Showing posts with label History mystery. Show all posts
Showing posts with label History mystery. Show all posts

Tuesday, July 10, 2018

Rare Collection of Jewish Texts finds a Place at Brown University

Jewish Texts
A rare collection of Jewish texts spanning a number of centuries and many continents has found a place at Brown University. These Jewish texts contain collections of Haggadot which has details of how the Passover rites had to be performed. The book of rare Jewish Texts had been gifted to Brown University by Ungerleider Jr. in honor of his father who studied in Brown University.

The book details how Jews celebrated the Passover Seder in many centuries past.

What are these Jewish Texts all About?


The Dr. Steven Ungerleider Collection of Haggadot is a guide to the preparation of the Passover fest celebrated by Jews to mark their ancestors exodus from Egypt. Haggadot is a plural to haggadah which is a guide to the various preparations required for the Passover feast. These Jewish Texts detail rituals, customs and blessings marking the freedom of Jews from Egypt.

This rare collection of Jewish Texts gives a valuable insight into the way the Passover seder was celebrated worldwide in the past.

The Jewish collection of texts will also support all sorts of learning by scholars and students alike. It is also a valuable treasure for those who have a genuine interest in looking at past texts.

The Jewish Texts cover regions far and wide:


The haggadot contained in these Jewish Texts cover regions and practices of Jewish communities from all over the world. The haggadot covers the tradition of Jewish communities from Asia, Europe, North America, Africa and the near East.

The haggadot are chronicles of tradition detailed by Jewish communities in Constantinople in 1505, used in Calcutta in 1841 and also by Holocaust survivors in camps in Munich in 1945 to 1946. These are not the only places detailed in these Jewish texts but just a few among many others.

Besides being a collection of passed down tradition, these Jewish Texts also contain annotations, hand written notes and many other such writings by families following the tradition. Since these Jewish Texts span many different continents, it also contains many different languages including Yiddish, Judeo- Italian, Judeo Arabic ad Ladino.

These texts span all from U.S. to Australia to India and in Casablanca to Moscow via Jerusalem.

Those Interested In the Jewish Texts:


Students of History, Judaic Studies, Religion, History of art and architecture, Italian studies, Music, German studies, Renaissance and Early modern studies and Slavic studies will benefit from this book among others such as scholars and those who have a genuine interest in everything of the past.

The viewing of the Jewish Texts:


The book is open to public viewing at Brown University’s Special Collection Reading Room and also available in a digital format for all others who cannot be there in person. As of now only a few of the Jewish Texts has been made into a digital format but the University is well on its way to making available the entire Jewish text in a digital format.

This rare collection of Jewish Texts is valued at $ 2 million.

Saturday, April 21, 2018

Mysterious Pool and Fountain Discovered at Ancient Christian Site in Israel

Mysterious Pool and Fountain

Second Largest Spring – Judean Hills

An old pool and fountain considered to be 1,500 years old has been revealed by archaeologist in Jerusalem which could have been the spot of one of the most referred baptism of Christians. The pool could have been formed as a place of a main story referred in the New Testament where St. Philip the Evangelist had baptised and converted an Ethiopian to Christianity.

It has not been determined that the pool had been utilised for the baptism of the Ethiopian, however if it had been used for the same, it would possibly be the centre of `one of the main events in the spread of Christianity’. However, it is not known what the pool had been used for. The artifacts are said to be part of Jerusalem Ein Hanya, the second largest spring in the Judean Hills.

 Irina Zilberbod, the excavation director for the Israel Antiques Authority (IAA), stated, that according to the Jewish Press, the most significant finding in the excavation was a large and impressive pool from the Byzantine period. Zilberbod further stated that it was hard to know what the pool had been utilised for, whether for irrigation, washing, landscaping or perhaps as part of baptismal ceremonies at the site.

Magnificent Nymphaeumor Fountain

The site had been exposed and excavated by the team of archaeologist from the IAA between 2012 and 2016 though it had only been made available to the public recently. The IAA is of the belief that the pool tends to date back between the 4th and the 6th centuries A.D.The pool is considered to date back to the Byzantine Era that had happened around 1,500 years ago.

 Byzantine-era pool is said to drain into a network of channels leading to a magnificent nymphaeum or fountain which seems to be adorned with images of nymphs. According to the scientist, the fountain is said to be the first of its kind in Jerusalem.

The pool could have been a part of a royal estate which had been constructed during the time of the First Temple era that had started 3,000 years back. A column discovered at the site which may be 2,400 year old might have specified that the ground had been used as a royal estate and the pool could have served as the centre of a `spacious’ complex before a church which had once stood on the grounds.

Zilberhod had stated that a row of elaborate, roofed columns served as a path to various residential wings. The experts had been successful in restoring the water systems in order to make the fountain in a working condition.

Common Motif in Christian Art

Yuval Baruch, the IAA’s Jerusalem district archaeologist, according to the Times of Israel, had stated that identifying the place where the event had taken place had kept the scholars busy for several generations and had become a common motif in Christian art.

He further added that it’s no wonder part of (Ein Hanya) is still owned by Christians and is said to be a focus of religious ceremonies for the Armenian Church as well as the Ethiopian Church. Moreover scientists also discovered a mass of rare, ancient trinkets, varying from pottery, roof tiles, glass together with multi-coloured mosaic pieces.

With the help of these items, scientists have determined that the site could have probably been active between the 4th and the 6th centuries. The scientists had come upon a rare silver coin that is said to be one of the oldest they had found so far in the area of Jerusalem.

According to them it is said to be the Greek currency drachma. The Times of Israel observed that drachma had been minted in Ashdod by the Greek rulers between 420 and 390 BCE.

Lost Roman City of Julias

The site is considered as one of the most amazing archaeological locations in Israel which has provided much perception on early Christianity. For instance last year archaeologist had discovered an amazing 1,500 year old Christian mosaic which had been the floor of a church or monastery in the ancient city of Ashdod-Yam.

In 2017 another ancient Greek inscription was discovered on a 1,500 year old mosaic floor in the proximity of Damascus Gate in the Old City of Jerusalem. On the inscription was the name of the Byzantine emperor Justinian who had ruled in the 6th century A.D. and honours the building’s founding by Constantine a priest.

Between Tel Aviv and Jerusalem, a 1,500 year old church had been discovered at a Byzantine-era rest stop in 2015. In 2014, the remains of another church from the same era had been uncovered in southern Israel.

Experts are of the belief that they have also discovered the lost Roman City of Julias which was formerly the village of Bethsaida considered to be the home of the apostles of Jesus, namely Peter, Andres and Philip.

Thursday, January 4, 2018

Mystery of the 230 Foot Long Killer Whale Geoglyph Found

Credit: Johny Isla

Lost Geoglyph – Representation of a Killer Whale

 
A long lost geoglyph has been discovered by archaeologist that has been carved in the remote Palpa region of southern Peru in the Peruvian hillside. Palpa is situated near the province of Nazca – home to the extensive region of ‘Nazca Lines’, drawn by the Nazca people between 100 BC and AD 800.

This amazing representation of a killer whale extents more than 200 feet and is presumed to date back over 2,000 years, thus making it one of the oldest than those of the famous Nazca Lines which is in close proximity. According to experts the people who had once inhabited the region considered the orca as a powerful marine deity and the said geoglyph could be among the ancient in the region.

They state that the killer whale was probably created by removal of layer of stones along the landscape outlining its figure. Though the method has been similar to the one utilised by the Nazca culture, the researchers state that there are variations between the two, signifying that the Palpa orca tends to be much older. The eyes of the orca together with the other areas of the design are said to be made by piling the stones.
 

Location & Size - Not Defined

 
According to the researchers, this had been a trademark of the Paracas culture that had inhabited the region from 800 BC to 200 BC. The Paracas culture as per the Bradshaw Foundation was an Andean society well-known to have extensive information of irrigation and water management.

