Wednesday, May 29, 2019

The Underwater Ruins of Japan: Yonaguni Monument

The Underwater Ruins of Japan: Yonaguni Monument

Immersed Ruins – Southern Coast - Japan

An immersed ruins estimated to be about 10,000 years old is said to be lying towards the southern coast of Yonaguni, in Japan. There is a lot of controversy doing the rounds on the immersed ruins between experts who were of the opinion that it was man-made while more conservative scientists debate that it had been carved by natural phenomena.

This overwhelming site had been identified by a driver who had ventured as far off the Okinawa shore in the year 1995 and had been spell bound on discovering the sunken planning of the monolithic blocks. It seemed as if the immersed ruins had been terraced into the side of a mountain. This amazing discovery sparked immediate argument drawing many diving archaeologists, curious hobbyists and media who were unable to arrive at a valid conclusion of its existence.

Several attempts were also made later in the year to assemble data and map out the structure. These discoveries exposed several astonishing things inclusive of what seems to be huge arch or gateway of enormous blocks. These appeared to be fitted together precisely, at right angled joins, carvings and the same seemed similar to stairways.

This gave rise to crossroads and paved streets with grand staircases giving way to plazas surrounded by couple of towering landscapes similar to pylons.

Peculiar Formation


The teams on utilising grid search patterns, discovered five sub surface archaeological sites near three offshore islands as they drifted out from the south coast of Okinawa. It is said that the locations of the immersed ruins tend to differ at depths from 100 to only 20 feet.

Supporters of view of the site stating that they are man-made point out features like two round holes which are said to be around two feet wide, and a straight row of smaller hole which seem to be attempts of splitting off a portion of the rock through wedges, similar to ancient quarries. Marine seismologist of the University of the Rykyus, Professor Masaaki Kimura, pointed out various signs like plus sign and V shape which seems to indicate that humans had worked and which could have been made by wedge-like tools considered to be known as kusabi.

Though most of the features at Yonaguni have been seen in natural sandstone formations all over the world, the awareness of the various peculiar formations together with 90 degree angles in such a manners seems strange.

Tectonic Movement


Inspite of the several features presented at Yonaguni, there are yet some group of scientists who had researched the formation and are still obstinate on the natural formation of the large blocks, could be the outcome of tectonic movement together with the other natural occurrences.

One of the scientist, Geologist Robert Schoch of Boston University is of the opinion that the structures had been formed naturally, acknowledging that they could have been utilised or modified by humans ages ago. Moreover he also pointed out that the site seemed to be situated in an earthquake prone region which fractured the rocks regularly.

John Anthony West was also of the opinion that the so-called walls were natural horizontal platforms which fell in a vertical position when rock beneath seemed to wear away while the alleged roads tend to be channels in the rock. The other instances of natural formation having flat faces together with sharp and straight edges are said to be the basalt columns of the Giant’s Causeway and the natural staircase formation on Old Rag Mountain.

Search On For More Evidence


Several scientist continue to prevail in their searches for more evidence of their man-made nature, presuming that the stone structures could be the remnants of an ancient city which could have been existed 10,000 years back. This could have been there when the level of the sea had been much lower that what it is at present.

Graham Hancock an explorer and researcher had mentioned in his named `Underworld’, wrote that “It was the submerged structures of Japan that first awakened me to the possibility that an underworld in history, unrecognized by archaeologist, could lie concealed and forgotten beneath the sea”.

 He draws the similarity between Yonaguni together with the other immersed ruins found below the waters of Lake Titicaca and in Dwarka. This is, off the coast of India offering additional proof in the existence of a huge underwater world comprising of structures extending back to the vaguest chapters of human ancient times.

Presuming the structures of Yonaguni are the remains of a prehistoric city, one possibility of the prehistoric inhabitants of Japan could be called the Jomon. They existed from 12,000 BC to around 300 BC and established a stylish culture.

Investigations are still on with the immersed ruins by scientists which has overwhelmed them on how they relate to the ancient past and to solve the mysteries with regards to their origins.

Monday, May 20, 2019

5 Amazing Medical Techniques

Balloon Angioplasty
No one can dispute that science and medicine do not mix when you consider some of the amazing medical advancements made in the last 40 years. Consider for example the development of balloon angioplasty, a minimally invasive surgical technique where a medical balloon is guided through a major heart blood vessel then inflated to allow the blood vessel, previously restricted by plaque, to pump more blood.

Balloon Angioplasty 


Established in the late 1970s, balloon angioplasty, together with a small wire mesh tube called a stent, has led to thousands of heart patients getting the procedure to skip bypass heart surgery.

Not only has balloon angioplasty become a very popular and potentially life-saving surgery for heart patients, but in 2005, the FDA approved the same general idea for sinus sufferer's called balloon sinuplasty.

Medical Supplies 


Of course, with medical advancements come risks. That's why surgeons and their staff wear medical masks designed to reflect debris during laser surgery, such as those from a surgical supply store. USA Medical and Surgical Supplies is an all-inclusive medical supply store, which helps doctors or hospitals stock and re-stock medical supplies quickly. They carry products that the medical field has developed to help their patients in so many different ways.

