Thursday, March 19, 2020

Papyrus 46- New Testament papyri

Papyrus 46

Papyrus 46 – Unfinished Papyrus Manuscript

Papyrus 46 is said to be an unfinished papyrus manuscript comprising mostly of the Pauline epistles in Greek. It was one of the ancient remaining manuscripts of the early Christian documents, originally written approximately in 52-58 CE. Papyrus 46 is said to be inscribed between 175 and 250 CE. It is the only surviving manuscripts of the New Testament.

 No one is aware of the origin of the papyrus though it was possibly discovered among the ruins of the first Christian church or abbey. The manuscript had been broken up by the dealer, after its discovery which took place in Cairo.

In 1930, Chester Beatty had purchased 10 leaves, while 6 were attained in 1931 and 24 in 1933 by the University of Michigan. In 1935 he purchased 46 leaves more and his achievements now tends to form part of the Chester Beatty Biblical Papyri, eleven manuscripts of scriptural material.

Papyrus 46 Identified – Cairo - 1930 

It was in 1930, that the leaves of the document was first identified among the stuffs of a innate relics vendor in Cairo which was purchased without any delay by private collector, Mr. Chester Beatty of London. Thereafter the remaining of the manuscript was acquired from the same dealer by Beatty and the representatives of the University of Michigan.

The earliest extensive New Testament script which existed is said to be a somewhat damaged papyrus of Paul’s epistles around the year 200. It comprised of eighty-six leaves, which measured around 11 by 6.5 inches. Originally it was presumed to comprise of 104 leaves, wherein eighteen leaves now seemed to be missing from the beginning and towards the end.

Existing leaves includes the last eight chapters of Romans, mostly of Hebrews; almost all of 1-2 Corinthians, all of Ephesians, Galatians, Philippians, Colossians together with two chapters of 1 Thessalonians. Due to corrosion, all of the leaves of Papyrus 46 are said to have lost some lines towards the bottom of the leaves.

Papyrus 46 Examined – Micro Graph Form

Initially the document had been examined by prominent researcher Frederic G. Kenyon, in micro graph form. Kenyon made great efforts to discover the susceptibilities of the scribe of Papyrus 46. He also made attempts to determine the number of lines for each page and letters for each line in order to evaluate the contents of the missing pages.

The data gathered from Papyrus 46 would have been utilised by the transcriber for calculating on the quantity of writing material needed. Moreover it would have also been helpful in getting some insight on the fee which the transcriber gathered for each line of the services rendered by them. It was observed from the existing page numbers, that seven leaves were lost from the beginning of Papyrus 46.

This synchronizes impeccably with the length of the lost parts of Roman, which it certainly contained. Since the manuscript had been designed from the mass of papyrus leaves folded from the centre, in the style of a magazine, the outer seven sheets, comprising of the first and last seven leaves of the manuscripts seemed to be lost. Matter from the seven missing leaves towards the end is vague since they has been lost.

Queries – Analysis of Kenyon

According to Kenyon’s calculation, 2 Thessalonians would need two leaves, where only five leaves are left (10 pages), for the remaining canonical Pauline writings. 1 Timothy (considered 8.25 pages, 2 Timothy – 6 pages, Titus – 3.5 pages, Philemon – 1.5 pages all totalling to ten leaves were needed. Kenyon was of the opinion that Papyrus 46 did not contain the pastorals and this prevailed for several decades.

New study however had raised queries regarding the analysis of Kenyon. Initially, Kenyon had not accounted for the fact that the average letter for each page of the transcriber had been increasingly deep in the text. It was observed that there were half as many letters on each page in the last pages than what was in the centre leaves.

This was somewhat owing to the outer leaves being wider than the inner leaves. However there seemed to be more letters towards the outer leaves at the back in comparison to the front outer leaves. This specified that some compression could have taken place at some point of time portraying that transcriber had been conscious of the issue he created for inclusion of the pastorals. He then had made attempts compensating for the same on realising the error done.

CSNTM – High resolution Images

Furthermore, the Centre for the Study of New Testament Manuscripts – CSNTM were capable of taking high resolution images of the earlier manuscript. On scrutiny of the fresh images, the CSNTM were of the opinion that the lower quality microfilm of Kenyon was somewhat twisted which led him to misjudge on the writing space the transcriber had utilised in the completion of his work.

