did not even need to weigh the different components of his medicines. After boiling the decoction, one can drink it. Hence, he used to tell patients how they should take medicine and then would go away. After taking the medicines, the condition of the patient would improve promptly.

Suppose Hua Tuo employed moxibustion, he need ro burn punk in one or two places. In every place, he used to make seven or eight separate cauterisations. Due to which the disease used to respond quickly during the elimination time. Suppose Hua Tui employed acupuncture. Hence, it will be in one or two places only. He gave instructions to the patients when using the needle and said that he would guide the point to a location. Once it reaches the spot, the patient feels that they need to tell him. Once the patient told him that the point had reached the designated spot, he started to remove the needle, and as a result, the sickness would be alleviated virtually.

Sometimes, illnesses were concentrated internally where medicines and needles couldn't play any role. Hence, he realized that it was essential to operate. Then, he asked his patients to drink a solution of morphean powder. As soon as they drink this, they would be intoxicated as though dead and completely insensate.

After making an incision, he removed the diseased tissues. Sometimes the diseases can be in the intestines. He was capable of serving them & washing them out. Then, he stitched the abdomen together and rubbed on an ointment. Once the period of 4-5 days is passed, patients will no longer face pain. They would become conscious and normal within a month.

According to the explanation of his biography in the Houhanshu, the mafeisan decoction was dissolved in jiu. In this case, you should know that mafeisan is a numbing boiling powder. However, there is no more prescription for mafeisan anaesthetic liquor and his writings because all were destroyed or lost. We can find the mention of five medical books attributed to him & his disciples in the Book of Sui.

Fictional accounts:

He heals general Guan Yu, as per the 14th-century historical novel Romance of the Three Kingdoms. A poisonous arrow hit the General's arm during the Battle of Fancheng in 219. When he gave anaesthetis to Guan Yu, this General said that he didn't feel afraid of pain. The surgeon cut the affected flesh using a knife to scrape the poison from the bone. While Tup continued the treatment, Guan Yu continued playing a game of weiqi with Ma Liang, even though he didn't flinch from pain.

Later when Ma Liang asked him about the incident, Guan Yu says that he feigned being unhurt to keep the morale of his troops high. Once the surgeon completed the operation successfully, he gave a sumptuous banquet as a reward and a gift of 100 ounces of gold. But the surgeon refused to take the reward and told him that his responsibility is to heal patients and not to make a profit. Although the famous surgeon died in 208, his surgery story became famous a decade before Guan Yu fought at the Battle of Fancheng.

According to the historical document Sanguozhi, bone surgery was performed on Guan Yu, who showed no painful expression. Sanguozhi didn't tell the surgeon's name and the operation name. Cao Cao summons the surgeon later to treat chronic excruciating pain in his head, which was actually a brain tumour. As per the statement of

Cao Cao, Hua Tuo told him that it is essential to open up the brain cut the open head to remove the tumour. Then, it would be possible to get the tumour out and sew it back. In this procedure, Cao Cao will be anesthesized. But there happened a misconfusion. He thought that Hua Tuo planned to murder him. That is why he was arrested and imprisoned later. But there is a strong reason behind this. Previously, Ji Ping, an imperial physician, tried to attack him & forced him to consume poisoned medicine.

Hua Tuo gave his Qing Nang Shu to one prison guard to keep his medical legacy alive in the Romance of the Three Kingdoms. Later, he died in prison. Although the guard's wife burnt the book as she was afraid of being implicated. But somehow, the guard somehow managed to save a few pages but, the other pages were lost forever.


The use of innovative anaesthetic mafeisan on Hua Tuo's patients during surgery is still a long-standing mystery. He got credit from Records of the Three Kingdoms and the Book of the Later Han because he made this anesthetic during the Eastern Han Dynasty. Although there was no written record or finding of real ingredients, Chinese medical practitioners made estimations in later periods. You can find a controversy over the presence of mafeisan historically in Chinese literature.

Ma means "cannabis; hemp; numbed," whereas fei indicates "boiling; bubbling," and San refers to "break up; scatter; medicine in powder form." The combination of these terms indicates mafeisan. You should know that ma can indicate "numbed; tingling" (e.g., mazui "anesthetic; narcotic"). It came from the properties of the fruits and leaves used for medicinal purposes.