Laser Surgery 


Another highly popular device is the use of a laser for surgery. A laser, which stands for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation, is a device designed to put all the phases of a light's electric waves into a similar and narrow pattern so that the laser produces a very bright, very narrow, and precise beam of light.

Again, cardiologists were the first to use a laser for surgery, dating as far back as 1960, but it was an ophthalmologist, Dr. Gholam Peyman, who patented the use of lasers to correct eye problems that people are most familiar with.

According to Stanford University, laser surgery today, in addition to vision correction and the removal of cataracts, are used to remove tumors, seal blood vessels during surgery, and to remove warts, tattoos, birthmarks, and wrinkles.

Organ Transplants 


Another major advancement in the scientific/medical world is, of course, organ transplants. According to the United Network for Organ Sharing, the first successful kidney transplant took place way back in 1954, but liver, lung, heart, pancreas, and intestines have been transplanted, particularly since advancements in the late 1980s. These transplants later produced many ways to reduce the rejection of transplanted organs.

One of the problems, of course, is that you need a donor in order to transplant an organ. The majority of these come from accident victims that have consented with their state to be an organ donor in case of catastrophic events. Although you can sign up to be an organ donor in all 50 states, according to organdonor.gov statistics, only three out of every one thousand people die in a way that allows their organs to be used by someone else.

This brings up the future possibility of cloning. Although it seems like a brave new world with many ethical questions to answer, it seems inevitable that cloning, using stem cells to replace organs, will eventually be possible. It may be far into the future, but many forward-thinking scientists believe cloning at least some organs may be possible in the future.

Bionic Eye 


There could be many candidates for number five on our list, but we'll give the nod to the bionic eye.
A bionic eye, otherwise known as a visual prosthesis, is an electrical device that provides artificial vision to people who are currently blind but could previously see. Bionic eyes work by electrically stimulating parts of the brain that show flashes of light, called phospheres, which are flashes of light emitted through the brain, not through natural light. Think, for example, of seeing colors with your eyes closed within your mind.

Currently, a bionic eye provides a very limited image that, through training, allows a blind person with previous sight to be able to determine basic vision tasks such as identifying a person, object or a doorway, But in the future, the need for guide dogs and limited sight may be the prognosis for everyone.

Ancient 3,000 Year Old Tablet Suggests Biblical King Was Real

Mesha Stele

Meshe Stele – One Metre Tall Black Basalt Stone

According to researcher doing a study, on a 2,800 year old inscribed stone, considered King Balak to be a biblical King of the ancient Hebrews. The Mesha Stele of black basalt stone is said to be one meter tall dating back to the second half of the 9th century BC.

This piece of stone was discovered intact in August 1868, by Frederick Augustus Klien who was an Anglican missionary. It was discovered at an ancient site in Dibon, presently Dhiban, Jordan.The Mesha Stele also considered as the Moabite Stone has inscription which dates way back to 840 B.C.

Mesha Stele, the ancient tablet has labelled several conflicts and conquests which had occurred during that period. Surprisingly, the Mesha Stele is said to be the longest Iron Age inscription ever created in the region and establishes the main indication for the Moabite language and is considered a `corner-stone of Semitic epigraphy’.

King Balak – Main Character in Biblical Parable – Book of Numbers 


Though the inscriptions have been found to be battered and broken, it is said that line 31, earlier considered to refer to ‘House of David’ could in fact be describing King Balak. Three consonants had been observed by the group of researchers from Tel Aviv University, the first be in Hebrew letter `beth’ which sounds like `B’.

Mesha Stele
The researchers though not sure think it likely that the inscription on the 31st line seen towards the bottom of the Stele could be referring to King Balak. The latest analysis relating to the stone recommends that Balak to be the main character in a biblical parable in the book of Numbers could be stated as challenge to Mesha.

Name with Three Characters 


Israel Finkelstein from Tel Aviv University informed NewsWeek that they have been dealing with a name having three characters starting with `B’. They are aware that Balak was the king of Moab and had ruled from a location in southern Moab, which has been described in the Stele.

However, he has acknowledged that he was not certain and that eventually the reconstruction of the name `Balak’ is incidental.The writers had researched the novel high resolution images of the tablet of the Stele. According to the latest analysis it was mentioned that Balak, being the key personality in a biblical parable in the book of Numbers, Chapter 22 -24, could be considered in the Stele as a rival to Mesha over Moab for power.

According to the story he had asked the prophet Balaam to curse the people of Israel. In Line 31, the seat had asked the prophet Balaam to curse the people of Israel. In Line 31, the seat of the king was at Horonaim. It is a place which has been mentioned four times in the Bible in connection with the Moabite territory south of the Arnon River.

Historical Personality 


The authors have stated that Balak could be a historical personality like Balaam who earlier to the discovery of the Deir Alla inscription had been considered to be an invented figure. The historians have not found any other reference of Balak, outside the Bible and the Stele. The authors in their papers have stated that the new images of Mesha Stele shows that the understanding `House of David’ that has been accepted by several scholars for over two decades, is no more a possibility.