It was found that at least 3 of his measurements had been miscalculated by 3mm and another one by 5mm. The flaw on measurement had then been compounded over the remaining manuscript leading him to underestimate on the space the transcriber utilised for completing his work. Daniel B. Wallace, who performed measurement only on few leaves, suggested that further study would be essential.

It has been detected that all through Romans, Hebrews and the concluding chapters of 1 Corinthians, small and thick strokes or dots, generally considered to be that of the reader instead of the transcriber of the manuscript. On examination it was found that the ink seemed much lighter than what was found on the text. They seems to indicate divisions which are likely to verse numbering found in Bible as well in parts of Papyrus 45.

Papyrus 46 Nomina Sacra

Papyrus 46 could be some evidence of reading in the community held for both the manuscripts. Edgar Ebojo made a case that the `reading signs’ with or without space could be of some help to the readers most probably with regards to liturgical perspective.

Nomina Sacra, in Christian scribal training is said to be the abbreviation of various regular happenings of divine name or titles, particularly in Holy Scriptures in Greek manuscripts. A Nomina Sacra comprises of two or more letters for the new word crossed by an overline.

From Traditional to Modern: The Role of Women in the Household

Nowadays, it is relatively common for most women to be out there in the work field toiling and persevering to provide for their families. Years of change and social evolution have transformed the traditional Filipina--who was expected to be well-versed in housekeeping and taking care of children--into the independent and empowered woman who can juggle between work and their life at home.

Today, the roles of women in the household manifest in different ways. Here are some of them.

Being the Breadwinner 

Back in the day, women were tasked to stay at home, keep the house in perfect order, and take care of any children she might have. Meanwhile, her husband goes to work and provides for his family.

Now, many companies are made up of independent women who work hard to be successful and earn money to pay bills, buy groceries, and afford any other form of spending. The modern woman can even be a stay-at-home mom while still working, especially if she can find a coworking space near her home. She can be successful these days thanks to more flexible working arrangements and online opportunities.

Jane of All Trades, Master of All 

Women have mastered the art of multi-tasking and juggling between work and play. Whether it’s finishing household chores, taking care of younger siblings or their own children, or finishing tasks before the deadline, most women of today can create a balance between their professional and personal lives without compromising too much of either.

Two Heads are Better Than One 

Women have also evolved into being one of the decision-makers in the house, particularly when it involves spending money. It is more efficient and more helpful if a woman and her partner equally agree on how to budget wisely for their daily expenses.

Women making decisions isn’t limited to budgeting or choosing between buying or renting a house, especially if it involves moving into the city. Then, there is the decision to choose where--in Mandaluyong or Makati, perhaps? The modern woman will weigh the pros and cons for everyone in the family before deciding. They have also learned the art of deciding what’s best and safe for their homes, the people they love, and their overall well-being.

Nurturing 24/7 

Perhaps one quality that women have kept until now is their nurturing personality. While society still deems women to be the soft, delicate, and emotional type, there is no doubt that a woman’s nurturing instinct is steadfast and crucial for raising children and keeping households loving and harmonious.

Women can also extend their nurturing persona beyond their homes. From being gentle to co-workers to being an attentive listener to friends, from being careful with handling tasks to being firm and independent, a woman can be nurturing and empowered at the same time.

Despite the many changes in gender roles, the modern woman remains to be a resilient being who can foster balanced relationships between their jobs, their families, and their personal goals.

Saturday, March 14, 2020

Book of Shadows- Elixir of Knowledge

Book of Shadows

Bricket Wood Coven

The Book of Shadows, had initially been presented by Gerald Gardner in 1950s, to those whom he had introduced into the craft through his Bricket Wood coven. According to him it was a private recipe book of enchantments which was useful to the owner. They could copy from his own book, and add or delete the contents according to their choice.

He was of the opinion that the preparation of witches maintaining this book was ancient, which was practiced by them in ancient times. Gardner claims that after the death of the person, the book would be burnt down. This was carried out to ensure that no one would know that the person was a witch. However no mention has been made by Gerald Garner of anything as a `Book of Shadows’, in his 1949 novel with regards to mediaeval witchcraft – High Magic’s Aid.

