Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Ancient Cave Paintings Show Unexplained Knowledge Of Solar System

Ancient Cave Paintings

Ancient Cave Paintings – Innovative Awareness of Astronomy

Some old cave paintings have been discovered which reveals how the ancient people had innovative awareness of astronomy. A group of scientists have located a series of Ancient cave paintings and drawings strategically left in the open in the caves. This could be kept by the primeval team of Native American settlers which portray their solar understanding of their world in which they lived.

An archaeologist at the University of Tennessee, Jab Simek commented, `the subject matter of this artwork, what they were drawing pictures of, we knew all along was mythological, cosmological. They draw pictures of bird men that are important characters in their origin stories and in their hero legends, and so we knew it was a religious thing and because of that, we knew that it potentially referred to this multi-tiered universe that was the foundation of their cosmology’.

Initial Depiction – Ancient cave paintings are 6000 Years

Art from around 44 open areas together with 50 cave sites were examined by Simek and his researchers. The initial depiction of this type of solar stratification dates back to about 6000 years back though most of the art seems latest dating around the 11th to the 17th centuries.

It was also observed by the scientists that some types of depictions together with the Ancient cave paintings seemed to be in particular locations of the plateau. Open areas for instance, in high altitudes, which were touched by the sun, featured `upper world’ artistic version. This comprised of portrayals of heavenly bodies, weather forces and characters which tend to exert influence on humans.

Star Constellation in Sky

Drawings and Ancient cave paintings of `lower world’, were the dark areas such as caves which had been concealed from the sun. Generally this kind of layer is related to danger, darkness and death.

The `middle world’ on the other hand is characteristic of the realism surrounding prehistoric human on regular base. The Ancient cave paintings were discovered in open air setting as well as the caves, though they were traced in the midst of raised up areas of the plateau. Simek had mentioned in a statement that this layered universe had been a platform for various actors which comprised of heroes, creatures and monsters which could get across the levels.

As per the analysis, it submits that the artworks located at the site throughout Europe, the Ancient cave paintings are not just drawings of wild animals which were earlier presumed. On the contrary the animal character portrays star constellations in the sky at night. These are utilised to represent dates and mark events like the comet strikes.

Refined knowledge of Stars

They have arrived at an understanding that probably 40,000 years ago, the ancient people had refined knowledge of the stars and kept note of the time utilising knowledge based on the position of the stars and its gradual changes in the night sky, over thousands of years.

Simek mentioned that though the Ancient cave paintings of several of the actors had been located in low, high and middle elevations, the colour correlated the overall cosmological structure of the universe.

The character carved in red, were the colour of life. These were located in higher locations while black had been utilised to draw figures found in the lower world. Simek informed LiveScience that `the main thing noticed in all this is the images of human which is known as anthropomorphs.

 All of them are not humans and some of them are mythological people or those who tend to blend the characteristics of animal and humans’

Astronomical Calendars Monitoring Equinoxes

The Ancient cave paintings of the universe could also be helpful in getting some insight on the modern world.

Simek informed that `it is very common human conception that there are different levels of beings and different levels of cognition and different levels of connectivity with the human condition’. He was of the opinion that all people at one level or the other tend to do that.

One of the oldest obsessions of humans is astronomy which dates back to ancient times. Prior to the Scientific Revolution teaching that the Sun is the centre of the Solar System and the modern astronomy disclosed the fact of our galaxy and the Universe, the people of the ancient times observed the night sky and the patterns of the stars.

The scholars for some time were of the belief that comprehending the difficult astronomical phenomena such as the precession of the equinoxes did not precede the ancient Greeks.In their recent discovery, researchers from the Universities of Edinburgh and Kent portrayed how Ancient cave paintings which date back to 40,000 years could in fact be astronomical calendars monitoring the equinoxes and keeping track of main happenings.

Main Astronomical Occasions Detailed in the Ancient cave paintings

Decoding European Palaeolithic Art- Extremely Ancient knowledge of Precession of the Equinoxes, the study made by the team had appeared in the Athens Journal of History. The study team comprised of Martin B, Sweatman – an associate professor at the University of Edinburgh’s School of Engineering, together with Alistair Coombs, researcher and PhD at the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Kent.