The interpretation `Balak’ instead of `House of David’ eliminates the likelihood that Judahreigned over Moab. This tends to portray Balak as a historical figure according to Mr. Finkelstein. The Mesha Stele is said to be 3 foot-tall stone of black basalt dating back to the second half of the 9th century BC.

Displayed at Louvre – Paris 


The relic was revealed 150 years ago in the ruins of the biblical town of Dibon in Moab, which is presently Jordon and had been on display at the Louvre in Paris. Many westerners after learning about it made attempts to purchase it from the Bedouins who were the owners of the stone.

Due to political relationships, negotiations were ruined between the Bedouins and the prospective buyers, Prussia (North Germany, France and England with an Ottoman official who was unpopular with the Bedouins. This resulted in the Bedouins smashing the Mesha Stele into pieces by heating it up and dousing it with cold water.

Several parts of the ancient stone still tend to be missing. Archaeologists thereafter have been making attempts in reassembling the smashed tablet.This has proved to be wealth of information with regards to the history of ancient Israel. Moreover it has also been a constant source of debate on the truth of the Bible.

In the text there is a mention which dates back to the second half of the 9th century B.C.E. that Moabite King Mesha takes pride in defeating the northern Kingdom of Israel and its deity.

Friday, May 3, 2019

7 Intriguing Mysteries in the Art History World

Art history has plenty of unsolved mysteries throughout the thousands of years humans have been creating and appreciating sculptures, statues, paintings, and other pieces. Some of these stories have been perplexing art lovers for decades. Here are seven intriguing mysteries in the world of art history.

1. The Mystery of Stonehenge

Ancient art pieces sometimes are shrouded in mystery. One of the most puzzling pieces from the ancient world is the Stonehenge monument in England. The stones have been standing in a unique circular formation for more than 5,000 years. The questions about Stonehenge center around its purpose. Researchers still aren't sure why prehistoric people built the monument and made changes to it for years.

2. Unsolved Heist


Art museums, such as Park West Galley, house great artwork to give the public access to beautiful pieces and their history. There have been many famous pieces of artwork stolen from museums, never to be seen again. Some pieces have been taken and recovered years later. One heist that stands out is an unsolved case from 1990 from the Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum in Boston. More than $500 million in artwork was stolen, including works from Vermeer and Rembrandt. As of today, there are no suspects and none of the pieces have ever been seen again.

3. A Missing Masterpiece


Another example of a piece of stolen artwork that ended up being part of a mystery is the piece Dancer Making Points by Degas. This $10 million portrait of a ballerina was purchased by heiress Hugette Clark around 1955. After Clark died in 2011, her lawyers realized the valuable painting was missing. No one could determine when it disappeared or was stolen. A few years later, the painting mysteriously turned up in wealthy art patron Henry Bloch's collection. Today, the painting appears at the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art, after a settlement was reached to donate it.

4. The Identity of Banksy


Mysteries sometimes surround the artist, especially the world-famous street artist who goes by the name Banksy. Banksy's work has appeared throughout the world in major cities since the 1900s. Because of the nature of his work, which typically is in the form of graffiti, his real identity remains unknown. Many artists, such as Park West Galley artists, are influenced by his work.

5. David's Weapon


Classical statues, such as Michelangelo's David, may also have some hidden secrets. This masterpiece sculpture represents the biblical figure, David, who battled and bested the giant Goliath. Even though this statue has been well-covered and thoroughly studied by academics for hundreds of years, there is still some mystery with what he's holding in his right hand. Some art historians theorize that David is holding an ancient weapon, called a fustibal, in his hand. There appears to be fragments of this weapon in the current statue's hand, but it's not clear if this was intended to be the full staff-sized weapon.

6. The Purpose of the Nazca Lines


Geoglyphs in the form of prehistoric art usually have some questions behind them. Not much is completely known about the Nazca lines in Peru. The large shapes of animals, plants, and other figures have baffled scientists for decades. At the heart of the mystery is the actual purpose of the lines. Some theorize the ancient people who created them were trying to communicate with aliens.

7. Mona Lisas


The last big mystery that still has art lovers stumped centers around one of the best-known pieces in the world, the Mona Lisa. Leonardo da Vinci's painting has been copied by many student artists since it was first revealed in the 16th century. There are two other excellent copies of the piece that were reportedly painted by da Vinci's students.

Art is full of mysteries and unique stories. The next time you check out a gallery, be sure to learn more about the potential mysteries that come along with some of these pieces.

Friday, April 5, 2019

Ranavalona I – Mad Queen of Madagascar

Ranavalona I – Mad Queen of Madagascar
Ranavalona considered as the Mad Queen of Madagascar was born in 1788 in Madagascar. She was known to belong to humbleparents. Ranavalona I was also known as Ramavo and Ranavalo-Manjakal I lived a life of shame when her father got to know about a murder plot of the forthcoming king, Andrianampoinimerina. He immediately brought it to the notice of his master and the plot was averted. As a reward for saving his life, his master adopted Ramavo as his very own daughter.