According to Doreen Valiente, High Priestess, this was because Gardner had not been aware of the idea at that point of time and had invented it only after he had written the novel. Doreen Valiente was of the opinion that the term `Book of Shadows’, was found by Gardner from a 1949 edition – Volume 1, Number 3 of a magazine which was called The Occult Observer. She claimed that in this edition, it had been an advertisement for his novel, High Magic’s Aid. This was opposite an article known as `The Book of Shadows’, written by palmist Mir Bashir.

Book of shadows- Ancient Sanskrit Prediction

The said article related to an apparently ancient Sanskrit prediction manual, which elaborated on how to prophesy instances based on the length of the shadow of a person. Valiente speculated that Gardner had adopted this term for his magic spell textbook.

She appreciated the name of the book, from whichever source Gardner may have found it. Later on, a leather bound manuscript which had been handwritten by Gardner, titled `Ye Bok of Ye Art Magical’, had been located from his papers after his death in the Museum.

 This was found by Aidan Kelly which was later on acquired by Richard and Tamarra James of the Wiccan Church of Canada. This seemed to be the first draft of the Book of Shadows of Gardner featuring sections related to the ceremonials of the Ordo temple Orientis.

This was formulated by the occultist Aleister Crowley. Access to these ceremonials was gained by Gardner in 1946 when he had acquired a contract from Cowley providing him approval to execute the OTO ceremonials.

Book of shadows Considered as Evidence

It had been considered as evidence by some of the folks, that Gardner had invented this notion of a textbook of spells probably between 1946 and 1949, when he had completed his High Magic’s Aid novel. Later he had named it Ye Bok of Ye Art Magical. Towards 1949, he had again renamed it to the Book of Shadows and started utilising it with his Bricket Wood Coven. Doreen Valiente merged with Gardner’s Bricket Wood Coven in 1953 and soon became its High Priestess.

She investigated how much of the material of his Book of Shadows had been taken from prehistoric sources as claimed by Gardner originally. However it was not taken from prehistoric sources but from the occultist Aleister Crowley from Aradia or the books of the Witches, from the Key of Solomon as well as from the ceremonials of Freemasonry.

She challenged Gardner regarding this who had acknowledged that the text he had obtained had been incomplete from the New Forest coven. He admitted that he had to fill in much by utilising numerous sources. He stated to Valiente saying that if she could do better, then she should go ahead.

Book of shadows- Accepted Challenge

Valiente on her part found that she was capable of doing it and stated that ‘I accepted the challenge and set out to rewrite the Book of Shadows, cutting out the Crowleyanity as much as I could and trying to bring it back to what I felt was, if not so elaborate as Crowley’s phraseology, at least our own and in our own words’.

Valiente rephrased most of it, cutting out numerous sections which had come from Crowley, (since she feared his negative reputation). However she maintained the parts which had been initiated from Aradia or the books of the Witches, since she sensed they were normal witchcraft practice. She rewrote radically sections like the Charge of the Goddess as well as various poems like The Witches Rune. Moreover she also assisted in creating poem comprising of the Wiccan Rede in it.

Valiente also observed in one ceremonials that a chant was based on a poem, ‘A Tree Song’, from Puck of Pook’s Hill by Rudyard Kipling. This she had enjoyed as a child. The said chant stated that, ‘This version of the ritual, written by both Gardner and Valiente, but containing sections adopted from various sources, such as Aleister Crowley, Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches and even Rudyard Kipling, went on to become the traditional text for Gardnerian Wicca’.

Tuesday, March 10, 2020

Anunnaki- Sumerian Gods and Goddesses


Anunnaki – Sumerian God of Sky

Anunnaki is the resultant of An, which is the Sumerian god of the sky. Anunnaki has been considered to be the descendants of An and his spouse, the earth goddess Ki. According to Samuel Noah Kramer, Ki has been identified with the Sumerian mother goddess Ninhursag asserting that they were initially the identical figure.

Enlik, was said to be the oldest of the Anunnaki, who was the god of air and chief god of the Sumerian pantheon. The Sumerian were of the belief that till the birth of Enlil heaven and earth had been inseparable. It was when Enlil had slashed between heaven and earth into two parts and had carried away the earth, his father An, had carried away the sky and this separation between heaven and earth took place.