After the reconstruction of Modern Standard Chinese mafei, it is called Old Chinese *mrâipəts, Late Han Chinese maipus (during Hua Tuo's life), and Middle Chinese mapjwəi.

Several sinologists and scholars of traditional Chinese medicine have different assumptions at mafei powder's anaesthetic components. As per the assumptions of Frederick P. Smith, the great surgeon Hua Tuo, "the Machaon of Chinese historical romance", have used yabulu ("Mandragora officinarum") Instead of huoma ("cannabis") and mantuolo ("Datura stramonium," nota bene, which was given the name "Tuo" By Hua) mixed in wine, and after that could be drunk like a stupefying medicine.

Mafeisan was translated by Herbert Giles (1897:323) as "hashish." After that, Lionel Giles, son of Herbert Giles, recognizes "hemp-bubble-powder" as "something akin to hashish or bhang". It was noted by Victor H. Mair that mafei becomes a transcription of a few Indo-European words related to "morphine."

Morphine was first isolated in 1804 from opium by Friedrich Sertürner. Mair suggests that it is conceivable that any name like morphin was in use before as a designation for the anaesthetic properties.

Wang Zhenguo and Chen Ping noticed similarities among "scientists of later generations," in which mafei contained yangjinhua, wutou, or caowu. The first one means "Datura stramonium," whereas the second one indicates "rhizome of Aconitum, Chinese monkshood," and the last term caowu means "Aconitum kusnezofflin; Kusnezoff monkshood."

According to the suggestions from Lu Gwei-Djen and Joseph Needham, this famous surgeon from China might have found surgical analgesia through acupuncture.

Wang Shuhe and the pulse: In Chinese history, medicine got more importance than surgery. That's why the diagnosis was of considerable significance. The early Chinese physician tested patients' skin color at different sections and noted several other external signs. But he started the pulse diagnosis. Studying pulse was a major occupation of the physician who heard countless sounds and rhythms of different kinds. Maijing was a classic work written by Wang Shuhe. Wang wrote a crucial commentary on Huangdi neijing also. But remember that his labors over the pulse made him the best Chinese physician. The assertion "Nothing surpasses the examination of the pulse" can be discovered in the Huangdi neijing.

The physician had three areas on every wrist where it was necessary to ascertain the quality and quantity of the pulse. Cun ("inch") is the nearest area to the hand, whereas guan ("bar") is the middle position. The chi ("cubit") was the farthest from the hand. Remember that yang represents left, whereas Yin represents right. The right pulse of a woman meant disorder, whereas her left pulse order. For men, it is vice versa.

While the physician reads three different pulses on every wrist, he reads every pulse at two levels. For instance, if the inch was lightly pressed on your left wrist, the pulse meant the state of the small intestines. When the inch was heavily pressed, it indicated the heart. When the bar is pressed lightly, it means the state of the gallbladder. It indicated the liver state when pressed heavily. If the cubit was lightly pressed, it meant the state of the urinary bladder. On the other hand, it meant the state of the kidneys when pressed heavily. The right wrist came with specific connections to the body organs.

The pulses were categorized into 7 biao ("superficial") and 8 li ("sunken") pulses. But do you know what these refer to? For instance, the seven pulses on inch position might mean, among other things:

  • pains and heat in the middle region of the body and the head; 
  • accumulation of blood in the chest; 
  • belching and vomiting; 
  • insufferable heat within the thorax; 
  • severe thoracic pains; 
  • headaches; and 
  • heat in the chest.

These relationships seem complex to western minds. However, this Chinese physician achieved some remarkable diagnoses in pulse lore.

Final period:

There were significant contributions of several people behind the fame of Chinese medicine, like three emperors, physicians including Bian Qiao, Zhang Zhongjing, Hua Tuo, & Wang Shuhe, and others who contributed individually. We got a clear and elaborated description of smallpox from Ge Hong (3rd century CE). Ge Hong achieved his achievement about 600 years before al-Rāzī (Rhazes), a physician of Persia. He got credit because he first described the deadly disease.

Approximately 700 years after Ge Hong, the inoculation practice against smallpox started debuting. A spiritual old woman or a physician brought inoculation. They used to live on a mountain and started this practice using scrabs. Hence, scabs must be dried, ground into powder, and inserted into the nostrils.