Moreover he also arranged to marry her to his son, Radama. When Radama had been crowned King Radama I, Ranavalona was his first wife out of his twelve wives.To secure the line of succession it was essential to have an heir to the throne.

While at this position, her children would be the natural heirs to the throne. But King Radama and Ranavalona did not have any children. This became an issue when the King died without having any children. Their marriage was said to be a very unhappy affair, one which had failed to have an heir to the throne.

Brutal & Cruel 


According to the law, the next in succession to the throne was Rakotobe who was the son of the elder sister of Radama. He was known to be well educated. But when her husband died, Ranavalona played a trick and took over the throne for herself.

It was said that though she seemed to be out of focus from the public during the last few years of Radama’s reign. During that time, she had been busy scheming to take hold of the throne. She wanted to take over the control of the throne and with the assistance of some influential and wealthy supporters she had eventually taken control.

She was considered to be tough and cruel. Thereafter her reign of terror began. For three decades, Queen Ranavalona had reigned over the island nation of Madagascar off the coast of South Africa. She was known to be very brutal and had been the cause of death of millions of people.

Not Feeble & Ignorant Woman 


When she had captured the throne, at her coronation she made it known that she was not a woman to be toyed with. She stated “Never say, she is only a feeble and ignorant woman, how can she rule a vast empire? I will rule here to the good fortune of my people and the glory of my name. I will worship no gods, only those of my ancestors.

The ocean shall be the boundary of realm and I will not cede the thickness of one hair of my realm”. Her earliest actions were detecting and killing possible threats to her throne. It started by capturing and executing members of the husband’s family. Probably she could have been taking revenge for all that her husband had done earlier to her very own family.

During her initial time of her reign, Ranavalona who was considered to be a cold-blooded Queen had stated that her country was independent. She had all intention of keeping it that way, not permitting any outsiders to sabotage the system of culture and laws.

This was not accepted by the large number of Christian missionaries who had been visiting the island for a long time. Ranavalona had given a warning for those influencing on her subjects.

Probably she was doubtful about her power being sufficient enough to guarantee that her subjects would be obedient. Hence in 1835, she officially prohibited Christianity on that island. Finally her obsession extended to the other foreign interference, specially the French and the British.

The focus of Ranavalona’s years of reign was mostly on foreign intrusions. She was ruthless to the core and her subjects had to bear the brunt of her cruelty for the most unimportant crimes. Her act of brutally comprised of:

Hanging – The guilty were left hanging for several days over steep cliffs, where their relatives were forced to watch them till their ropes would fray out and the guilty would meet their end with a plunging death.

Boiling, burning, burying alive. Thousands of criminals were the victims of this brutality which was observed by friends and relative as a sign of warning from Ranavalona.

Beheading – As a means of another warning to those intending to invade the island, Ranavalona had executed heads of captured French soldiers which had been skewered along the beach of the island.
Poisoning – Ranavalona aimlessly carried out loyalty test by ordering poison on some subjects due to which only few of them survived.

Brutal forced labour- Ranavolona seemed whimsical and would unexpectedly make unrealistic construction projects utilising thousands of natives or captured prisoners.

Ranavalona due to her cruelty to her subjects, had been given the title of the `World’s Most Murderous Woman. When she died in 1861, Madagascar had a nine-month long mourning period for her death.

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Tutankhamum’s Tomb – Greatest Discovery

Tutankhamum’s Tomb

Tutankhamum’s Tomb – Greatest Discovery - 1922

Tutankhamum’s tomb is considered probably the greatest discovery during the period of 1922. The discovery was carried out by Howard Carter together with his team. Howard Carter, a British Egyptologist had been evacuating a royal ground towards the early 20th century. It was situated on the west bank of the ancient city of Thebes.

He had been short on funds in managing his archaeological excavations. He then made one more request to his financial supporter who was the fifth Earl of Carnarvon. Lord Carnarvon permitted him one more year to support him. Tutankhamum’s tomb eventually came to light with his final attempt in excavation. At the onset of his excavation, Carter observed first of the twelve steps of the entrance leading to the Tutankhamun’s tomb.

 He then sent a telegram to Carnarvon in England in order to open the tomb together. Carnarvon immediately left for Egypt on 26th November, 1922 and together they began excavating the entrance of the antechamber to proceed with their findings. Carter stated that initially they found nothing. The hot air escaping from the chamber caused the flame of the candle to flicker though later on their eyes got accustomed to the chamber light. Gradually they began to see through the mist - statues, strange animals and gold. Lay in Case of Three Golden Caskets

Tutankhamum’s tomb was found intact which belonged to an Egyptian pharaoh of the 18th Dynasty. It was the only tomb of a pharaoh which had not been touched and identified in the Valley of the Kings. It had been found with artefacts comprising of statues and artwork of such amazing quantity that it took almost ten years to record them.