Anunnaki Worship

The appearance of the Sumerian on the archaeological record stated it to be around 4,500 BCE. The region, Mesopotamia located in the present day Iraq, has been referred as `the `cradle of civilization’. Initially, Sumer had been a city-states which was governed by priest. Each of these priest, controlled a city and temple which is presently known as `ziggurats’. These dedicated to Anunnaki worship, were said to be layered pyramids having flat tops and these communities were considered as servant-slave populations who had to serve Anunnaki, the temple gods.

Skilled Trade Merchants With the passage of time, this priesthood ruler-ship gave rise to the reign of kings. The Sumerians were known to be skilled trade merchants who learned lapis lazuli from Afghanistan. They obtained gold from the Indus Valley and cedar from Lebanon. The history of Sumerian had been established from archaeological and geologic evidences.

It is said that the engraved chronicles were in the form of cuneiform tablets. According to reports, around half a million tablets were excavated. However only a small number of the same could be translated. Great insight has been achieved from these translations of Babylonian records. During the Babylonian era, Sumer had been considered as an `ancient’ city. Anunnaki was worshipped by the Sumerians.

Findings about Anunnaki

Author Michael Cremo `Forbidden Archaeology’ had carried out study on the history of archaeology for over 40 years. His recording details had been left out from the mainstream, academic archaeology since these discoveries would unsettle the extensively acknowledged story of human backgrounds. Cremo together with author Zecharia Sitchin, Erich von Daniken, author of Chariots of Gods, and research cum author Michael Tellinger and many others had been debating that Anunnaki were off-world beings construed as gods.

Anunnaki Chthonic Deities of the Underworld

Sumerian winged god
The Anunnaki in Inanna’s Descent into the Netherworld, have been depicted as seven judges sitting before the throne of Ereshkigal in the Underworld. The later text of Akkadian, like the Epic of Gilgamesh, trails this depiction. The Anunnaki, during the Old Babylonian era were said to be the chthonic deities of the Underworld and the gods of heaven were considered as Igigi.

The early Hittites recognise the Anunnaki as the oldest generation of gods who had been defeated and expelled to the Underworld by the younger gods. They have featured in the present pseudo-archaeological works like the books of Erich von Daniken and Zecharia Stichin. According to theory it states that the sky gods considered the human race as slave class.

These theories have given rise to the understanding of `ancient astronaut’ hypothesis speculated that off-world being could been considered as gods to influence human affairs for ages. Many were of the opinion that Anunnaki had been extracting huge amount of gold engaging human labor.

Cultured Astronomical & Mathematical Understanding

This information has been gathered from the various findings from ancient mining tunnels in South Africa. Besides theses, the relics and links to the Sumerians has also made its contribution to the information.

Tellinger has commented stating that no one is aware as to why they needed the gold or how much of it had been taken. He added further that the Anunnaki had make known the concept of money, finance together with debt to human societies. There is also a possibility that the off-world gods brought about advanced technologies which accounts for refined megastructures like the pyramids or Stonehenge.

Rare artifacts together with the discoveries of tool have make their contribution to these premises. Besides this, the Sumerians have also been known for cultured astronomical as well as mathematical understanding which is probably presumed to be passed on from the Anunnaki. Though we find no trace of the Anunnaki pantheon, it is known that every Sumerian city-state had its individual Annunaki god that had been assigned by a senior Annunaki Marduk.

According to others motivated by Theosophical Society founder Helene Blavatsky’s book – The Secret Doctrine, are of the opinion that Annunaki could be a reptilian race which survives till date. They further believe that they are deeply rooted in human affairs. Blavatsky in her book mentioned about `dragon men’ who had influenced the lost Lemurian civilization.

Wednesday, January 1, 2020

Ancient Cave Paintings Show Unexplained Knowledge Of Solar System

Ancient Cave Paintings

Ancient Cave Paintings – Innovative Awareness of Astronomy

Some old cave paintings have been discovered which reveals how the ancient people had innovative awareness of astronomy. A group of scientists have located a series of Ancient cave paintings and drawings strategically left in the open in the caves. This could be kept by the primeval team of Native American settlers which portray their solar understanding of their world in which they lived.

An archaeologist at the University of Tennessee, Jab Simek commented, `the subject matter of this artwork, what they were drawing pictures of, we knew all along was mythological, cosmological. They draw pictures of bird men that are important characters in their origin stories and in their hero legends, and so we knew it was a religious thing and because of that, we knew that it potentially referred to this multi-tiered universe that was the foundation of their cosmology’.