The people of this ancient period, beside the remarkable geoglyphs, also made incredible textiles. The orca geoglyph had been located by a team of German archaeologists in the 1960s though for decades thereafter, was considered lost as per the Bradshaw Foundation.

As per the records, few traces of it prevailed though it was eventually located once again due to efforts led by Johny Isla, head of the Ica branch of the Ministry of Culture in Ica Province of Peru. The orca engraving measuring 230-foot long had been identified in the Palpa region of southern Peru.

As per the reports of Live Science, at first, the team made an effort to locate it by scouring Google Earth but its location as well as size had not been well defined. Johny Isla has mentioned in an email to Live Science, that the location and size of the orca geoglyph have not been well-described in the catalog.
 

Disappearing Due to Erosion

 
According to Live Science, the team had come back to this area in order to re-establish and clean the geoglyph. Ultimately in January 2015, the archaeologist decided to venture on foot and located it after several months of searching.

The immense orca drawing before restoration was disappearing due to erosion over a period of time. Being craved on a slope it become prone to damage than those figures which are in flat areas like those of the Nazca Pampa according to Isla.

The experts have now warned that the freshly revived site is said to be in danger of `land traffickers’ who have hazarded their claims and have threaten to build on the land.

Saturday, December 9, 2017

Archaeologists Uncover Rare 2,000-Year-Old Sundial During Roman Theatre Excavation

2,000-Year-Old Sundial

Undamaged Sundial Discovered – Interamna Lirenas – Italy

During an excavation of a roofed theatre in the roman town of Interamna Lirenas, in the vicinity of Monte Cassino, in Italy, a 2,000 year old inscribed sundial has been discovered which is said to be one of the only known artefact to have survived.

 The sundial has not only survived undamaged for over two millennia but its presence of two Latin texts could indicate that researchers from the University of Cambridge have made it possible to assemble accurate information regarding the person who had commissioned it.

The students of the Faculty of Classics had located the sundial lying face down while they had been excavating the front of one of the entrances of the theatre along a secondary street. The sundial could possibly be left behind during that time when the theatre as well as the town had been rummaged for building material at the time of the Medieval to post-Medieval era. It may not have belonged to the theatre though could be removed from a noticeable spot more likely from the top of a pillar in the nearby setting.

A lecturer at the Facultty of Classics at Cambridge and a Colleague of Gonville & Caius College, Dr Alessandro Launaro, mentioned that `less than a hundred specimens of this particular type of sundial have survived and of those only a handful tends to bear any kind of inscription and so this really is a special discovery.
 

Numerous Contemplations

 
He further added that they have not only been capable of identifying the individual who had custom-made the sundial but have also been capable of determining the specific public office he held with regards to the probable date of the inscription.

Highly featured towards the base, is the name of M(arcus) NOVIUS M(arci) F(ilius) TUBULA [Marcus Novius Tubula, son of Marcus] while the engravings on the curved rim of the dial surface record that he held the office of TR(ibunus) PL(ebis) [Plebeian Tribune] and had paid for the sundial D(e) S(ua) PEC(unia) with his own cash. It is said that the nomen Novius had been quite common in Central Italy while the cognomen Tubula (literally `small trumpet), on the other hand is verified at Interamna Lirenas.

What is more appealing is the public office Tubula held with regards to the likely date of the inscription. Numerous contemplations regarding the name of the individual together with the lettering style of the inscription of the sundial placed comfortably during (mid 1st c. BC onwards) wherein the inhabitants of Interamna, had been granted by then, full Roman citizenship.
 

Carved From Limestone

 
Launaro stated `that being the case, Marcus Novius tubal, coming from Interamna Lirenas could be a hitherto unknown Plebeian Tribune of Rome and the sundial could have represented his method of celebrating his election in his own hometown.

 The sundial carved from a limestone block of 54 x 35 x 25 cm, tends to feature a concave face carved with 11 hour lines, (defining the twelve horae of daylight) intersecting three days curves (providing the indication of the season considering the time of the winter solstice, equinox and summer solstice).

Though the iron gnomon (the needle forming the shadow) seems to be lost, some of it tends to be present below the surviving lead fixing and this type of spherical sundial had been comparatively common during the Roman period which was called hemicyclium.

 Launaro further added that though the recent archaeological fieldwork has profoundly affected our understanding of Interamna Lirenas, dispelling long-held views with regards to its precocious decline and considerable marginality, this was not a town of remarkable prestige or notable influence.
 

Informative Case-Study

 
He stated that it remained an average, middle-sized settlement and this is precisely what makes it a potentially very informative case study regarding conditions in the majority of Roman cities in Italy during that time. In this regard, the discovery of the inscribed sundial tends to give some insight on the place Interamna Lirenas occupied in the broader network of political relationship all over Rome, Italy as well as it was also a more general indicator of the amount of involvement in the affairs of Rome where individual coming from this as well as the other comparatively secondary communities could aspire to.

New evidences regarding important aspects of the Roman civilization, emphasizing on the high levels of connectivity together with integration (political, social, economic and cultural) have been adding up with the on-going archaeological project at Interamna Lirenas, which it tends to feature.

Headed by Dr Launaro (Gonville & Caius College) together with Professor Martin Millett (Fitzwilliam College), both from the Faculty of classics, together in partnership with Dr Giovanna Rita Bellini of the Italian Soprintendenza Archeologia, Belle Arti e Paesaggio per le Province di Frosinone, Latina e Rieti, the 2017 excavation is part of an enduring relationship with the British School at Rome and the Comune of Pignataro Interamna which has profited from the generous aid of the Isaac Newton Trust as well as Mr Antonia Silvestro Evangelista

Thursday, November 16, 2017

Hidden Structure InSided the Great Pyramid of Giza

Pyramid of Giza

Secrets of Great Pyramid of Giza

 
Scientists have come across a long hidden narrow emptiness in Great Pyramid of Giza which has revealed the secrets of the 4,500 year old monument. The emptiness is said to stretch for at least 30 metres above the Grand Gallery, an ascending corridor which tends to connect the chamber of the Queen to the Kings’ towards the core of the Pyramid.

The existence of the emptiness is not known or if there are any valuable artefacts within, since the same is not accessible. However, it tends to have the same dimensions to the Gallery of 50 metres long, eight metres high and about a metre wide. According to the researchers, it could be a construction gap’ section of a trench enabling workers to access the Grand Gallery as well as the chamber of the King while the rest of the pyramid was built.


The discovery came to light when physicist had taken images of the interior of the Pyramid utilising particles fired to Earth from space wherein these cosmic particles penetrated the rock in much the same way like X-rays though much deeper. Since the 19th century, the combination of efforts of the archaeologist, physicists as well as the historians have been considered as the biggest discovery within the Giza landmark.
 

Man-Made Construction of the World

 
The Great Pyramid or the Pyramid of Giza, built under the supervision of the Pharaoh Khufu and completed in 2550 BC, functioned as the tallest man-made construction of the world for thousands of years. The edifice, the only survivor of the ancient Seven Wonders of the World is also known as Khufu’s Pyramid. There is no general agreement with regards to its creation.

Scientists state that the latest finding published in the journal Nature could give some insight on its construction. In October 2015, in order to get better understandings regarding the Pyramid, researchers from various countries such as France and Japan had started a project to scan the structure.
 They made the discovery utilising cosmic-ray imaging, recording the behaviour of subatomic particles known as muons which tend to penetrate the rock. Muons that tend to travel through rock or any dense material will slow and ultimately stop.

 The reason is to catch the muons when they have passed through a Pyramid and to measure their energies as well as trajectories. Thereafter researchers can compile a 3D image which exposes the hidden chambers. This discovery according to the study brings about the possibility that the empty space could be connected to other various undiscovered structures within the Pyramid.
 

Scan Pyramids Big Void

 
Pyramid had detectors installed in it, including in the Queen’s Chamber. This enabled a glimpse of the interior of the Pyramid without physically disturbing the same, the outcome of which was the empty space differed from rock. The paper stated that the presence of the space, known as the ScanPyramids Big Void had been confirmed on utilising three various detection technologies for many months after the same had been discovered.