From the 3rd century to the middle of the 16th century CE, was the time of Wang Shuhe. During this time, Chinese medical men started investing more effort in the compilation of encyclopaedias and the commentaries writing on the classical works. Official rites to worship old Physicians were set up in 1644 at the Qing Hui Palace near the College of Imperial Physicians in Peking (Beijing). In spring, the rites were celebrated.

Medical communication started between East & West in the sixteenth century when Portuguese Bishop Belchior Carneiro set up Saint Raphael's Hospital near Guangzhou (Canton). As soon as some western medicine cured several diseases, a few Chinese people started believing that everything is good and scientific in Western medicine, even better than traditional medicine. The belief and trust of western medicine started growing more despite the appearance of the country's ruler, Sun Yat-sen. Although, it was the early 20th century when the TCM interest renewed. Whereas during the end of 20th century and the starting of 21st century, TCM practices started all over the world.

The End Life:

The end life of this famous Chinese surgeon is hidden in a mist of conflicting and doubtful stories. As per a few stories, he was the court physician of Cao Cao who was the king of Wei. Hua Tuo relieved the ruler temporarily through acupuncture. Once the ruler told Hua Tuo to remove the annoyance permanently, he said that cutting into the royal skull was necessary. Although the wife of Cao Cao supported surgery, the king suspected Hua Tuo as one of his enemies or someone whom his enemies had sent to kill. Then, the ruler decided to throw the surgeon into jail. The Book of the Blue Bag, named Qingnang shu, one of the major books of Hua Tuo, was burnt for removing all traces of his work. In the history of China, he earned the place of the greatest surgeon.

Frequently Asked Questions:

  • Q. When was Hua Tuo born?

He was born in 145 AD.

  • Q. Which person is a famous doctor in the field of traditional Chinese medicine?

HUANG Yu-jie is Taiwan's most renowned traditional Chinese medical physician during the late Qing dynasty and early republican period of China.

  • Q. How did Hua Tuo die?

Hua Tuo wanted to avoid treating Cao Cao. So, he repeatedly made excuses by telling him that his wife is sick. However, after discovering the deception, Cao Cao ordered the execution of Hua Tuo.

Tuesday, February 14, 2023

Oak Island Mystery

Oak Island Mystery

The Oak Island mystery is a story series that moves around buried treasure & some unexplained things which are discovered on or near Oak Island in Nova Scotia. Since the 18th century, people have been continuously trying to look for treasures and artifacts. There are different theories on this Island, like pirate treasure, Shakespearean manuscripts, the Holy Grail, or the Ark of the Covenant, with the Grail and the Ark buried by the Knights Templar.

While multiple items have surfaced over the years, a few of these are carbon-dated. It is believed that these are hundreds of years old. We can consider these treasures, but you should know that searchers didn't find any major treasure here. If you come here, you can find several digs by numerous individuals and groups. Early explorers dug the real shaft called "the money pit." According to a few people, there is a "curse" on the treasure, dated over one hundred years. A state says that seven men will pass away searching for the treasure before it was found.

What is Oak Island?

This one is a private island owned in Lunenburg County, located on the south shore of Nova Scotia, Canada. It is one of the islands in Mahone Bay and is covered with trees. You should know that by a causeway, this island is connected to the mainland. The rural community of Western Shore is the nearest one, whereas Chester is the nearest village. Different theories on the island about buried treasure or historical artifacts made this island famous.

Water in the Money Pit:

It was the year 1862 when an account was written stating that the pit flooded with seawater up to 10m level or 33 feet after excavation of the Onslow Company about 80–90 feet (24–27 metres). There have been several attempts by people to remove the water, but all were unsuccessful. Explorers said about a drainage system that extends from the ocean beaches to the pit.

According to the treasure hunters, it was the year 1851 when they found coconut fibres under the surface of a beach, Smith's Cove. It can be said from this theory that the beach turned into a syphon by feeding seawater into the pit through an artificial tunnel. Its sample material was reportedly sent to the Smithsonian Institution during the early 20th century. They said that it was coconut fibre.

However, as per an expedition, they discovered a flood tunnel lined with flat stones at 27m or 90 feet. According to the geologist Robert Dunfield, he closely tested the walls of the re-excavated pit but couldn't find any proof of a tunnel.

In 1995, the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution conducted a fourteen day survey as Boston-area businessman David Mugar invited them. This institution performed a few dye tests in the borehole. After that, it said that a natural interaction between the island's freshwater lens and tidal pressures caused flooding (refuting the artificial tunnel theory).