 In Tutankhamen’s tomb, they found not one casket but three caskets, which lay within a case of three golden caskets containing the body of the king. The outer part of the caskets had been crafted in wood with gold coverings together with several semiprecious stones. These were lapis lazuli and turquoise. However the inner caskets had solid gold.

 Carter in his discovery notes had mentioned that it had been covered with thick black pitch like layer which extended from the hands down to the ankles. This could probably be the anointing liquid which had been poured over the casket at the time of the burial ceremony. This had been lavishly poured in great abundance.

 The image of him has been portrayed like that of a god who is believed to have gold skin, bones of silver and hair of lapis lazuli. The king here has been shown in his divine form. He is portrayed holding the crook and flail in his crossed arm, which are symbols of the rights of the king to rule.

Ignited Global Spark

 

According to an art critic, Alastair Sooke commented that the 1922 discovery had ignited a global spark for ancient Egypt -`A craze for Egyptian exoticism convulsed the West, infiltrating both high and low culture across the fields of music, fine art, fashion, film and furniture design’ Carter thereafter had been a popular person conducting tours in America and delivering lectures with regards to his discovery.

Tutankhamum’s rule lasted for almost ten years from 1336 – 1327 BCE. Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon had found Tutankhamum’s tomb which was untouched in November 1922 in the Valley of Kings. It is said that the mummified body of the king was surrounded by precious goods.

 This was discovered in his golden coffin after his burial chambers had been officially opened in the presence of Egyptologists and government officials on 17th February 1923.According to the discovery, it was observed that Tutankhamum had died when he was around 18 years of age. His end led several scholars to wonder about his death.

Tomb Revealed Numerous Perceptions


However, it is not clear, precisely when he died. His body revealed damage at several stages which could have occurred before or immediately after his death, during the hasty mummification development, in the tomb which could be due to the chemical reaction taking place in the coffin or probably during extraction from the coffin.

There are various damages envisaged on the chest and legs of Tutankhaman which indicates an accident, probably hunting or a chariot accident. Perhaps it could also be death on the battlefield. Still others state that Tutankhamu could have been murdered. Tutankhamun had been nine years of age when he was crowned the king of Egypt during the period of the 18th Dynasty of the New Kingdom. If the archaeologist Howard Carter had not discovered Tutankhamum’s tomb, we would have lost his history and would be ignorant of the knowledge of what laid in his tomb.

 His intact tomb revealed a wealth of objects providing us with numerous perceptions during his period of ancient history of Egypt. Overall, it took Carter and his team almost ten years to document and clear Tutankhamum’s tomb. After he had completed his work in 1932 at the tomb, Carter started writing a six-volume book. Unfortunately Carter died without completing it on March 2 1939 at his home in Kensington, London.

Saturday, February 23, 2019

Science Mystery: Magnetic North is on the Move

Science Mystery: Magnetic North is on the Move

World Magnetic Model

The northern magnetic pole of the Earth is said to be shifting towards Siberia away from the Canadian Artic. This shifting has compelled the scientists of NCEI to update the mid-cycle of World Magnetic Model– WMM. An official new magnetic model of the world is used for its navigation system which has been moving at a rate of about 50 to 60 kilometres per year, according to The Guardian. Essential to warrant precise navigation towards the North Pole, the World Magnetic Model update has moved ahead from a planned 2020 release owing to the present speed of this movement. The north magnetic pole is said to be on the move.

Instead of moving around as it had for ages, the pole had picked up considerable speed and is moving quickly towards Siberia. Funded by the US and UK military, usually an updated version of the World Magnetic Model is released once in five years wherein the last had been released in 2015. Release of the next version is scheduled to be towards the end of 2019.

The military utilises the World Magnetic Model for undersea and aircraft navigation, parachute positioning etc. The other governmental businesses like NASA, the Federal Aviation Administration, U.S. Forest Service and others tend to utilise this technology for the purpose of surveying and mapping, satellite/antenna tracing and air traffic management.

Unexpected Variations in Artic Area


Scientists have released an updated model to precisely present the changes of the magnetic field between 2015 and the present time, owing to the unexpected variations in the Artic area. This unexpected update before the official release of next year’s World Magnetic Model 2020, would warrant innocuous navigation for military application, search, rescue operation together with commercial airlines and others functioning around the North Pole.

 A geophysicist at the British Geological Survey in Edinburgh, Ciaran Beggan commented, `We know from old ship’s logs that in the past 400 years, the north magnetic pole has hung around northern Canada. Till the 1900s, it had moved perhaps tens of kilometres, back and forth. However in the past 50 years it had started to move north and in the past 30 years it started to accelerate away. It went from moving at about five to ten km a year to 50 to 60 km a year currently. It’s now moving rapidly towards Siberia’.

Affecting Navigation 


The World Magnetic Model tends to trail the situations of the magnetic poles of the Earth.Beggan had mentioned that they realised that mainly up around the north magnetic pole, the inaccuracieshad seemed to be great for it to be useful. The drifting pole has the tendency of affecting navigation in the Arctic. Should the GPS fail, the pilots on planes and ships will fall back on compass navigation and would require an updated map for their on-board computers.