Thereafter the results had been analysed thrice. The ScanPyramids mission comprised of researchers from the Ministry of Antiquities, the University of Cairo, Egypt together with the non-profit organisation the heritage Innovations Preservation – HIP Institute. Author Mehdi Tayoubi, president and co-founder of the HIP Institute reported to MailOnline that the ScanPyramids Big Void is not a room or a chamber and they are not clear it is horizontal or inclined or it is composed by one or many successive structure, though it tends to be big.

The Grand Gallery is said to be an internal spectacular structure a type of internal cathedral towards the centre of the Pyramid. The said Big Void could be successive chambers, a tunnel, owing to the similar size characteristics like the Grand Gallery with the possibility of several theories.
 

Several Techniques – Scan Pyramid

 
The newly revealed structure, in spite of the discovery is still to be reached physically by any researcher. Mr Tayoubi, the report author had stated that this structure does not seem to be accessible and they don’t see any person had attempted considering the Grand Gallery, for accessing the void which is overhead.

He presumed that the void had been hidden from the time of the construction of the Pyramid and was not accessible. In spite of the discovery, the excavated structure is yet to be reached in person by any researcher. Mehdi Yayoubi stated that they need the technique and the right one at the right time in order to be capable of identifying it and to discover the same. He added that they were confident that the results were accurate, since no one had seen the interior of the void and the purpose of its construction tends to be mysterious.

According to the experts, the researchers claimed that it could be on an ascent meaning that it could have been utilised to transport massive blocks in the centre of the pyramid and then left. All through the process of their study, the team had utilised several techniques to scan the Pyramid.

Friday, November 3, 2017

The Theft of the Mona Lisa is What Made Her Famous

 Mona Lisa

Painting of Leonardo da Vinci – Stolen from Louvre Museum

The well-known Mona Lisa painting of Leonardo da Vinci had been stolen on August 21, 1911 from the Louvre museum in Paris by a small time thief Vincenzo Perugia who had earlier worked in the museum. The robbery of Mona Lisa had caused quite a stir all over the world which was concluded over two years thereafter, when the priceless Mona Lisa painting had been located in the possession of Perugia.

 It had been 24 hours before anyone had noticed that the painting of Mona Lisa had gone missing with artworks often been removed for the purpose of being photographed or cleaned. Charney, founder of the Association for Research into Crimes against Art – ARCA, had stated that the Louvre had more than 400 rooms though only 200 guards and even less on duty overnight. There was basically no alarm and was under-secure where most of the museums seemed to be at that point of time.

It seemed to be a mystery as to how he managed to steal the Mona Lisa painting and the purpose of committing the crime. The first mystery is how he managed to get into the museum on the day in August to gain access to the Mona Lisa painting. The police speculated that he could have hidden himself in the museum the previous night and had come out once the museum had been closed for the day.

Different Conclusions

However Perugia himself had informed that he had gained access to the museum in a much creepy manner on that particular day of the actual theft. He informed that had a white smock worn by the employees of the museum that had probably been kept from the time he had worked at the Louvre earlier and when the crew of workers for that day had entered through the employee entrance, he had joined the crowd and walked through the museum unobserved.

He had walked all around the huge building mingling with the other employees till he had entered the room where the painting of Mona Lisa hung and had waited till he had been the only person there. This event had been before any kind of modern alarm system existed so he could just take the Mona Lisa painting off its hangers and moved quickly to the nearest stairway. Thereafter he had removed the painting from its frame as claimed later by him and walked away with the Mona Lisa painting under his smock.
Mona Lisa

The Archives Nationales in Paris had questioned this and pointed out that Perugia had been too short to have hidden it under his smock while wearing it. Instead they recommended that he had taken the smock off wrapped the Mona Lisa painting in it and had walked back from the same door from which he had entered.

Stealing Artwork Entirely Patriotic 

Or probably there could have been the involvement of another person. Either of these options had been successful in smuggling the painting of Mona Lisa. However this does not seem to be the only probable disagreement between the authorities concluded and what Perugia had claimed.Being a native of Dumenza, Italy, Perugia had been living in Paris during the theft of the Mona Lisa. Uncertain on what could be done with the Mona Lisa painting, he had hidden it in an old truck in his apartment trying to figure out on his next plan of action.

He seemed to get restless to get the painting out of his possession and so he travelled back to his home town and made a stop at Florence. Here he got in touch with Alfredo Geri, the owner of a nearby art gallery. Geri had been suspicious of the painting which was in possession of Perugia and so he took the opinion of another owner of a gallery who discovered that Perugia indeed had the original da Vinci painting. The two men persuaded Perugia to leave the Mona Lisa painting in their possession and Perugia was too happy to oblige. The two men had immediately contacted the police and had Perugia arrested.

Imprisoned and Released in Seven Months 

Perugia later had claimed that he merely desired to return the Mona Lisa painting to its rightful country of origin and also stated that the purpose of stealing the artwork was entirely patriotic. Noah Charney, art professor had informed that Perugia had mistakenly thought that he would be considered as a hero by the Italian people.

On the contrary, he was imprisoned and the Mona Lisa painting had finally been sent back to the Louvre in 1913. There is another theory on why he finally decided to deposit the painting with Alfredo Geri, the gallery owner. It had nothing to do with the home of the Mona Lisa painting and irrespective of his statement of patriotism it had been clear that he had intentions of selling it for a huge amount of money.

Towards the end of 1911, Perugia had written to his father stating that he would be making his fortune `in one shot’. He had been released within a short sentence period of seven months since the authorities were unclear on what to do with a culprit of this kind of crime. Perugia had fought for Italy during the First World War and eventually went back to France, married and had a daughter.

Mona Lisa – Great Masterpiece 

On October8, 1925 in a suburb near Paris he had breathed his last. Since he had then reverted back to his birth name of Pietro Peruggia, very few linked his name to the infamous robbery of the Mona Lisa painting. The painting became very popular after it had been returned and it grew till he became possibly the most well-known piece of art in the world.

Charney has informed that this could not have occurred if a different painting had been stolen. The image of Mona Lisa had been plastered in newspapers as well as in magazines all across the world. Carney acclaims that the world-wide attention was drawn, familiarizing the image of the lady with the mystic smile.

So Perugia in some way had been responsible for the present amazing fame of the Mona Lisa painting. No one may ever know the precise motivation of Perugia for the theft of the well-known painting of Mona Lisa. Times have changed and the Mona Lisa tends to hang behind a bullet-proof glass in a space of the Louvre with security guards monitoring the Mona Lisa painting all the time in order to avert another theft of this great masterpiece which only a Renaissance genius could have created.

Saturday, September 16, 2017

The Great Amherst Mystery

Amherst Mystery

Esther’s Haunting Mystery

Towards the concluding half of the 19th century, in a small town known as Amherst in Nova Scotia, Esther Cox had been affected by what she claimed as poltergeists. Esther is said to be residing with her married sister, Olive Teed her husband Daniel together with their two young children.

A brother and sister of Ester and Olive also seemed to live with them along with the brother of Daniel, John Teed. After Ester was almost killed by one of her male friend and had been a victim of psychotic break, due to the poltergeists and her house began to get haunted. Due to ill-health she spent some time at another sister’s house in a nearby region and thereafter returned to Amherst and the hauntings started once again.

After the poltergeists had threatened to burn the house, Esther had moved in with another family where the house became haunted also. Walter Hubbell, a part-time actor and also an occasional paranormal investigator had moved in with Esther. He examined the house for several weeks and finally wrote a popular book based on his experiences, wherein he claimed to have perceived floating objects together with assaults on Esther by invisible forces.
 

Traumatized by Assault

 
As per Hubbell, the incident took place towards the end of August 1878 after Esther aged 18 had been subjected to an attempted sexual assault by a male friend Bob McNeal with a gun.