The Woods Hole scientists after watching the 1971 videos reported that there is not anything conclusive that can be determined from murky pictures. It is believed that the five-finger (or box) drains at Smith's Cove are the remains of the old salt works. But there is no link between the drains and pit flooding.

Remember that this island is located on a glacial tumulus system. As many water-filled anhydrite cavities underlain this, it is believed that the continuous flooding of the pit occurs due to these. Limestone dissolves easily after being exposed to water. As a result, it forms caves and natural voids. The depth of Bedrock is 38 to 45 metres (125 to 148 feet) in the pit area.

About Oak Island Mystery:

Since the late 1700s, it has been a great place for treasure hunters. A rumour said that Captain Kidd's treasure was buried there. Some proofs were there to support what went on during the early excavations. Stories started to be documented in 1856 and since then, several theories extend beyond that of Captain Kidd. For instance, there were other religious artifacts, manuscripts, and Marie Antoinette's jewels.

The "Money Pit" was a place of interest on this Island for treasure hunters. This one is the original searchers’ spot located on the island's east side. It was more than 100 feet deep. As per island lore, in 1795, it caught the attention of a local teenager who saw an indentation in the ground. Then, the teenager started digging with some friends to find an artificial shaft containing wooden platforms every 10' down to the 90' level of depth."Nolan's Cross" was the formation of boulders, named after a treasure hunter.

Top Discoveries Related To Oak Island Mystery:

Jewelled Brooch:

Laginas found it on the western side of Oak Island. The location is near to the place where Daniel McGuiness used to stay.

Granite Stone:

It was discovered 90 feet down from the money pit. Here, you will get to see some carved peculiar symbols that are still not identified by anyone though a person has given the translation, 'Forty feet below, two million pounds are buried.'

Coconut Fibres:

Searchers discovered a huge amount of coconut fibres at 60 feet depth during the early excavations of The Money Pit. But the distance of the nearest coconut trees was 1500 miles. According to some people, people might have used these earlier to make a rope.


Two iron objects were discovered by Laginas on the island's west side. After some time, these got specified as swages. It is a kind of blacksmith tool that is expected to be from the 14th century. As per the team, the equipment is proof of mining operations on this island.

Bone Fragments:

Two fragments at borehole H8 in The Money Pit area were recovered by the team. However, initially they identified the fragments as human. Later, as per the testing, it was proved that one belongs to the European ancestry and the other one was of Middle Eastern.


Searchers discovered a piece of chain with some bone at a neighbouring borehole. However, the team thinks that it is connected to a theory. And the theory is when the treasure was buried, the slaves who were digging the shaft were chained first and buried alive thereafter. The team thinks that their spirits are guarding the vault and cursing the explorers.

Ancient Manuscripts:

In the late 1800s, the Oak Island Treasure Company excavated and also hit the cement-like level153 ft underground. Besides, they discovered a small parchment via drilling. According to a theory, the origin of the parchment can be a collection of Shakespeare's lost manuscripts which were hidden on this island by Francis Bacon, the friend of Bard, 16th-century scientist, and 'the true author' of Shakespeare's plays.

Leather Book Binding:

Laginas found small parchment pieces covered with leather in the H-8 spoils near the pit. But the doubt is whether these are Shakespeare's lost manuscripts' further pieces or not.

Roman Sword:

According to a report in 2015, a fisherman pulled out a Roman sword from the waters of this Island. Although the discovery has rewritten history, which put Romans in North America. The sword wasn't 2,000 years old. Rather, it was a modern replica of a Roman sword.

Roman Numerals:

Due to the damming and draining at Smith's Cove, a U-shaped wooden formation was discovered. A closer inspection of Oak Island mystery revealed the Roman numerals. As per the tree ring testing, it was discovered that the structure was 1769 – 25 years old before The Money Pit discovery. The team speculates that it may be a part of a real treasure shaft.

Nolan's Cross:

Fred Nolan is a treasure hunter who found five large boulders in 1981. His discoveries formed a huge symmetrical cross. In addition, there was another boulder which was discovered at the centre of the cross containing a picture of a human face and a sword. People know it as Nolan's Cross. These boulders prove that an Atlantic fleet of Templars went to this spot and might have buried some treasure.