The US military, at high altitudes, have named airport runways after their direction with regards to magnetic north and tends to change them when the pole moves. The recent movement of the pole is believed to be due to the formation of a narrow stream which is like the jet stream in the atmosphere, in the liquid outer core of the Earth. The iron-nickel core is said to be so hot that it tends to flow like water – 3,000 km below the surface creating the magnetic field and moving it around the planet.

Weakening of Magnetic Field


Beggan had stated that the north magnetic pole has been caught in this jet and is pushing it rapidly towards Siberia. The south magnetic pole seems to be moving much slower than the north due to the liquid outer core moving differently in the southern hemisphere. The magnetic field of the Earth is growing gradually weaker which is leading the scientist to contemplate that it will ultimately lead the north and the south poles to change places like a bar magnet toppling over.

From the traces of rocks, researchers are aware that this had taken place earlier though not in the past 780,000 years. Daniel Lathrop, a geophysicist at the University of Maryland stated that `it’s not a question of if it’s going to reverse, the question is when it’s going to reverse and such a flip would not be instantaneous, but would take 1,000 or more years to play out’.

Lathrop is of the belief that the flip would take place sooner than later owing to the weakening of the magnetic field, considering that an area in the south Atlantic had already overturned below the surface of the Earth. According to Beggan the rise and the fall in the strength of the magnetic field’s movement seems to be a part of its natural behaviour.

 He said that in the long term, the movement of the north magnetic field would become noticeable since it tends to affect where aurora, namely the northern lights, can be seen. He further commented that the aurora is focussed around the north magnetic pole in a ring enabling the pole to move and the aurora tends to follow it.

Wednesday, February 6, 2019

Archaeologists discover ancient 4,400-year-old tomb decorated with Hieroglyphs in Egypt

Ancient Tomb - 

 

According to authority a well preserved ancient tomb of a priest Wahtye, has been excavated which dates back to over 4,400 years in the pyramid area of Saqqara, south of the Egyptian capital of Cairo capital. Saqqara had been the burial ground for Memphis the capital of ancient Egypt for over two millennia. To preserve their bodies for afterlife, the ancient Egyptians had preserved humans while the animal mummies had been utilised as religious offerings.

The tomb is said to be adorned with symbols and statues which has led the archaeologists to investigate the site further, for more findings. According to Reuters, Mostafa Waziri, secretary General of the Supreme Council of Antiquities, had informed reporters at the site that the tomb was discovered buried in a crest which had been intact and unharmed. The excavation as per New York Times had started since November.

Tomb – One of a Kind – Last Decades

 

According to his description, he had stated it as `one of a kind in the last decades’. The tomb belonged to a period during the rule of Neferirkare Kakai, who was the 3rd king of the Fifth Dynasty of the Old Kingdom.The name of the departed, hieroglyphs engraved in the stone over the door of the tomb reveals the title, royal purification priest, royal supervisor together with inspector of the sacred boat. The tomb had only been partially unearthed and the archaeologists are anticipating more finding on excavating the site further. A last layer of debris had been removed from the tomb by the archaeologist who discovered five shafts within. On examination, it was found that one of the shafts was unsealed with nothing in it. However the other four had been sealed and more discoveries were anticipated on uncovering the shafts.

Tomb is Unique 


The rectangular gallery of the tomb is said to be ten metres long, thirty three metres wide and less than three metres high. It is covered in painted reliefs, sculptures together with inscriptions. Waziri had stated that the tomb is unique due to its statues and its almost flawless condition.Itportrays Wahtye together with his wife, Weret Ptah, his mother Merit Meen and the daily scenes comprising of hunting, making offerings, sailing and developing goods like pottery and obituary furniture. One will find big painted statues of the priest and his family in 18 niches and 26 smaller niches towards the floor have statues of an unidentified person in a standing or seated position with his legs crossed.

Rock-Cut Tomb Chapel


Besides this, the colour too is intact inspite of being 4,400 years old. Khaled al-Enany, Antiquities Minister had informed the audience of guests who had been invited inclusive of AFP reporters, that they would be announcing the latest discovery of 2018, a new discovery of a private tomb.An Egyptologist, Aidan Dodson at the University of Bristol had mentioned in an email that `what we have is a rock-cut tomb-chapel. What has been exposed so far is the public part of the complex, where family, friends and priests could come and leave offerings for the dead’. Dodsonwas not involved in this project. He had commented that the number as well as the variety of the statues seems unusual. He had also added that the rest of the decoration comprises of scenes intended to mystically construct an atmosphere for the next world especially the creation of food to sustain the dead for eternity and their acceptance of offerings.

Home to Well-Know Djoser Pyramid 


The Saqqara catacomb is also a home to the well-knownDjoser pyramid which is 4,600 years old structure that tends to overlook the site. It is considered to be the first tombstone of Egypt. The tomb had been erected by Imhotep, the master architect for Pharaoh Djoser which was 62 metres tall initially. It is said to be the oldest building in the world which is built completely of stone.