He had been an acquaintance of the family and she had developed a liking for him, in spite of the fact that he was of a poor character. Esther had been traumatized by the assault and her behaviour underwent a change and seemed depressed. She had undergone immense distress and shortly thereafter the physical occurrences had started.

There had been knockings, rustlings and banging in the night and she began suffering from seizures whereby her body seemed to swell and she began having fever and chills in turns. The objects in the house also seemed to be moving.

 Though the frightened family did not want to draw attention to themselves for fear of mockery these incidents of the poltergeists, which took place led them to consult a doctor and seek his help. Dr. Carritte had been astonished by these events that took place. He witnessed the writing on the wall and the loud claps.
 

Witnessed Several Astonishing Incidents

 
According to Dr. Carritte it was as if someone had been banging on the roof with a sledge hammer and witnessed bedclothes move, heard scratching noises, and the words `Esther Cox, you are mine to kill’ written on the wall towards the head of her bed.

The following day the doctor administered sedatives to Esther in order to calm her and put her to sleep as a result more noises and flying objects exhibited themselves. Life seemed to be very intolerable for her family and with the frightful occurrences and fires which had been set in the house made Esther leave her home. However she was taken in by a kind family which permitted her to work in their dining saloon. But here also the poltergeists tormented her.

The locals witnessed several astonishing incidents in the saloon. They saw a knife which had flown mysteriously through the air and stab Esther and when someone had pulled it out of her, it seemed to fly back again in the same wound. Clergymen, scientist, together with other doctors had explored the hauntings.
 

The Haunted House – A True Ghost Story

 
A popular reverend had visited and witnessed a bucket of cold water appeared to be boiling on the kitchen table. Dr Edwin Clay, a Baptist clergyman had defended Esther on investigating and drawing the conclusion that she was not causing the displays herself.

 He spoke regarding the reality of the case of poltergeists, at several lectures where he had a great audience to listen. The local would gather at Esther’s cottage all over with the intention of catching glimpses of the objects flying through the air or to hear the noises or communicate with the poltergeists through questions and rapping. It is said that Esther also went to Saint John, New Brunswick where she had been examined by a team of scientists who supposedly connected with the poltergeists and assumed that it could be various entities who could be haunting her.

However no explanation has been provided regarding the poltergeists till date though some who did investigate the stories and were of the belief that it was a hoax by Esther. Walter Hubbell had spent six weeks in the home of Esther Cox to document the Amherst haunting and claimed to have been the victim of his own paranormal events which had taken place at her home where he had witnessed several violent incidents with Esther. In 1879, he had published his report known as `The Haunted House:

A True Ghost Story. He had also published a book – The Great Amherst Mystery. He had involved an affidavit of thirteen witnesses who swore that they had experienced the supernatural events first-hand.

Saturday, September 2, 2017

The Minaret of Jam

The Minaret of Jam

Minaret of Jam – Splendour & Multifaceted Design


The Minaret of Jam located in Afghanistan is known for its splendour and multifaceted design and the 64-meter tower is a graceful, soaring structure which is said to be in good condition till date in spite of it being constructed by baked bricks in the 12th or 13th century.

It is covered with intricate brickwork with a blue tile inscription towards the top and is remarkable for the excellence of its architecture as well as adornment, representing the finale of an architectural and artistic tradition of that region.

The Minaret of Jam is located on an octagonal base comprising of four cylindrical shafts resting one above the other and becoming progressively smaller as they tend to go higher. It is made of fired brick and lime mortar having two wooden balconies together with a lantern towards the top.

 Its external is decorated in superb detail covered with brick, stucco and glazed tiles contain sophisticated inscriptions of alternating band of Kufic and naskhi calligraphy, geometric patterns together with verses from the Quran.

The complex decorations together with the inscriptions seem to be clearly visible presently which has led it to be declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The tower had been constructed by Ghorid Dynasty at the height of its glory when it reigned over areas of modern Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan and India.
Minaret of Jam


Turquoise Mountain – Legendary Lost Afghan Capital


It is presumed that the Minaret of Jamhad one been linked to a mosque which had been washed away in a flood earlier to the Mongol sieges.

Archaeologists had located physical evidence of a large courtyard building that had once existed besides the minaret. In Central Asia, it was common to build single huge towers as a means of political power. The Minaret of Jam is said to be both amazingly large and visible owing to its size though hidden from the world because of its location within the valley. The most fascinating concept of the Minaret of Jam is that it could have belonged to the lost city of Firozkoh which is also known as the Turquoise Mountain.

This city had been the capital of Ghorid Dynasty as well as one of the greatest cities in the world and the capital had been totally ruined in the early 1220s by Ogedei Khan the son of Genghis wherein its location had been lost forever to history.

The Turquoise Mountain – Firozkoh is said to be the legendary lost Afghan capital of the Middle Ages and was apparently a prospering multicultural centre. It was believed that the ancient city had been the home of a Jewish trading community, documented by inscription on tombstones that had been discovered in the 1950s.
Minaret of Jam 1


Lasting Legacy – Christians/Jews/Muslims



The minaret seems to be very apparent from the religious point of view. One of the visitors had commented that `this chapter, called Maryam tells of the Virgin Mary and Jesus, both venerated in Islam and of prophets such as Abraham and Isaac.

 It’s a text that emphasises what Judaism, Christianity and Islam have in common instead of their differences. It appears the Ghorids positioned the text here to appeal for harmony and tolerance in the land, a message that is more relevant now than ever’.


It remains as a lasting legacy belonging to a period wherein Christians, Jews and Muslims are said to live side-by-side in harmony and united by their commonalities instead of being divided by their differences.

The effect of the Minaret of Jam is amplified by its histrionic setting with a deep river valley between gigantic mountains in the core of the Ghur province. It is one of the well preserved monuments that tend to represent the extraordinary artistic creativity and the mastery of structural engineering of that time.

 Its architecture and adornment seems to be outstanding with regards to art history, blending together foundations from the earlier developments in the region, in an incomparable manner as well as employing a great influence on later architecture in that region.

Outstanding Universal Value



Its graceful soaring structure is a remarkable model of the architecture and adornment of the Islamic period in Central Asia. It tends to play an important role in their future diffusion with regards to India as demonstrated by the Qutb Minar, in Delhi that begun in 1202 and was completed in the early 14th century.

Ever since the building of the Minaret of Jam which was around eight hundred years back, there were no reconstruction or extensive restoration work carried out in the area. In 1957, the archaeological remnants had been surveyed and recorded when the ruins had been first located by archaeologist. Ensuing surveys and researches have led to simple safety maintenance measures to the base of the Minaret.

Thus the characteristics which express the Outstanding Universal Value of the site, not least the Minaret but the other architectural forms together with their settings in the landscape is said to be unharmed within the limitations of the property and beyond.

The Minaret of Jam had been truly forgotten for several centuries and had only been rediscovered in 1886 by Sir Thomas Holdich, then forgotten again and once again rediscovered in 1957.

Threatened by Seepage/Erosion/Vibration – Road Construction



Presently it is threatened by seepage from the waters of the rivers where it tends to stand, together with erosion, vibrations from the road-construction in the surrounding areas which are threats of intentional destructions together with the continuation of illegal archaeological digs.

Visitors to the Minaret of Jam can climb to the top by a set of stairs that have been shaped like a double helix. The steps first end in an open chamber where the visitors can view out over the rivers and the scenery in the vicinity.

A second set of stairs can be taken to see the lantern gallery. But few visitors tend to make it to the minaret since it is a long and complex climb filled with several dangers and threats, inclusive of local bandits, abduction or execution by rebels.

The Minaret of Jam in Afghanistan is undoubtedly located in the midst of very unsafe area of the present world. With no extensive restoration coming up since the minaret had been constructed, together with little funding in conducting any repairs, it is doubtful if the minaret would be preserved or will be left to crumble into ruins.

Friday, August 25, 2017

The Prehistoric Plague House

Skeletal Remains Discovered – Northeast China

Unearthing had been done in the ruin site of a tiny wooden house in northeast China wherein the archaeologist came across the skeletal remains of almost 100 bodies which seemed crammed up. They have been attempting to put them together to know what could have actually taken place at the ruin site.