Sweatman and Coombs had assessed the details of the Paleolithic and Neolithic artof animal symbols at sites in Turkey, France, Spain and Germany. The same system of date-keeping was discovered at these sites though it had been formed by the ancient people living thousands of kilometres and years apart.

As per the study of the team the Ancient cave paintings had not only depicted wild animals as presumed earlier but represented star constellation in the night sky. These carvings had probably been utilised to present dates and mark main astronomical occasions. It was eventually concluded that the ancient people kept track of time by observing the precession of the equinoxes.

This is related to the occurrences where the constellations seem to move in cycle in the sky spanning a period of around 25,920 years. This is the outcome of the axial precession, a slow though continuous change in the orientation of rotational axis of the astronomical body.

To an observer, the equinoxes would seem to shift westward towards the ecliptic comparatively to the background stars and in the reverse track of the Sun.

Tuesday, November 5, 2019

Hypogeum Hal Saflieni: The Incredible Sound Effects of Malta’s Hypogeum Hal Saflieni

Hypogeum Hal Saflieni: The Incredible Sound Effects of Malta’s Hypogeum Hal Saflieni

Hypogeum Hal Saflieni – An Extraordinary Architecture

Hypogeum Hal Saflieni, in Malta, is said to be one of those typical specimens of an extraordinary architecture among the various other ancient architectures such as the Stonehenge, Great Pyramid of Giza and many others. The construction of this temple is considered to be a colossal task by the present age.

These have perplexed the modern man.HypogeumHal Saflieni has been considered enigmatic in its location together with its era which is another astounding element. Regarding its era, the temple is ancient and according to the professional archaeologists, it can be traced to almost 5,000 years back. This could probably be during the Bronze Age.

The surprising fact is that it is a subterranean temple which means that it is an underground temple. The temple is frequently labeled as a maze. Hypogeum Hal Saflieni has been considered as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. As per the researchers, it is said to be the oldest prehistory subterranean temple identified so far. The temple is said to be mysterious in several ways and has been screened with uncanny activities.
Hypogeum Hal Saflieni

Treasure Trove of Elongated Skulls

Hypogeum Hal Saflieni had also drawn numerous mystic investigators over a period of time. Besides this, the temple has given rise to be a treasure trove of elongated skulls probably from some unknown race which is identical to those of humans.

The most amazing and enigmatic thing regarding the temple is its implausible sound effect. Numerous experts have been drawn all across the globe due to the acoustic effects of the temple. Detailed studies have been conducted on the sound effects all over the temple to attain some insight into its mechanism, the purpose of its existence and the sound amplification properties. Hypogeum Hal Saflieniis said to have three layers where the vital rooms are oval in shape.

 Smaller rooms are also placed across the three layers of the temple. The rooms can be accessed through the various doors and corridors. The vital rooms differ somewhat from the smaller ones constructed. Besides this, the vital rooms seem to have arched vaulting and also tend to have fabricated inlets together with elaborate construction. These fabricated inlets have been designed in a manner in which we find the present-day constructions of doors and windows which are built above the ground.

The Oracle Chamber in Hypogeum Hal Saflieni

One of the compartments in the Hypogeum Hal Saflieni has been engraved out of solid limestone and that room is called the Oracle Chamber. It is from this amazing chamber which gives the sound amazing effects to its incredible construction.

According to the researchers, the temple had been the reserve of species and probably an oracle had been utilized to live there. As per William Arthur Griffiths, the author of `Malta and its Recently Discovered Prehistoric Temples’, whenever a word was enunciated while in the Oracle Chamber, the sound was magnified a hundredfold and the same was heard all through the temple.

He commented that this effect would have been great when the oracle was voiced while in the chamber and his voice resonating and echoing throughout the entire maze-like thunder. This could be very enigmatic, petrifying as well as inspiring in the temple. The experience of the sound emanating from the layers of the temple could be mind-blowing. One would be shaken when they would hear the sound and feel the vibrations in the tissues and the bones.