The ancient tomb had been a very famous tourist attraction for years enticing visitors in indulging in rare glimpses of this amazing site which was inhabited by people living there thousands of years ago. Moreover it is also considered as a UNESCO World Heritage site and home to several other tombs.

However inspite of its interesting site tourists have stopped visiting this country due to fear of violence created against the former Egyptian President, Hosni Mubarak. With the continuous political issues together with series of terrorists attacking tourist areas, international travellers have been discouraged from visiting this country.

A dozen of ancient unearthinghas been done by Egypt during this year. With these discoveries, Egypt expects to enhance its image abroad, reviving interest among tourists. Tourists not long ago used to visit its iconic temples and pyramid but had refrained from visiting this country owing to the 2011 political revolution. Egypt has now made its contribution with its archaeological discoveries, to international media and diplomats with the hope of gaining more visitors in the country.

Tuesday, February 5, 2019

Scientists Proposed a Nuclear 'Tunnelbot' to Hunt Life in Europa's Hidden Ocean

Tunnelbot

Nuclear Powered `Tunnelbot’

To produce a path through the thick shell of ice, researchers’ are intending to send a nuclear-powered `tunnelbot’ to Europa to hunt for life. Being the 4th largest of Jupiter’s 53 moons, Europa has been considered as the best choice in the solar system to introduce alien life. Europa, Jupiter’s icy moon is said to be somewhat smaller than Earth’s moon. Europa circles every 3.5 days around Jupiter and is tidally locked similar to the Earth’s moon. In this manner it is on the same side, wherein Europa tends to face Jupiter all the time. It is presumed to have an iron core, a surface ocean of salty water and a rocky mantle resembling the Earth. This ocean unlike on earth is considered to be adequately deep covering the entire surface of Europa. Moreover being away from the sun, the surface of the ocean is said to be globally frozen all over. Specialists are of the opinion that the hidden ocean encircling Europa and warmed by powerful tidal forces owing to the gravity of Jupiter could have favourable conditions for life.

Extra-Terrestrial Life

The plan has been initiated by scientists at NASA. The concept is to drill into the moon with the help of nuclear-powered robot tunnelbot, in an attempt to locate signs of aliens. This effort would provide an opportunity of probing below Jupiter’s moon Europa. According to the researchers, it would give them some insight of any aliens lurking there. The water concealed below Europa seems to be the likely areas for hidden alien life which could be trapped in a crust of ice thereby making it tough to explore. Hence, the researchers’ are set on in drilling through the crust and navigate for extra-terrestrial life. The researchers are of the opinion that the icy crust tends to conceal a kind of liquid water ocean which vents through that crust and could deliver the essential heat and chemical ingredients necessary for life in that particular ocean.

Tunnelbot

To get some insight below the thick layer of ice, researchers of NASA Glenn Research COMPASS team which is said to be a team of scientists and engineers around the country and engaged in resolving problems for NASA, believe that they can come up with tunnelbot. A meeting of the researchers had been conducted in December with the American Geophysical Union wherein a proposal had been presented for a tunnelbot. The tunnelbot could utilize nuclear power for melting a path through the shell of Europa.

 This would be carrying a cargo which could be helpful in tracing for indications for existing/nonexistent life Researchers are of the opinion that the tunnelbot can be utilized as an advanced nuclear device or some radioactive `general-purpose heat bricks of NASA to create heat and power. However, the radiation could bring about some design challenges. The tunnelbot can move in the ice on the frozen moon, hunting for small lakes with the shell or signs of life in the ice. As it tends to get immersed deeper it would branch out into a fiber optic cable. This could rise to the surface, setting up communication transmit at a depth of 3, 6 and 9 miles.

Mystery & Challenge

Researchers have mentioned that when the tunnelbot reaches the liquid ocean it would arrange cables or launch a device to refrain from falling through and to lock itself in position. At this point of time it is at an initial speculative proposal. The payload to sample Europa’s water and ice or how to get the tunnelbot on the moon has not yet been reckoned out by the researchers. This seems to be a significant mystery and challenge. This plan poses as an amazing insight into the future robotic mission to Europa. Moreover, ultimately it would also explore to see if the distant moon tends to have any indication of life.

American Geophysical Union

The researchers had mentioned in a proposal at the 2018 meeting of the American Geophysical Union that they had performed a concept study for a nuclear powered tunnelbot which would navigate through the ice shell reaching the ocean. The tunnelbot would assess the habitability of the ice shell together with the underlying ocean. The researchers have observed that there would be some issues with the plan. It comprises of how the tunnelbot tends to get all the way to that part of the world to be navigated. They have noted on `how initial deployment on the surface would occur, though not addressed and seems to be a challenge for further progress.

Two Prospects

Based on this, they have considered two prospects, one which could be driven by a nuclear reactor while the other through heat source bricks. Both utilize heat produced from these sources for melting through ice sources. However another issue also arises from embedding deep in the world. It would be complex for message to be sent through the ice. This means that the robot would be carrying cable that could send messages to and fro, to Earth. Moreover, researchers would also have to safeguard that the tunnelbot would have to leave a cable or even float on reaching the ocean ensuring that the cable does not touch the water while digging through the ice.