Anthropologist were of the belief that a prehistoric disaster could have probably killed hundreds of people around 5,000 years ago and had compelled the village to stuff the house full of the dead rather than to bury them.

At some point of time, the house had been set on fire or possibly caught fire as verified by the state of the ruins. It was observed that some of the skulls and limb bones seemed to be charred as well as deformed. It was presumed that the fire had been the cause of the collapse of the wooden roof and damaged the bodies that were there.

 At least 97 bodies had been unearthed from the pile that had been left there which ranged in the age group of 19 and 35 years according to reports. Several of the skeletons had been discovered in a disorderly manner in the ruin site of a crypt-type house dubbed F40, which was a small structure of only 210 square feet by way of size.

According to archaeologist in a published study in the journal Chinese Archaeology had reported that the site in northeast China known as `Hamin Mangha’ dates 5,000 year back and is the biggest as well as the best preserved prehistoric settlement located till date in northeast China.

Plague House

Archaeological Discoveries

Besides the bodies, the researcher also discovered over 100 pieces of pottery, jade works, stone implements together with artifacts of bone, shell and horn at the ruin site. There were three tombs there as well as ten ash pits together with a ditch or moat that had been surrounding the area.

Other important archaeological discoveries comprised of the Niuheliang Goddess Temple which seemed to be the most mysterious site of the ancient Hongsham 5,000 years ago wherein beautiful relics of unknown deities as well as bigger than life statues were found. Moreover, the ruin site of the ancient tombs from the Qijia Culture in northwest China dating 4,000 years back has also shown evidences of human sacrifice.

The site `Hamin Mangha’ dates back to an era where writing had not been utilised and the locals lived in comparatively small settlements, growing crops and hunting for their food. The village comprised of the remains of grinding instruments, arrows and spearheads, besides pottery which gives some insight on their way of living.

 The researchers in one field season between April and November 2011 had discovered the foundations of 29 houses which seemed simple one-room structures comprising of a hearth and doorway.

Insight – Catastrophic Events/Mass Disasters

These discoveries at Hamin Mangha provided the researchers with the understanding of the prehistoric people of northern China and how they managed with catastrophic events and mass disasters.

The images taken by the archaeologist at the ruin site express the prehistoric scene better than words. The archaeologist had stated that the bones in the northwest were relatively complete while those in the east often have only skulls with limb bones scarcely remaining. He added that in the south, limb bones were discovered in a mess, forming two or three layers’.

The remains were never buried and had been left behind for the archaeologist to find out some 5,000 years thereafter. A team of anthropologists at Jilin University in China has been researching on the prehistoric remains in an attempting of determining what had occurred to these people at that point of time.

The team had published a second study in Chinese, in the Jilin University Journal, Social Sciences edition on their discoveries.

The Jilin team had detected that the people in that house had died owing to prehistoric disaster resulting in dead bodies being stuffed in the house. The dead resulted quicker than they could be buried at the ruin site.

Outbreak of Acute Infectious Disease

Team leaders Ya Wei Zhou and Hong Zhu had mentioned in the study that the human bone accumulation in F40 had been formed due to ancient human putting remains in the house successively and stacked centrally.

 No remains of older adults besides individuals between the age of 19 and 35 were found. The researchers had observed that the age of the victims that were discovered at Hamin Mangha seemed to be the same that had been found in another prehistoric mass burial that had been earlier unearthed in present day Miaozigou in northeast China.

Zhou and Zhu had also mentioned that this similarity of the ruin site could indicate the cause of the Hamin Mangha site had been identical to that of the Miaozigou sites which means that they both could probably relate to an outbreak of an acute infectious disease. Had it been a disease, it killed people of all age group giving no time for survivors to bury the deceased in a proper manner.

The excavation had been conducted by researchers from the Inner Mongolian Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and the Research Centre for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University.

Thursday, August 3, 2017

Dona Juliana Dias da Costa :A Love Affair That Saved Portuguese from Mughals


Love Affair Between Portuguese Woman & Mughal Prince


This is an unusual love affair between a Portuguese woman and a Indian Mughal prince which describes the intensity of her love that the Portuguese woman by the name Dona Juliana Dias Da Costa had over Shah Alam, the son of Aurangzeb. It is said that she not only assisted in safeguarding the Christian in then Mughal-ruled India but was also responsible in spreading the faith in Portuguese India.

Dona Juliana Dias da Costa was considered to be a woman of Portuguese origin from Kochi in the court of Aurangzeb the Mughal Empire in Hindustan. She became Harem-Queen to the Mughal Emperor of India Bahadur Shah I the son of Aurangzeb who became the monarch in 1707.

 Her family had fled the Dutch conquest of Portuguese Kochi while she herself ended in the court of the Mughal at Delhi serving the family of the prince Shah Alam. She continued to be there till the prince did not find favour with his father and escorted him into exile. She was then rewarded when Shah became the Emperor – Bahadur I after the death of his father and her influence became boundless in the court in spite of being a Catholic in a Muslim state.
 

Assisted Italian Jesuit Missionary


  It is said that she had galloped on a war elephant with Bahadur Shah during his fights in order to defend his authority and after his death she continued to be greatly considered but with less influence. While Bahadur Shah I had been alive, she was frequently sought out by European powers such as the Dutch, Portuguese, the British and the representatives of the Pope during her period of strongest power.

She was of great help to the Society of Jesus inclusive of assisting the Italian Jesuit missionary Ippolito Desideri in his mission in evangelising Tibet. In appreciation of her various contributions together with services to the Jesuits, she had been recognized as a Patroness of the Society.

Tiwari and Chauhan had come across the diplomatic role of this Portuguese Catholic woman in the 80s, who had spent four years to write disputably the most inclusive documentation of Mughal, Portuguese, British, Dutch and French interaction in India. They have related the Portuguese method for survival with the Mughals with the help of the love affair story between Juliana and Shah.

Proficiency of Skills – Diplomat Par Excellence


From the moment they had a well-known settlement in Hugli through the favour of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, the Portuguese were comfortable being there till they annoyed his son with their misbehaviours which resulted in sacking the settlement in 1632. As a consequence, 4,000 Christians had been taken captives in dreadful conditions to Agra.

As per the book, the parents of Juliana were among the prisoners and Juliana was born in Agra around 1645 wherein her mother by that time had been attached to one of the ladies in the harem of Shah Jahan. After the death of her parents Juliana had been brought up in Delhi by Father Antonio de Magalhanes. According to the authors, Tiwari and Chauhan due to the upbringing under the Jesuit Fathers, together with the years she had spent in Goa, provided her with the proficiency of skills which made her a diplomat par excellence.

She had skills in expertise in languages, international exposure to the happenings all over the world, inclusive of the knowledge of international trade and merchandise, knowledge of medicine as well as surgery since the Fathers had Portuguese doctors from Goa, in their company. Besides that she had all the royal manners and customs which assisted her in gaining great experience

At 17 - Youngest Tutor to Muazzam/Shah Alam


Though Juliana was married, she became a widow at a young age and in 1681-82 paved her way for access to the Mughal court with the help of Father Magalhanes. Tiwari had mentioned that the Aurangzeb had entrusted the education of Prince Muazzam – later Shah Alam, which was his second son, to Juliana.

She had been 17 and his youngest tutor. Muazzam was 18 and was filled with sorrow for the merciless imprisonment of his grandfather Shah Jahan and with this began their lifelong love affair. The book had also provided the Portuguese letters which had been written by the viceroy in Goa to the Portuguese King expressing him of the favour Juliana tends to hold in the Mughal courts.

 Juliana stated that the book moved wherever Shah Alam had been posted by Aurangzeb inclusive to Goa in order to end the threat posed by Sambhaji the Maratha leader. Later on when Shah Alam had been suspected of treason by Aurangzeb and imprisoned, it is said that Juliana had risked her life in making his seven years of imprisonment, comfortable by sneaking in items of luxury to him. Her faithfulness rewarded her when Shah Alam eventually ascended to the throne after the death of his father Aurangzeb.