Sound Frequency – 110 Hz

Sound effect within the Hypogeum Hal Saflieni had been investigated by numerous researchers. Ruben Zahra along with his team from Italy, together with a composer from Malta had examined the sound properties of the subterranean temple, minutely. They eventually arrived at the conclusion that the sound resonated throughout the Oracle Chamber at a frequency of 110 Hz.

Frequency of this sound is said to be identical or close to the frequencies found in several ancient chambers all across the globe. One such example is Ireland’s Newgrange. According to Dr. Robert Jahn of Princeton University, it is the possibility of stone quality utilized in the structure of the chamber together with the magnitudes of the chamber. This tends to controls the pitch of the echo which is received.

 Hypogeum Hal Saflieni- Intensify Mystic Effect of Rituals 


Many have been perplexed on the purpose of the acoustic properties on this underground structure in Malta. Queries have not been fulfilled but there seems to be some assumptions on the same. A particular one has been put forth by Niccolo Bisconti from the University of Siena while another by Paola Debertolis from the University of Triests.

As per both of them the properties of the acoustic of Hypogeum Hal Saflieni was intended to impact the psyche of the people listening to the oracle. Moreover it was also to intensify the mystic effects of the rituals conducted in the chamber.

This has been considered as the most accepted theories since it has been provided with scientific support. Dr. Ian Cook together with his colleagues had conducted an experiment in 2008. Test subject had been shown to numerous resonance frequencies during the experiment.

Impact the Thinking of People 


Their brain functions were analyzed utilizing EEG. It was observed that when the test subjects had been exposed to the resonance frequency of 110 Hz during the experiment, an abrupt shift was noticed in the activity patterns on the prefrontal cortex of their brains.

 This gave rise to deactivation of language center in the test subjects with a momentary swing to right-sided control over the left-sided control, during emotional processing. This effect was not present in the other frequencies.

The reverberation frequency of 110 Hz as per the bio-behavioral scientists tends to shift on a certain part of the brain related to social behavior, understanding, and frame of mind. With regard to the Hypogeum Hal Saflieni, it is not certain that this information was available or not. It is uncertain whether the 110 Hz reverberation frequency of the Oracle Chamber had a purpose with the scientific structure or was it just a coincidence. However, one thing was certain that if there had been religious chanting, the resonances were intended to impact the thinking of the people.

Friday, November 1, 2019

Oldest Map of the Underworld Discovered

Oldest Map of the Underworld Discovered

Engravings – Oldest map

Engravings related to ancient Egyptian coffin has been discovered in a burial channel in the necropolis of Dayr al-Barsha. This amazing artwork discovered had been identified as the oldest copy of a map for the soul to gain eternal life. The burial channel comprises of a coffin which had been discovered in 2012.

 It has now been discovered to be in existence about 4000 years back. This Oldest map had been discovered by a professor in the Department of Archaeology at KU Leuven together with the director of the archaeological project in Middle Egypt, Harco Williams. The Book of Two Ways’ was considered to assist the dead in navigating through the scene of blazing lakes and knife manipulating demons to make it to `Rostau’ or the kingdom of Osiris.

The people were of the belief that if one lay on the body of Osiris, they would not die. The oldest map has now been resolved that the engravings discovered on the side of the coffin are considered to be one of the oldest found by man.
Oldest Map of the Underworld Discovered

Djehutinakht I – `Overlord to the Hare Nome’

As per the reports of Ancient Origins, earlier to this discovery, the people were of the opinion that the coffin had been home to Djehutinakht I. He was an ancient ruler governing the region between the 21st and 20th century BC and an ancient Egyptian `Overlord to the Hare nome’. He had been mentioned in the inscriptions.