Initial Depiction – Ancient cave paintings are 6000 Years

Art from around 44 open areas together with 50 cave sites were examined by Simek and his researchers. The initial depiction of this type of solar stratification dates back to about 6000 years back though most of the art seems latest dating around the 11th to the 17th centuries.

It was also observed by the scientists that some types of depictions together with the Ancient cave paintings seemed to be in particular locations of the plateau. Open areas for instance, in high altitudes, which were touched by the sun, featured `upper world’ artistic version. This comprised of portrayals of heavenly bodies, weather forces and characters which tend to exert influence on humans.

Star Constellation in Sky

Drawings and Ancient cave paintings of `lower world’, were the dark areas such as caves which had been concealed from the sun. Generally this kind of layer is related to danger, darkness and death.

The `middle world’ on the other hand is characteristic of the realism surrounding prehistoric human on regular base. The Ancient cave paintings were discovered in open air setting as well as the caves, though they were traced in the midst of raised up areas of the plateau. Simek had mentioned in a statement that this layered universe had been a platform for various actors which comprised of heroes, creatures and monsters which could get across the levels.

As per the analysis, it submits that the artworks located at the site throughout Europe, the Ancient cave paintings are not just drawings of wild animals which were earlier presumed. On the contrary the animal character portrays star constellations in the sky at night. These are utilised to represent dates and mark events like the comet strikes.

Refined knowledge of Stars

They have arrived at an understanding that probably 40,000 years ago, the ancient people had refined knowledge of the stars and kept note of the time utilising knowledge based on the position of the stars and its gradual changes in the night sky, over thousands of years.

Simek mentioned that though the Ancient cave paintings of several of the actors had been located in low, high and middle elevations, the colour correlated the overall cosmological structure of the universe.

The character carved in red, were the colour of life. These were located in higher locations while black had been utilised to draw figures found in the lower world. Simek informed LiveScience that `the main thing noticed in all this is the images of human which is known as anthropomorphs.

 All of them are not humans and some of them are mythological people or those who tend to blend the characteristics of animal and humans’

Astronomical Calendars Monitoring Equinoxes

The Ancient cave paintings of the universe could also be helpful in getting some insight on the modern world.

Simek informed that `it is very common human conception that there are different levels of beings and different levels of cognition and different levels of connectivity with the human condition’. He was of the opinion that all people at one level or the other tend to do that.

One of the oldest obsessions of humans is astronomy which dates back to ancient times. Prior to the Scientific Revolution teaching that the Sun is the centre of the Solar System and the modern astronomy disclosed the fact of our galaxy and the Universe, the people of the ancient times observed the night sky and the patterns of the stars.

The scholars for some time were of the belief that comprehending the difficult astronomical phenomena such as the precession of the equinoxes did not precede the ancient Greeks.In their recent discovery, researchers from the Universities of Edinburgh and Kent portrayed how Ancient cave paintings which date back to 40,000 years could in fact be astronomical calendars monitoring the equinoxes and keeping track of main happenings.

Main Astronomical Occasions Detailed in the Ancient cave paintings

Decoding European Palaeolithic Art- Extremely Ancient knowledge of Precession of the Equinoxes, the study made by the team had appeared in the Athens Journal of History. The study team comprised of Martin B, Sweatman – an associate professor at the University of Edinburgh’s School of Engineering, together with Alistair Coombs, researcher and PhD at the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Kent.

Sweatman and Coombs had assessed the details of the Paleolithic and Neolithic artof animal symbols at sites in Turkey, France, Spain and Germany. The same system of date-keeping was discovered at these sites though it had been formed by the ancient people living thousands of kilometres and years apart.

As per the study of the team the Ancient cave paintings had not only depicted wild animals as presumed earlier but represented star constellation in the night sky. These carvings had probably been utilised to present dates and mark main astronomical occasions. It was eventually concluded that the ancient people kept track of time by observing the precession of the equinoxes.

This is related to the occurrences where the constellations seem to move in cycle in the sky spanning a period of around 25,920 years. This is the outcome of the axial precession, a slow though continuous change in the orientation of rotational axis of the astronomical body.

To an observer, the equinoxes would seem to shift westward towards the ecliptic comparatively to the background stars and in the reverse track of the Sun.