Worthy Benefactress of the College/Mission of Agra


The book also explains the role of Juliana in assisting Shah Alam in winning the battle to the throne against his own brother. It is said that Juliana got Shah Alam to organize the Portuguese gunners in his artillery and that proved to be a fruitful move.

The book also mentions of her correspondence with the viceroy of Portuguese in Goa as her power rose in the Mughal court under Emperor Shah Alam - `What becomes more than clear from the exchange of these letters to and from Juliana is not only the higher position attained by her at the Mughal court after the release of prince Shah Alam but her continued devotion in making favours to the cause of Christianity from the Mughal territories also’.

In addition to her diplomatic services the book has also recorded the financial help provided by Juliana to the Portuguese. It states that it was around 1707 that she had said to have given the province of Goa a great fortune valued to 40 to 150 contos. When she died in 1734, the Goa Personnel report of 1735 addressed her as the `Worthy Benefactress of the College and Mission of Agra’ in a most strange statement.

Wednesday, July 19, 2017

Papin Sisters: The Shocking Housemaids’ Crime That Shook France – Part II

Papin Sisters

Injuries on Face & Head


The police on entering the house had gone up the stairs and witnessed the awful scene where most of the injuries had been on the face and head of the victims. But the legs and bottom of the daughter portrayed deep knife grazes and both the women were beyond recognition since their faces had been completely ruined. Their teeth laid scattered around the room and one of the eyes of Genevieve had been lying on top of the stair.

Later on it was observed by the investigators that the other eye was under her body while the eyes of Madame were hidden within the folds of her neck scarf. Mrs Lancelin had been lying on her back with her legs apart with only one shoe on while the body of Genevieve had been facing down. A kitchen knife soaked in blood with a dark handle laid near her right hip.

 The entire space was covered with blood which had also been splattered on the walls two meters above the bodies. After the bodies had been discovered by the police, they searched the entire house. They pondered in their mind if the killer had done the same thing to the sisters.

Sisters Confessed Crime


However when they climbed the upper level where the bedroom of the maids was located, the door seemed to be locked. A locksmith had been called to unlock the door and when the police had they had found the girls in bed together with the robes on.

 Near the bed on a chair was kept the bloody hammer with traces of hair stuck to it. When questioned by the police on what had happened, the sister had instantly confessed the crime. The police had arrested the sister and had taken them into custody. Christine had become distressed and had fits when the police tried separating the girls. Ultimately, the authorities permitted a meeting between the two sisters and reported Christine had behaved and spoke in a manner which implied a sexual relationship.

Three doctors had been appointed by the court to order mental evaluations to the sisters to define if they were sane. Christine had shown indifference to the world and indicated that she had no attachments except to Lea. It was reported by the doctors that Christine’s affection for her sister had been of family devotion and that they had not noticed any type of sexual situation in the relationship.

No Pathological Mental Disorders


Lea on the other hand had considered Christine as a big sister or a mother figure and the appraisal stated that the sisters had no pathological mental disorders and no family history. The doctors considered the sisters, completely sane, indicating that the unusually closeness had caused the girls to act out together, both equally responsible for the murder.

 The jurors, at the hearing had taken only 40 minutes to consider and found that Christine and Lea Papin guilty of the murder. Lea had received a 10-year prison sentence while Christine had to face the guillotine, though the sentence had been transformed to life in prison. The gruesome double murder had infuriated the city and shocked the whole of France since there had never been such cruelty in a murder such as this.

Several people wondered why these two girls who seemed to be decent and had been treated well in their domestic positions could be so full of deep hatred that had led them to commit this hideous crime The murder seemed to be very atrocious and the gouging out of eyes along with their fingers seemed to be an act of animal savagery.

No Logical Motive For Crime


Philosophers, psychotherapist, writers together with the others started to chime in with their theories and some intellectuals expressed sympathy with the two girls. They saw the crime as a reflection of oppressive class divisions, poor working conditions together with prejudice while others believed strongly that since the girls had worked in decent employment with kind family, ate the same meals which the rest of the family had and had generous monthly salary, there was no logical motive for this kind of crime.

Some sources presumed that the girls could have been starved of love and affection. They had spent their formative years away from their parents’ instability with the members of the family who should have shown love to them. However they eventually had to go to a Catholic orphanage and there is no indication that they had suffered or were not cared for.

At the trial, a fourth doctor had testified and the girls could definitely not be normal. He had proposed that the relationship between Christine and Lea was a total merger of personalities. Lea had lost her identity to the dominant personality of Christine. In principle, there was no Christine and no Lea. The killer could really be the joint personality of two, a third identity. Psychotherapists all over the world are scrambling for a diagnosis.

Sensational Theory


Another more sensational theory had emerged – did Mrs Lancelin discover that the girls were having an incestuous homosexual relationship and did she perceive something which was not intended for her eyes and that could have been the reason why the girls gouged out the eyes with their bare hands. Christine did not fare well without her sister, in prison.

 She had displayed bouts of madness and had become strictly depressed and dejected and ultimately refused to eat at all. The prison officials then transferred her to a mental institute but there she continued to starve herself till she died in May 1937. Lea on the other hand had shown exemplary behaviour and served only 8 years of her 10-year sentence. She became a free woman in 1941 and lived with her mother in Nantes, France.

 There she worked in hotel housekeeping under an assumed name. Some say she died in 1982 but in 2000 while making a film – In Search of the Papin Sisters, Claude Ventura claimed to have found Lea living in a hospice centre in France. She had suffered a stroke and had been partially paralyzed and not in a position to speak and has passed away in 2001.


Papin Sisters: The Shocking Housemaids’ Crime That Shook France – Part I

Papin Sisters
Credit:neil-paton.tripod

Christine & Lea Papin – Famous for Murdering


In a location in northwest of France is a city called Le Mans known for little famous car race which tends to take place once a year – the `24 Hours of Le Mans’. However with a brief fleeting look at the entry of `Le Mans’ in Wikipedia in the section of Notable People one would perceive down in the 7th position in the midst of twenty difference aristocrats, priest together with well-known musicians, names of Christine and Lea Papin. These two sisters had gifted the city with some amount of dishonour which would then never have been achieved.

The Papin sisters instead of being famous for a splendid and promising accomplishment were famous only for murdering in the most horrific manner, their domestic employer together with her daughter in 1933. The Papin sisters belonged to a troubled family in Le Mans. Their mother was Clemence Derre and their father Gustave Papin. Though there were rumours circulating that Clemence had been having an affair with her boss, Gustave seemed to love her.

When she got pregnant in October 1901, Gustave had married Clemence and baby Emilia Papin was born in February 1902. However it kept Gustave wondering if Clemence still continued with her affair. He then decided to get a job in another town to take Clemence away from Le Mans.

Birth of Emilia


Two years after the birth of Emilia, Gustave made an announcement that he would be taking a new job in a different town. At this Clemence had threatened to commit suicide instead of leaving Le Mans. This gave rise in strengthening his suspicions that had she been having an affair. After she had come round to her senses, the couple then moved and began life afresh.

As they progressed their relationship seemed to be more volatile and according to reports Clemence showed no affection for her husband and children, becoming an unstable individual. Gustave on the other hand turned to alcohol. Clemence had sent Emilia who was 9 or 10 years old to the Bon Pasteur Catholic orphanage. Thereafter there were rumours stating that her father had raped her. Later on she had joined the convent and had become a nun.

Clemence had also given birth to two other children and both of them had been sent away at an early age by Clemence and her husband. Christine was born in 1905 being the middle child of the family seemed to be the difficult child. Immediately after her birth, her parents had handed her over to her father’s sister who had been happy to have her. She remained there with her aunt for seven years after which she went to a Catholic orphanage.