However, as per the latest study, it has been suggested that the coffin had been occupied by the body of an exclusive female known as Ankh. The map for the dead has been imprinted in two panels made of wood. Though varieties have been discovered on various other coffins this is considered to be the oldest in antiquity. The inscription discovered on the wooden panels is said to be a mixture of hieroglyphs together with symbols that the Ancient Egyptians are familiar with `The Book of Two Ways’.

It portrays two winding lines with instructions of two routes leading the dead to the Ancient Egyptian god of the dead, in the afterlife. Besides this, spells are also mentioned in the text to assist the dead in warding off evil during the path to their destination.

 According to Dr. Foy Scalf of the University of Chicago as informed to The Times, he states that in several manners, the Book of Two Ways could be described as the first illustrated book in ancient times. He further added that it offered the first illustrated guide to sacred geography.

Few Artefacts

Copies of the archaic text, inscribed for Middle Kingdom officials together with their subordinates, had also been discovered on papyri, mummy masks on tomb walls as well as in other coffins. .In some news, it had been disclosed that the grave raiders had looted £700,000 of gold from the tomb of Pharaoh and were speared as punishment.

 It is one of the few artifacts located in the tomb where several grave raiders had ransacked the grave numerous times during their visits ages ago. This antique book is said to be a fragment of a bigger work considered as the coffin texts.

This comprises of 1,185 spells, together with incantations and religious inscriptions pertaining to the afterlife. This is also said to be a fragment of `The Book of the Dead’. `The Book of the Dead’ considered to be an Egyptian manuscript, is around 20 meters in length. It has magical spells that are inscribed on papyrus.

These have been specially made by the members of the families on the death of their loved one. The intention was to guide them during their journey to their final destination after death to the next world.

No Record/History

The opening of the tomb had given rise to fears of the Ancient Egyptian ‘Curse of the Pharaohs’. The apparent spell considered by some was said to be cast on any person who would disturb the mummy of the Ancient Egyptian beings.

Scientists hope to use the discovery to uncover more of the text's secrets. Not much is related about the Book of Two Ways and its origin. There is no record of when and who had written the same and its details are limited. Scholars and archaeologists have still not been capable of explaining when the engravings could have been written.

Moreover, there is also a risk of making cultural assumptions with regards to the ancient ideas with the prevailing mind-set of the 21st century. The Book of Two Ways, irrespective of its interpretation, is considered to be conveying a message of how death and the life after that seem to play an important role in the cultural mind of a human being. However researchers have some hope of coming across related samples in the near future. They are hoping to utilize the findings to reveal more secrets of the texts they have excavated.
 

Wednesday, October 9, 2019

Gundestrup cauldron: Is It a Celtic Artefact or Indian?

Gundestrup cauldron

Gundestrup Cauldron – Popular Silver Bowl

A popular silver bowl located over hundred years back in a turf swamp in Jutland in Denmark is the Gundestrup Cauldron. It was discovered by peat cutters in a peat bog known as Raevemose. At that point of time, the Danish government offered a reward to the discoverers who consequently fought among themselves over its separation.

Investigations by Palaeobotanical on the peat bog during the time it was located indicated that when the cauldron had been deposited, the land seemed dry and the turf had gradually expanded over it. The mode of heaping over the cauldron indicated an attempt of making it unobtrusive and concealed. Another investigation was conducted in 2002 of Reavemose, and it was assumed that the peat bog could have prevailed when the cauldron had been submerged.

Decorated with Repousse Work


The Gundestrup cauldron comprises of a round-shaped bottom cup, making the lower area of the cauldron known as the base plate. There are five interior plates above and another seven exterior plates. The eighth exterior plate is missing, which needs to encircle the cauldron. There are only two segments of the round rim towards the top of the cauldron.

Apart from the decorated round medallion towards the centre of the interior area, the plate at the base is said to be smooth and not decorated internally and externally. However, the other plates seem to be decorated greatly with repousse work beaten from beneath to move out the silver. Other procedures had been utilised to add more aspect bringing out wide trimming together with some use of decorated pieces of glass for the figures. Overall the weight of the Gundestrup cauldron is just below 9 kilograms.