Templar Coin:

Laginas discovered a coin adjacent to the money pit, embedded with a Templar cross. These Templars amassed massive wealth during the Mediaeval period and stored the wealth in fortresses across Europe. It was the evidence for the team that a few of that wealth was buried in this place.

Templar Cross:

People found a lead cross adjacent to Smith's Cove. The team moved to Domme Prison in France, where Templar knights were imprisoned. Religious carvings scattered the wall. There were markings such as Virgin Mary, Jesus, and a cross about the same as the piece that was discovered on the island.

Crossbow Bolt:

It is one of the famous Templar discoveries found in lot 26 on the southwest shore. The team tested it very closely and recognized it as mediaeval, dating back to the 13th century with Templar origin.

Spanish Coin:

The team discovered a copper coin in the island swamp. When specialists saw this, they said that it could be made in the 17th century. According to a story, Spanish explorers hid a treasure trove rather than providing it to the King. Now the question is was it that treasure? Or it was dropped by a person who was looking for the gold.

Spanish Silver Ring:

This ring was discovered at the swamp. Then it was under a professional Gemologist. After that, it was set up that two repairs would be done- whereas one repair was to create the ring bigger, and the other repair was to make it smaller. However, it has a chiselled floral design that indicates 1730s European origin (Spanish).

Ship Brace:

According to another theory, a swamp may hide a sunken ship. There was a treasure ship sailing with goods offloaded. But after that, the ship got grounded. Later, the ship was destroyed in terms of removing the evidence. Once the team found a ship brace at the swamp, they created this link assuming that it had undergone the massive stress of being burnt in fire. After completing a conversation with a blacksmith, the team got to know about this kind of event that might have happened in the 18th century.

Ship Spikes:

Many ship spikes are discovered across the island, including the Swamp, the Money Pit, and so on.

Encampment of Samuel Ball:

When the team was looking for artifacts on lot 24, they found coins, buttons, and a pistol part. Once, Samuel Ball was the owner of the area. He was born in 1764 into slavery in the Southern side of Carolina. Later, he fought for the British in the American Revolution and got freedom. Then, the war was moved to Nova Scotia. It was 1786 when he bought a 4-acre lot on this Island. One theory doubts whether Samuel Ball found the treasure and kept this a secret or not.


 It looks like an artificial stone tunnel found near Samuel Ball's home. As per the assumptions, this one can be a way to a potential vault of Ball's wealth.


During the metal detection, the team discovered a keyhole which features an ornate floral style that may be part of a chest. There is a rumour that one of three missing treasure chests of Captain James Anderson is buried on the island.

Ancient Pottery:

The team dug a trench of two feet on lot 12 in a place on Fred Nolan's maps. People knew it as an old dump site. They discovered pieces of pottery in this place. It is assumed that the depositors left this behind.

Hidden Hatch:

The island's map is 14th century old which was shown to the two brothers, and it indicates a hatch on the west side. When the team went to that place, they found a square-shaped hatch. It can be a back entrance to the Money Pit.

Silver Button:

It was found at Isaac point. It was assumed that the button belonged to a farmer before the discovery of The Money Pit.

The Bottom Line:

There are more than 50 Oak Island mystery books that have been published. These books contain the island's history and describe different theories. A few fiction works can also be found which are based on the Money Pit, such as The Money Pit Mystery, Riptide, The Hand of Robin Squires, and Betrayed: The Legend of Oak Island. The History Channel started airing a reality TV show, 'The Curse of Oak Island,' in January 2014. This channel lets us know about a group of modern treasure hunters, including brothers Rick and Marty Lagina of the "Michigan Group." In this series, they covered a few discoveries like centuries-old coins, an antique brooch, and a lead cross.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. Did they ever find the mystery of Oak Island?

Many items have surfaced over these years and have been discovered on this island. A few of these have been carbon-dated and old for hundreds of years. Although we consider these as treasures, it is important to know that any significant treasure site has not been discovered yet.

Q. Did they find the treasure on Oak Island 2022?

As per the belief, the island hides one of the greatest treasures of all time. But no one can discover this till now.

Q. What is the biggest treasure found on Oak Island?

People consider the cross one of the biggest discoveries in "The Curse of Oak Island."