Preparing Two Analyses

According to Andrew Dombard associate professor of Earth and Environmental Sciences at the University of Illinois at Chicago, thickness of the ice is likely to be between 2 and 30 kilometres. This could be a main hurdle for anyone to overcome to explore these areas and have some insight of bio-signature representative of life on Europa.

Mr Dombard together with his colleagues had come up with a solution and believed that a nuclear powered tunnelbot would be the best solution for this plan. Mr Dombard had commented that they were not worried of how the tunnelbot would get to Europa or get deployed in the ice. They had presumed that it would get there and hence focused on its operation of descent to the ocean. The space agency has stated that it is preparing two analyses, comprising of one which would be landing on the surface exploring the distant moon within the next year.

The New Era of Genealogy

In recent years, there's been an overwhelming interest in genealogy among people who want to find out more about their family history. With new technology and advanced scientific research, finding out about past generations and unknown living relatives is a simple process that's affordable, or in some cases even free.

Getting in touch with known relatives can be easy with phone lookup, but finding out information about dead relatives is much more complicated, especially if they died hundreds of years ago. Today, advanced research tools and networking sites used in genealogy can help you link to long, lost relatives and their tie to your family history. It's now possible to build a family tree that dates back through many generations with detailed, documented information.

By viewing a variety of documented records on births and deaths, marriages, migration, and military service, you can trace your ancestry back thousands of years. Birth and death records give you accurate information on the age of your ancestors and when they lived and died. Marriage records are especially helpful in tracing a last name that's different from your own. Migration records often chart movements to different towns, cities, countries, and continents. Military records contain detailed information about a person's military experience through various conflicts and World Wars. By discovering this valuable information about your ancestors, you find out important information about your past that has shaped your present.

Genealogy can help you build a family tree that reflects a vivid picture of your past. It's a valuable memento for your present family, as well as future generations. A family tree can include priceless family history, generational photos, and important documents about your relatives. Building a family tree is often easier than most people think. On many ancestry sites, the search begins by simply entering your last name, or your mother's or father's names. As soon as you enter information, most sites can pull up certain ancestry data through various records. As the search continues, research tools look through billions of records, documents, and photos about your family. The further back you go, the more difficult the search becomes. However, advanced technology and networking links can trace your family tree back through many generations.

If you have living relatives you want to get in touch with, a phone lookup can help your find them. If you want to find out more about your past and your ancestors, research through genealogy can help you. A journey into your past can tell you a lot about your life and how you became the person you are today. A family tree that reflects your past is a wonderful legacy for your family and future generations.

Wednesday, January 30, 2019

Clues of Heart Disease Found in 16th-Century Mummies

 16th-Century Mummies
It is always fascinating to see what we can learn from our ancestors. How they lived without intervention or use of modern utilities, the knowledge that we have today and much more that are home to the current time. But what about looking at diseases present today? Were the same diseases, found today, present in our ancestors too? Well that may be a question that is hard to answer since asking our ancestors is totally out of the question. So what about CT scans? Researchers from Brigham and Women’s Hospital did just that.

Researchers found evidence of heart disease in mummies from the 16th century.

CT Scan on 16th century Mummies to Discover Heart Disease: 


Researchers subjected 5 mummies from 16th century Greenland to a CT scan and the results were astounding. The research team began to look for evidence of plaque in the mummies and were not disappointed. Plaque in the arteries is indicative of atherosclerosis, one of the leading causes of death in the US today.

The high resolution scans showed that there were calcium deposits in the blood vessels in the chest of the mummies. There were four adults and a child from the Inuit community that were tested for heart disease and in all four were these telltale deposits of calcium discovered.

The images from the five mummies was scanned and even shown on National Geographic in a show titled “Explorer”. The research into the mummies from Greenland was only a small part of the main research project. A project to discover heart disease in early hunter gatherer or pre industrial civilization is the main project behind the research into mummies form 16th century Greenland.

A Look at the Past and Heart Disease: 


Researchers have looked at mummies form Egypt to Mongolia and now more recently to Greenland for evidence of atherosclerosis- a heart disease. The Greenland mummies were of particular interest to researchers because of their particular diet. The Inuit community mainly consumed fish and small sea mammals.

A fish diet is considered good for a healthy heart, so finding heart disease in a community thought to have had a largely fish diet seems somewhat surprising. While others may be surprised with the findings, researchers were not. The relationship between a fish diet and a healthy heart is not really proven. Finding heart disease in these mummies would require further investigations.

Fish rich in omega 3 is good for the heart but certain other fish are rich in cholesterol and contain things such as mercury and PCBs that are touted as causes for heart disease.

Other Factors that may have Caused Heart Disease: 


While diet may be a main cause of causing heart disease, there could be other factors at play that can cause heart disease. Lifestyle factors such as excessive smoke while cooking could also be one of the reasons why these mummies showed signs of heart disease.

Researchers are not taking the results seriously as they are based on a small sample of population and not indicative of the entire population.