Gundestrup: Largest Specimen of European Iron Age


Its exteriors have been richly decorated with various scenes of war and sacrifice, a goddess flanked by elephants such as Gajalakshmi, deities wrestling beasts and a mediating figure with stag’s antlers. The Gundestrup cauldron dates back to the middle of the 2nd century BC.

Taking the elephants into consideration, the iconography should be Indic while the yogic figure in cross-legged Indian pose appears to be Pasupati (Siva). The Gundestrup cauldron is said to be one of the largest specimens of silver of European Iron Age. Its diameter was 69 cm and a height of 42 cm. When the site was excavated, the Gundestrup cauldron was located in a dismantled state together with various other pieces piled beneath the base in a marshland.

cauldron

Elements of Gaulish & Thracian Origin


Though the Gundestrug cauldron was traced in Denmark, it could not have been produced there. Elements of Gaulish and Thracian origin signs have been seen in the workmanship, metallurgy and images. Procedures and basics of the style of the panel are connected with the Thracian silver, and most of the description of the human figure is linked to the Celts.

However several attempts to connect the scene with that to the Celtic mythology seem to be questioned. Another characteristic of the iconography has originated from the Near East. Hospitability probably was the responsibility of the Celtic leaders. Though the cauldron seems to be an important item of prestige metalwork, they are generally smaller and plain.

Gundestrup: Variation of Female-Male depiction


The Gundestrug cauldron had been traced in parts, and the same had to be reassembled. Sophus Muller determined the traditional order of the plated and was the first to analyse the cauldron. He utilises his reasoning on the positions of the trace solder placed towards the rim of the bowl.

A puncture sign in two cases tends to penetrate the interior and exterior plated supporting in creating the order. In its concluding stage, the plates are placed in a variation of female-male depiction and presuming that the missing plate could be of a female. However, not all the analysts are in agreement with Muller’s comparison.

According to Timothy Taylor, the art historian, he stated that besides the two cases of puncturing, the comparison cannot be determined from the point of view of the solder alignment. He debates that the plates do not seem to be directly adjacent to each other. They tend to be divided by a 2 cm distance. Hence the plate in this order is not to be read with conviction as the true narrative, should one exist.

Carved By Indian Craftsmen


As per some of the historians, the Gundestrup cauldron had been carved by craftsmen of Indian origin in Thrace. The National Museum of Denmark has raised this question, ‘The Gundestrup cauldron’s motifs draw the observer into an alien universe far from that of the people who deposited in the bog in north Jutland.

Elephants, lions and several unknown gods, represented in a different style, indicate that the cauldron originally came from a distant area to the south or southeast. Exactly where it was made is still open to question. Perhaps it was a gift to a great chieftain or could it have been war booty?’ Taylor mentioned in the Scientific American that `a shared pictorial and technical tradition stretched from India to Thrace where the cauldron was made and then to Denmark.

For instance, yogic rituals are inferred from the poses seen of the antler-bearing man on the cauldron and of an ox-headed figure on a seal impress from the city of Mohenjo-Daro. The other three connections are the ritual baths of goddesses with the elephants, Lakshmi is the Indian goddess, Visnu, wheel gods and Hariti, the goddesses with braided hair and paired birds.

Theory of Thracian Origin


The bowl has several features which seem to have some similarity with the ornamental plate from the Thracian grave at Stara Zagora in Bulgaria. Therefore its theory is of Thracian origin. From the observation of the clothing of the figures, it seems to be Indian, considering the woven herringbone tight costumes together with the cummerbund which both the men as well as the women seem to attire themselves with.

It has been presumed that the Gundestrup cauldron had been the work of several silversmiths. With the use of scanning electron microscopy, it has been identified by Benner Larson that 15 various punches had been utilised on the plates. These were categorised into three various toolsets. No single plate had marks of more than one of these sets which portray that at least three diverse silversmiths had worked on it.