Sunday, January 22, 2023

Madrid Codex

Madrid Codex

Madrid Codex is called the Tro-Cortesianus Codex or the Troano Codex. This is one of three surviving Maya books of the pre-Columbian period, circa 900–1521 AD, around the Postclassic period of Mesoamerican chronology. In 1965, Grolier Codex, a fourth codex, was founded. It is held in Madrid by the Museo de América. Besides, it believes that the codex is vital in its collection. Although you should know that the original version is not displayed as it is in fragile condition, an exact reproduction is in display instead.

Once, the Maya Madrid codex was categorized into two pieces- "Codex Troano" and "Codex Cortesianus." Then, an ethnologist named Leon de Rosny realized in the 1880s that both pieces belonged together. He helped to combine these pieces into one text which was later brought to Madrid. Later, it was named "Madrid Codex".

Physical Characteristics of Madrid Codex:

People used amate paper in a long strip to create codex. The paper was folded up accordion-style and then coated using a stucco of a thin layer. Usually, people use it as a painting surface. There is an entire document, the whole Madrid codex, containing 56 sheets, and these are painted on both sides to make a total of 112 pages. Hence, the Troano is the bigger portion which has seventy pages including 22–56 and 78–112. The name came from Juan Tro y Ortolano.

The Cortesianus Codex contains the remaining 42 pages, which are pages 1–21 and 57–77. Every page has a measurement of roughly 23.2 × 12.2 centimetres (9.1 by 4.8 in).

Madrid Codex Content:

It is a very long surviving Maya codice the content of which is made up of almanacs and horoscopes. These are useful for Maya priests in ceremonies and divinatory rituals. It has astronomical tables, but the number is lesser than the three surviving Maya codices. A few contents are expected to be copied from older Maya books.

Coe and Kerr suggested that there was only one scribe behind the work as the codex is stylistically uniform. But after a close analysis of glyphic elements, it was believed that many scribes were involved in its production. It was assumed that about eight or nine scribes were involved in the creation and made consecutive sections of the manuscript.

Basically, the Scribes were the priesthood members and made the religious content of the codex. It is assumed that all priests got the book one by one, and whenever they got this, they added a section to their hands.

In this case, the pictures depict rituals like human sacrifice and invoking rainfall, regular tasks- beekeeping, hunting, warfare, and weaving. Besides, the other pictures display that gods are taking Sikar smoke like modern cigars containing tobacco leaves.

Origin of Madrid Codex: 

Michael Coe and Justin Kerr were the two scholars who said that its origin was dated to after the Spanish conquest. However, the proof says that the document belongs to the pre-conquest date. It is expected that the codex was created in Yucatán. Whereas, Yucatecan is the language used here. This one is a group of Mayan languages, which contains Yucatec, Itza, Lacandon, and Mopan. In addition, these languages were distributed among the Yucatán Peninsula, like Chiapas, Belize, and the Guatemalan department of Petén.

According to J. Eric Thompson, its origin was in western Yucatán between 1250 and 1450 AD. Suggestions of some scholars also say that its origin may be the Petén region of Guatemala.

However, the opinions of all scholars are not the same. Other scholars said that it was similar to murals available at Chichen Itza, Mayapan, and other sites like Santa Rita, Tancah, & Tulum, which are on the east coast. There are two fragments of paper, and these are incorporated into its front and last pages, where we can find proof of Spanish writing. As a result, Thompson suggested that the document was acquired by a Spanish priest at Tayasal in Petén.

Discovery of Madrid Codex:

In 1860, it was founded and categorized into two various portions. These were of different sizes and available in different locations. Madrid codex gets Tro-Cortesianus Codex's another name after those parts were found. According to the scholar Léon de Rosny, these two parts belonged to the same book.

Troano Codex was the name of the bigger part. French scholar Charles Étienne Brasseur de Bourbourg published it in 1869–1870. In 1866, he discovered the part in possession of Juan de Tro y Ortolano in Madrid. This French scholar was the person who identified this first as a Maya book. Later, in 1888, the ownership of this part went to the Museo Arqueológico Nacional which is known as the "National Archaeological Museum".

Cortesianus Codex was the name of the smaller part that Juan de Palacios attempted to sell in 1867. Hence, you should know that he was a Madrid resident. Later, this part went to the Museo Arqueológico Nacional which acquired this in 1872 from José Ignacio Miró, who was a book collector by profession. He claimed that he recently bought this codex from Extremadura, a place from where Francisco de Montejo and several conquistadors came, like the work of Hernán Cortés, who won Mexico.