Papin Sisters

Christine - Strong Personality/Lea - Shy


Though Christine preferred joining the convent, her mother did not permit her and sometime later engaged her into service. Having an average intelligence she seemed to have a stronger personality than Lea her sister. Her employers had stated that she would be rude at times though she was a hard worker and a good cook. Lea born in 1911 on the other hand was shy and the youngest child of three girls.

She seemed to be somewhat lower intelligence than her sister and was an introvert, quiet and obedient. Lea had grown up with her mother’s brother till he died and thereafter had joined a religious orphanage till the age of 15 years. In 1926, Christine and Lea Papin being of age were fortunate to have a domestic live-in job together in the home of the Lancelin family in Le Mans. It was a home of a retired lawyer, his wife Leonie together with their adult daughter, Genevieve.

 Christine worked as the family cook and Lea cleaned the house. The Papin sisters seemed on most account good and mode housemaids and every Sunday they would dress up and attend church service. They had built up a reputation of being diligent workers with good behaviour.

The Papin Sisters – Unsocial


Being known to be quite unsocial, Christine and Lea preferred to be by themselves and everyday during their two-hour break after lunch, instead of going out to enjoy themselves, they rather preferred staying in their bedroom. The Papin sisters, by 1933 had been with the Lancelins for 6 years. Christine was 27 years while Lea was 21 years old. That year on February 2, Mrs Lancelin together with her daughter have returned home at around 5.30 to an almost dark house and it had been the second time in a week when due to malfunctioning of iron while Christine had been ironing ,had resulted in the electrical fuse to blow up. Strangely the repair man who had returned the iron that day found nothing wrong with it.

When Christine had informed Mrs Lancelin that the iron had broken down again, she became angry and an argument took place. Mrs Lancelin had been a strict employer and would often put on white gloves to check for dust, would give feedback on Christine’s cooking and make Lea redo the cleaning when she found that she had missed a spot. However this time seemed to be a different affair. It was said that Christine had snapped and being at the top of the stairs on the landing of the first floor had leaped at Genevieve tearing out her eyes with her fingers.

Brutally Slaughtered the Two Women


Lea had quickly joined in the struggle and grabbed Mrs Lancelin. Christine had ordered her to gouge out the eyes of Mrs Lancelin after which Christine ran downstairs to the kitchen to get a knife and hammer and returning back upstairs had clubbed and sliced the mother and her daughter. The sick sisters also utilised a pewter pitcher lying on a table at the top of the stairs to bash the heads of the ladies.

According to experts the incident had lasted for about 30 minutes but eventually the maids had brutally slaughtered both the women. When Mr Lancelin together with his son-in-law had returned home between 6.30 and 7.00 pm the door had been bolted from inside and they were unable to enter though they knew that someone was at home. The house had been in total darkness except for a faint light coming from the upper level of the house. This gave rise to suspicion and hence they sought the help of the police.

Friday, June 23, 2017

Operation Gladio

Operation Gladio – Nickname for - NATO

Operation Gladio is the name given for a secret North Atlantic Treaty Organisation – NATO `stay behind’, procedure during the Cold War in Italy. Its resolution was to formulate and implement armed resistance in case of a Warsaw Pact attack and conquest. It was a NATO backed revolutionary network that had been established after WW2 initially inspired due to fear of the USSR.



 It had been called the `stay behind network since in case of doubt if the Red Army would invade Europe, its member had to `stay behind’ enemy line to disrupt Soviet control. Gladio is said to be the Italian type of gladiu a kind of Roman shortsword. The stay-behind operations had been prepared in several NATO member countries as well as some neutral countries.

The role of the Central Intelligence Agency – CIA in Gladio as well as the extent of its activities at the time of the Cold War era together with any connection to terrorist attacks perpetrated in Italy at the time of the `Years of Lead’ – in late 1860s to early 1980s, were the topic of debate. Switzerland together with Belgium were the countries who had parliamentary inquiries in the matter. Operation Gladio had first been known in 1990 in Italy after more than 40 years of secret operations.

NATO’s Secret Armies


It had been revealed by the members of the project that identical projects prevailed in most of the countries of Western Europe. These stay-behind networks had been in essence, super-secret armies in about 14 European countries that had been kept undisclosed from the official governmental structure of the host countries.

They were controlled by the other forces like the CIA and MI6 which were mostly inactive though were also involved in anti-communist activities comprising of anti-democratic tension together with false flag `terrorism’. Gladio or Sword in Italian was the name technically given to their operations in Italy though has since, come by extension to stand for the phenomenon as complete.

 Indication of such type of arrangement that had been kept concealed from both public as well as politicians democratically elected governments in the host countries for a quarter of a century had been exposed through a series of scandalous revelations in Italy together with other NATO countries at the time of the 90s.

It had been meticulously documented by Daniele Ganser, a Swiss historian in his 2004 book – NATO’s Secret Armies. This had debatably been the most shocking book ever to be unnoticed by the corporate media.
 

Accepted/Confirmed Instance of False-Flag Terrorism


  Evidence in the Ganser book of terrorism focused against the people by secret armies had been funded and organised by NATO as well as answerable to deep state elements with NATO, MI6 together with CIA instead of the respective governments, is said to be too shocking that the initial reaction of several people would be to discard the same.

However, in Italy, Switzerland and Belgium, the claims have been authenticated by juridical inquired and have been debated in the European Parliament. Gladio and its stay-behind networks could be one of the historically `accepted or confirmed instance of false-flag terrorism.

 The resolution, documentation together with the confessions and convictions tend to confirm that Gladio is said to be much more than the media or government would have you to believe a mere plot theory.

Monday, June 12, 2017

Leaked footage from top-secret Area 51 military base shows mysterious ALIEN craft


Area 51 – Base for Alien Spacecraft & Technology

Area 51 is said to be one of the secretive areas in the world and according to the author of the UFO Investigations Manual, Nigel Watson who informed MailOnline, Area 51 is said to be a magnet for those who are of the belief that the US Government knows a lot more about UFOs than they seem to reveal to the public. People like the late Boyd Bushman, a senior scientist who had worked for Lockheed Martin had declared that the Area 51 is a base where alien spacecraft and technology is stored and examined.

UFO hunters at Secure Team 10 have now exposed leaked footage which portrayed an unfamiliar craft hiding in the Nevada-based military facility. The peculiar video tends to portray a flying object soaring in the sky and later flying away, releasing a strange light while occasionally moving from side to side. Tyler Glockner running the SecureTeam 10 on the YouTube clip has commented that it is one of the mysterious pieces in UFOlogy. He has described the footage as a hidden gem which is said to be filmed in the 1980s or 1990s. The mysterious object seemed to be getting higher and higher releasing a peculiar light as per the footage.

Hot Spot for Alien Fanatics

However unconvinced ufologist Scott Brando running hoax busting website ufoofinterest.org had stated that the video had not been recorded at Area 51 but another top-secret USAF base in Nevada had been recorded. On May 30, 1995, Mr Brando had shown the same footage that had been recorded at the Nellis Air Force base in Las Vegas. He frequently highlights Secureteam 10 for confusing its over 750,000 subscribers. He together with other UFO hoax busters have claimed to have revealed its use of CGI footage and misrepresentation and the channel seems to be on the blacklist on a numb UFO website.

Mr Glockner has denied being a deliberate hoaxer and had claimed that his research is candid. Since late 1970s, the Nevada based military testing facility is said to be a crucial point of several conspiracy theorist as well as UFOlogists who have claimed that the base houses enigmatic alien technology. The extensive military complex is placed between a dry lake bed towards the North East and a small mountain to its West. Since 2013, area 51 has been a hot spot for alien fanatics since the government had not acknowledged it existence.

Historic Test Site for Military Aircraft

The same has remained enclosed from prying eyes of the public with guards equipped with weapons guarding the surrounding area. Statements of alien conspiracies near Area 51 have been largely exposed though the site has been confirmed as a historic test site for military aircraft.