Thursday, October 3, 2019

Pashupati Seal- Horned Gods

 Pashupati Seal – Horned Headdress

The finding of the ancient Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro sites has provided a different outlook on the ancient history of this town. The well planned urban spaces together with the town plans, are said to be amazing. Observing the relics discovered at the site has provided important perceptions on the culture of the Indus Valley Civilization (IVC). One of great importance is the `Pashupati Seal’. This well-known seal is said to be the carving of a man having horned headdress.

He has been a subject of celebrated conjecture. Many have been speculating on whether he was a man in a horned headdress or a horned god of devotion. Was this idol a predecessor to the Hindu Shiva? Nonetheless, the Pashupati Seal is not considered to be completely unique. Identical icons have been traced to several cultures of the world.

Seals – Trade Mechanisms


The seal has been engraved on a chip of steatite which is a soft stone, resistant to decay and soft for carving. With the discovery of the significant number of the seals, it has led. Some of the scholar with the opinion that seals cutting had been one of the leading industries of Harappan settlements. The work of art of these seals portrays a representation of the religious character and the kind of culture as well as the social life of the people of that age.

The pictographic inscription seen on the Pashupati seal is of great importance since they give some insight into the language used by the people of that age. It could probably be that seals were utilised as a part of trade mechanisms. Indication of religious belief and practices of the people is also gathered from these seals.

Ancient Depictions


The Pashupati Seal is considered to be one of the ancient depictions of the Hindu god Shiva. Pashupati means `lord of animals, and it is one of the epithets of Shiva or probably Rudra. These are connected with asceticism, yoga and linga and regarded as the lord of animals. The seal had been discovered in 1928-29, Block 1, Southern area of the DK-G vicinity of Mohenjo-Daro.

It had been located at a depth of 3.9 meters beneath the surface. The excavation had been carried out by Ernest J. H. Mackay at Mohenjo-Daro. He had dated the seal to the Intermediate 1 Period presently considered to be around 2350-2000 BCE. According to his report of 1937-38, he had numbered the Pashupati Seal as 420, providing it with its alternate name.

Pashupati Seal Initial Report & Analysis


Archaeologist, John Marshall had provided an initial report and analysis of the iconography of the Pashupati Seal. He had served as the Director-General of the Archaeological Survey of India and had headed the excavations of the Indus Valley sites. He perceived the central figure as a male deity with three faces and probably a fourth one facing the back. The figure is seen seated in yogic position on a throne with bangles on both arms along with the headdress. Images of five symbols of the Indus script are seen on both the sides of the headdress.

This is made up of two outward extended curved horns of buffalo style together with two upward jutting points. Towards the centre of the headdress, a sole branch having three pipal leaves is seen. Seven bangles on the left arm and six on the right are seen where the hands have been placed on the knees. The heels are positioned together beneath the groin while the feet are seen projecting away from the edge of the throne. Carvings at the feet of the throne are similar to those of the hoof of a bovine, seen on the bull and the unicorn seals. On the back of the seal, a grooved and perforated boss is seen.

Legend & Art – Strength & Beauty


These animals have stirred plenty of legend and art with their strength and beauty. Horns could be connected with power and virility since the finest bulls tend to have the biggest and the most splendid horns. In truth, powdered horns of animals have been prescribed and consumed in some area of Asian societies, illegally.

The Indus Valley unicorn seals may have been examples of the ancient myths with regards to strange and supernatural horned animals. The horned idol on the Pashupati Seal could be interpreted as Bada Dev or Mahadev, the main idol of several tribal societies. It is observed that the meditating yogi is heavily decorated with jewellery and his arms are totally covered with bangles. These were the features which the dokra craft utilised in the tribes of Chhattisgarh.

Pashupati Seal, Utilised as Modern Identity Cards


Several seals have been found from the sites generally made of steatite and some of agate, chert, copper, terracotta and faience. These depicted beautiful images of animals like unicorn bull, tiger, elephant, rhinoceros, bison, buffalo goat and much more. The main intention of the same could be commercial. They were also utilised as amulets worn by the person or probably as modern identity cards. The standard size of the Pashupati Seal was 2 x 2 square inches.