It is expected that anybody these conquistadors brought it to Spain. After that, this smaller part was named after Hernán Cortés, the director of the Museo Arqueológico Nacional. According to him, he was the person who brought it to Spain.

c. 1400 CE, when the Mayan period was about to end, people believed that it was the product of the late period. However, this one may be a post-Classic copy of the Classic Mayan scholarship. While its figures were sketched poorly, it was not similar to the other surviving codices in quality.

There you can find detailed information about astrology and divinatory practices in the book. While anthropologists can identify many Mayan gods, it is precious to historians. It was also precious to anthropologists who wanted to reconstruct the rites which ushered in the New Year. Additionally, there are available Mayan crafts like pottery & weaving and activities including hunting.

The pages of the Madrid codex were manufactured from the bark of a fig tree. In 1888, its two parts were brought together. As a result, the final document is now available in the Museum of America in Madrid.


Over five million people spoke thirty Mayan languages in the early 21st century. Among those people, most of them were bilingual in Spanish. Maya possessed a very big civilization belonging to the Western Hemisphere before the Spanish conquest of Mexico and Central America. Those people used to practise agriculture, make great stone buildings and pyramid temples, and worked gold and copper.

They had settled villages at the beginning of 1500 BCE. Then, these people made an agriculture cultivating corn (maize), beans, and squash. They also cultivated cassava (sweet manioc) by 600 CE. Later, they started building ceremonial centres, which turned into towns by 200 CE. Temples, pyramids, palaces, courts for playing ball, and plazas were developed there as improvements. They used to quarry limestone or building stones a lot and cut these stones with the help of chert & other harder stones.

While they used to practise slash-and-burn agriculture, they also used improved tricks of terracing & irrigation. Besides, a highly sophisticated astronomical system was developed. They produced paper using the inner bark of wild fig trees. After that, they used these papers as books to write their hieroglyphs. We know these books as codices. In addition, they made a tradition of sculpture and relief carving. We can know about them from primary resources like architectural works, stone inscriptions, and reliefs.

The period about 250 CE, at the time of the rise of Maya, is called the Classic Period of Mayan culture to archaeologists. This period lasted until about 900 CE. Their civilization was over 40 cities and each town contained between 5,000 and 50,000 people. Tikal, Uaxactún, Copán, Bonampak, Dos Pilas, Calakmul, Palenque, and Río Bec are names of some principal cities in this case. While there are about two million people in total, most people live in the lowlands— Guatemala.

Although, the classic Maya civilization had declined precipitously. Therefore, the principal cities and the ceremonial centres remained vacant. According to a few scholars, it happened due to the armed conflicts and the exhaustion of agricultural land. After that, they came up with another reason for the decline of civilization after discoveries in the twenty-first century. The river disruption related to battle and land trade paths is also the reason behind it.

Chichén Itzá, Uxmal, Mayapán, and some other towns were getting improvements and developments continuously during the Post-Classic Period (900–1519), and it continued for some centuries while lowland towns got depopulated. Maya who used to practise their forebear's religious rites, became village-dwelling agriculturists when Spaniards conquered locations in the sixteenth century.

Whereas Mayan cities and ceremonial centres were adorned with several pyramidal temples and palaces that were made of limestone blocks. But it is also true that scholars did not know the true nature of Mayan society, what hieroglyphics meant, and the chronicle of its history for centuries after the discovery of old building sites by Spaniards.

In the 1830s, the systematic explorations of these sites were undertaken first, and it was early and in the middle of the twentieth century when a tiny part of the writing system got deciphered. As a result, these highlighted the Mayan religion based on the Sun, the Moon, rain, and corn.

A pinnacle of intellectual achievement is represented by positional notation and the zero's usage. Their astronomy underlies a calendrical system which is hard to understand. It includes an accurately determined solar year, a sacred calendar of 260 days, and various longer cycles. In this case, you should know that the solar year consists of 18 months of 20 days each and five days extra. However, they believed it was unlucky. On the flip side, the sacred calendar includes 13 cycles of 20 named days. Astronomers could guess solar eclipses accurately.

In the middle of the twentieth century, scholars mistakenly thought, based on the discoveries, that their society had peaceful stargazers and calendar keepers. Several hieroglyphs depict the history of the rulers who fought against the weak towns and took their aristocrats captive. There was a tradition to torture the captives, mutilate them and later sacrifice them to the gods.