Some of the well-known machines have been developed there comprising of the U-2 spy plane, SR-71 Blackbird and the F-117A Nighthawk stealth fighter. Area 51 is covered by a severe 23 by 25 mile, no-fly zone for civilian aircraft. Neighbouring viewpoints Freedom Ridge and White slides Peak providing vantage points watching down on the base are said to be prohibited to the public.

Friday, June 9, 2017

Chapatti Movement

The Revolution of 1857 – Chapatti Movement 

 

History is said to be of several lessons and tends to have great mysteries for us to unravel. Some may tend to be new while others could be very ancient. One such mystery is regarding the Chapatti Movement which involved the rare distribution of thousands of chapattis which is known to be a kind of unleavened flatbread that was eaten in various Indian villages during 1857. The revolution of 1857 was said to be the first war of independence of India from the British rule.

Though the Indian soldiers were not well equipped as the British soldiers, they fought bravely with all their might laying their lives down fighting the oppression of the British policies. Some historians were of the belief that few months before the revolution of 1857, a mysterious distribution of chapattis had started which was difficult to explain by anyone and the event has left all perplexed over the years.

The Chapatti Movement involved the rare distribution of thousands of chapattis though the crucial cause of the movement is not clear. However the British agents were of the opinion that the chapattis could have contained some secret messages though investigation carried out showed no such messages.

Strange & Inexplicable Distribution

 

Dr Gilbert Hadow, an army surgeon in the employment of the East India Company, in March 1857, had written the following lines describing the peculiar movement which had taken place in 1857 in a letter to his sister in Britain saying that there was a mysterious affair going on all over India. No one was aware of the meaning of the same.

 Moreover it was unclear where it had originated from by whom or for what reason, whether it was supposed to be linked to any religious ceremony or whether it had to do with some secret society. The Indian papers were full of assumptions to what it meant and was known as the Chapatti Movement.

 Dr Hadow described the 1857 movement of the strange and inexplicable distribution of thousands of chapattis which had been passed from one person to another and from village to village all over the country. During that time, tension in British occupied India, was at its peak and the discontented Indians, tired and sick of the unfair British rule were on the quiet planning a mutiny. That year, in February a strange thing occurred.

Movement Exposed by Magistrate of Town of Mathura 

 

Thousands of unmarked chapattis had been circulated to homes as well as police outposts all over India by runners at night where those who had accepted them would silently make more collections and pass them on.

The movement had been exposed by the magistrate of the town of Mathura, Mark Thornhill, who had engaged in some investigation and discovered that chapattis had been travelling up to a distance of 300 kilometres each night everywhere from Narmada River in the south to the border of Nepal many hundred miles to the north.

 The mysterious distribution of the chapattis led to a belief that something strange was going on. On extensive enquiries on the strange distribution of the same gave rise to several theories though few facts. Moreover since there was no written note or any sign on the chapattis, the British were irate for being incapable of finding any valid reasons for stopping or arresting the chapatti runners who often seemed to be police officials themselves.

Strangely, when the chapatti runners were questioned later on regarding the significance of distributing the same from one home to another, they had been totally ignorant of the purpose of the distribution.

Code Signalling a Call to Rebel 

 

The chapattis had been real and even the runners had not been aware of the purpose of the distribution of the chapattis. The police officials would bake the same, which was two inches each in diameter and distribute them to their colleagues who in turn would make some more and pass them to their associates in the neighbouring villages.

In some unusual documents of the revolution of 1857 it was discovered that the chapattis had travelled far and wide by March 5, 1857, from Avadh and Rohilkhand to Delhi. The British officers were filled with anxiety when they discovered that the chapattis had reached into every police station in the vicinity and around 90,000 policemen had been involved in the movement.

They were particularly disturbed knowing that the chapattis had been moving much quicker than the fastest British mail. Though they had no convincing proof the confused British assumed that the chapattis had been some sort of a code signalling a call to rebel against the colonial rule.

Shaken British Empire to the Core

 

Debates were on as to whether the same had come from the east, near Kolkata or from Avadh in the north or from Indore in the centre of the country. Overall the Chapatti Movement had shaken the British Empire to the core.

 India had been controlled by the British with a small number of men about 100,000 in total, conquering a large population of 250 million and hence they were aware of how insufficient they would be in the event of a serious revolution. Being continuously tensed due to it, they considered any sort of communication by the locals which they were unable to comprehend as suspicious resulting in fear.

Rumours regarding the unusual chapatti chain had resulted in an uneasy atmosphere prevailing across the country. When the rebellion broke out that year, with the first armed rebellion at Meerut on May 10, it had been alleged that due to the circulation of the chapattis, an underground movement had been planned which had started the movement.

Operative Weapon of Psychological Warfare

 

Some years later, J W Sherar, in the book Life During the Indian Mutiny, had acknowledged that if the purpose behind the plan was intended to create an atmosphere of mysterious restlessness its purpose was served. The movement had put the British in a state which turned out to be very operative weapon of psychological warfare against the colonial rule.

Moreover it was said that the chapattis had been a basic in the army of Tantia Tope and Lakshmi Bai when they had moved around at the time of the revolution. The notable guerrilla fighting, Kunwar Singh had also travelled with a few soldiers and would stop at villages in order to get a refill of ghee laden chapattis, gur and water.

Latest studies have shown that the circulation of chapattis could have been an attempt of delivering food to people affected with cholera. But considering the inconclusive evidence, it can only be concluded that at the moment the chapattis had just been chapattis and not any secret messages or warning of looming rebellion.

Friday, May 26, 2017

Rare William Caxton Medieval Text That was Part of One of the First Books Printed in England Discovered

Thrilling Discovery – Medieval Printed Text

An exceptional specimen of medieval printed text by discoverer William Caxton that had earlier been utilised in reinforcing the spine of a book has been considered as a `thrilling’ discovery. Dating back to late 1476 or early 1477, the two pages from a priest handbook had been discovered buried in a box at the collections of Reading University by librarian Erika Delbecque while she catalogued thousands of stuffs regarding the history of printing and graphic design.

Experts had suggested that the treasure was said to be among the first book that had been printed in England by the press of Caxton and could have fetched £100,000 had it been sent to market. Ms Delbecque had mentioned that she suspected that it was `special’ as soon as she had noticed it and informed that it was unbelievably rare to find an unknown Caxton leaf and surprisingly that it had been under our noses for so long.

She further stated that this well-preserved item happens to be the only one of its kind and one of just two remaining fragments from this medieval Caxton book in existence. The leaf had earlier been pasted to another book for the improper purpose of reinforcing its spine.

Original Caxton Leaf

She added that they understand that it was rescued by a librarian at the University of Cambridge in 1820 who had no idea that it was an original Caxton leaf. It had been written in MedievalLatin featuring black letter typeface, layout and red paragraph which had marked it out as a specimen of very early western European printing. No more copies of the pages that could have been printed side of a single leaf of paper have been found to have lasted.

Andrew Hunter, early printing specialist of Blackwells Books who had done the valuation had stated that discovery of even a fragment from among the earliest printing of Caxton in England had been thrilling to bibliophiles and of immense interest to the scholars and if this had come to the market, there would have been competition for the same.

 Moreover it would be a boundless prize for private collector as well as a feather in the cap for any institution. As per the British Library, Caxton was said to be the first to print a book in English as well as the first English printer.

Sarum Ordinal/Sarum Pye

At the time of working in the Low Countries and Germany, he comprehended the marketable potential of the latest technology. In late1475 or early 1476, Caxton had put uphis very own printing press in London. The discovery is said to be from a book known as the Sarum Ordinal or Sarum Pye that had assisted priests in prioritising religious feast days for English saints.

It had been part of a collection which had earlier belonged to late John Lewis, a typographer and his wife Griselda, a writer and book designer. The same had been bought by the university at an auction in 1997 for £70,000 with the aid from the Heritage Lottery Fund. As per the Reading University, the leaf then had laid among several thousands of other objects in the collections before it had been identified.

The only surviving fragment of the book is said to be at the British Library in London.This discovery would be on display at Merl Museum of Reading University on London road from May 9 to May 30.