The Bottom Line:

You should know that torturing and sacrificing humans to gods were some of the basic religious rituals. People believed that it would guarantee fertility. In case they did not do such practices, cosmic disorder and chaos were believed to happen. People thought that drawing human blood could nourish the gods. Thus, they might get the chance to contact gods.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. What is the main difference between the Madrid Codex and the Dresden Codex?

The length of the Madrid Codex is approximately 22 feet, and this part has 56 leaves meaning there are a total of 112 pages. On the other hand, the Dresden Codex has 74 pages. The Paris codic contains 24 pages, whereas the Grolier codice have ten pages.

Q. Where is the Madrid Codex?

It is in the Museo de América.

Q. When was the Madrid Codex discovered?

The Madrid Codices I–II (I – Ms. 8937 i II – Ms. 8936) was found in 1965 by Leonardo da Vinci and Dr. Jules Piccus in the Biblioteca Nacional de España in Madrid.

Sunday, January 1, 2023

Aegina Treasure

Aegina Treasure

Aegina Treasure, also known as Aigina Treasure, is a vital Minoan gold hoard. It is said that people have found this on the Aegina island in Greece and kept it in the British Museum. Since 1892, it has been a part of the British Museum. This treasure is a vital group of Minoan jewellery.

Aegina Treasure, How Old is It?

The Minoan civilization was considered as Aegean Bronze Age civilization, on Crete, and other Aegean islands. It flourished from about 2600 to 1100 BC. In 1891, people found this in a tomb. But we are unfortunate that people are still unable to determine the exact circumstances near the discovery.

What is Inside the Aegina Treasure?

This treasure is full of gold jewellery from the Greek bronze age (between 1850 and 1550 BC). In this treasure, there can be found a pendant, three diadems, two pairs of earrings, a bracelet, a gold cup, four rings, plaques, and gold stripes.

Five interconnecting golden rings were there, also with beads and necklaces. These are made of several materials such as gold, lapis lazuli, amethyst, quartz, cornelian, and green jasper. Among these items, a pendant and a pair of earrings are the most elaborate ones.

The pair of the earrings has a double-headed snake design. There are two greyhounds inside, over two monkeys. Besides, there exist 14 short chains around the circle with golden discs and figures of owls.

It is believed that the pendant is representing a Cretan deity in a field of lotus flowers which is flanked by two geese in a field. You can find two unrecognized objects in the background. According to people, these might have links to "cult horns," the sacred horns of bulls, or composite bows.

Aegina: Aegina is one of the Saronic Greece Islands, and it is seventeen miles far from Athens. The treasure was found here. The island was a rival of Athens in the earlier period. Hence, you should know that Athens had the greatest sea power of this era.

When the Minoan period was running, trade between Crete and Aegean, and Mediterranean settlements was famous. Then, the influence of Minoan culture became dominant via artists and traders. However, you can find several theories, such as Mycenaean invasions from mainland Greece or the volcanic eruption of Thera.


It is an archaeological term used for many precious objects or artifacts which are buried in the ground, but people want to recover them later. Hoarders died sometimes, or they could not go back to retrieve the hoard. After several years, people might discover these surviving hoards. In earlier societies, caches or hoards refer to the relative degree of unrest.

Aegina Treasure Discovery:

While it was discovered in 1891, the British Museum bought the treasure after one year from the Cresswell Brothers, who were the dealers of a London firm of sponge. Later in 1914, the museum bought further pieces from the treasure.

Most scholars believe that at the Chryssolakkos necropolis at Malia, Crete, the hoard was gophered. But the locals did not notice the Malia Pendant correctly, and few other pieces. In 1930, it was discovered and is now kept in the Heraklion Archaeological Museum.


In the British Museum, this treasure has always been a mystery as they have not found other jewellery like this which can give us any idea about its date or fabric. People initially knew this as the Late Mycenaean (i.e., L.H. III). Currently, people want to put this in the 7th century B.G. According to a scholar, it is Phoenician. Greek archaeologist Stais said it was a combination of Mycenaean and later elements.

After bringing the treasure to the Museum in 1892, Evans published it in 1893. According to him, all antiquities were not allowed to be exported from Greece because it was illegal. So, people might have excavated these for smuggling out of the nation.