Tuesday, July 6, 2021

Types of Corrosion-Resistant Coating

Types of Corrosion-Resistant Coating

Today, many industries choose to work with lightweight metals and use them as parts of their machinery because they have versatility. These metals like magnesium, titanium, and aluminum have played essential roles in aerospace, automotive, and consumer workplaces. Their combination of exceptional strength and abundance is just two of the reasons why engineers prefer them all over the world.

Some of the alloys may competently offer corrosion resistance, even if a coating does not treat them. However, the surface treatments are inevitable in the finished product if the owners want longevity and maximum performance. A corrosion-resistant coating is needed to prevent attacks from molten salts and other chemicals. These methods will also prevent the process of galvanic corrosion where two different metals come in contact with each other, and the less “noble” one will suffer accelerated wearing away.

For example, magnesium is well-known for its corrosion resistance. However, others may not be aware that the 7xxx, 2xxx, and other aluminum alloys related to the high-strength families are susceptible to corrosion and resistance.

Selecting suitable methods is very important, and they are usually incorporated with the manufacture and component design. Some of the ways have unique advantages, but they can pose potential issues as well. Others are combining the coating and treatments that will help the metals last longer. Some of the methods that you may need may be the following:

1. Anodizing

One of the more popular methods of improving the resistance of aluminum against wearing is anodization. It can involve a lot of steps in the corrosion-resistant coats when it comes to this metal. Read more about anodizing on this site here.

The first few stages may involve immersion inside a bath where the solution is conductive. This bath usually contains a low pH acid, and it connects the alloys of the anode to the electrical circuit. When there’s a current that’s applied, an oxidation reaction will occur.

The natural oxide will be thicker, which will serve as the first outer layer of the aluminum oxide. Some of the thicknesses are usually altered by an extension of the coating time. This is offering various application ranges:

  • When the coating is applied lately, this can be a good initial treatment for paint and any other subsequent coating that will be used in the future. 
  • Specific color effects are achieved, especially if there’s dye involved
  • Thin layers like the ones which are less than 20μm preserve the aesthetic of the metal type, and it’s translucent in nature.

The decision involving the coating will play a significant role in determining the resistance in conditions where they are used outdoors. The under-intensive indoor stress can be a minimum of 20μm, and this is recommended. Layers of at least 10μm are recommended for extra thickness. The higher voltage addition can crack the protective oxide layers and make the metal more porous.

The cracks often occur on the corners of the metal, limiting the edge and protection offered by the anodizing layers. The hot water seals are also used for more substantial protection, but a more effective one is utilized to help solutions like sodium dichromate or nickel acetate.

2. Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation or PEO

Types of Corrosion-Resistant Coating
PEO involves the utilization of plasma discharges to help change the surfaces of light metals. The qualities are both dense and complex. Learn more about PEO here: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34067483/.

The components of the metals are put into a bath with electrical charges. The current will be used to grow the layers uniformly on the surface. The PEO can occur in three stages which are the following:

  1. The substrate’s oxidation as what is seen on the anodizing process 
  2. Start of the co-deposition of the electrolytes in the coatings 
  3. Modifications of the resulting layer through plasma discharges

The wear-resistant coats from the PEO are also complex, and they are made for lightweights including magnesium, titanium, and aluminum. When comparing the PEO to the anodized coating, this has a higher chemical passivity and hardness that is very advantageous towards the pore structures. It creates stronger adhesion and high strain tolerances.

Aside from the chemical and physical characteristics, this process is considered to be eco-friendly. This is because the benign electrolytes are available to be used later on, and the by-products of the oxidation process are usually non-toxic. The electrolytes are free from heavy metals, ammonia, acids, and chromium. While the lower concentrations of the alkaline solutions can be easily disposed of, they are common hazards.

3. Chromate Conversion Coats

One of the best and most effective methods is called chromate conversion coating. However, the increased scrutiny of the government and regulatory manufacturing processes has led to the gradual phasing of this corrosion resistance technique.

This is used to clean the metallic surfaces as well as the various additives. The chemistries can differ in a wide range, but techniques may include potassium chromate, sodium, chromic acid, and dichromate solutions. The utilization of the additives has risen to cause the redox reactions while leaving the passive film containing IV oxide and the substrate metal’s hydrated compounds. This is providing a higher corrosion resistance overall.

Higher protection will stem from the ability of the chromium compound to reform the oxide film in a damaged area to the coating that was exposed to the oxygen in the atmosphere. This is often referred to as a self-healing process, and this uses a similar mechanism in the creation of stainless steel.

Wednesday, May 19, 2021

Derinkuyu Underground City of Cappadocia- History Mystery

Derinkuyu Underground City of Cappadocia- History Mystery

Apart from the Seven Wonders of the World, many more bizarre and fascinated sites existed globally that can be acknowledged as a wonder of the world. However, one of the sites in Turkey requires special attention. Derinkuyu Underground City in Cappadocia, Turkey is such a charismatic city where tourists get captivated by the incredible view of rock and archeology.

This article will explore the incredible place of nature, the mysterious Underground City Turkey known as Derinkuyu and its ten undiscovered facts.

About the Underground City- Derinkuyu-

Derinkuyu Underground City in Cappadocia, Turkey, is the most famous and massive subterranean retreat engraved into soft volcanic rock in the 8th–7th centuries B.C. by the Phrygians. The city dealt as a dwelling from invasions. The city is 60 meters deep and is linked with other underground cities by tunnels for kilometers. The town has a chapel, a religious school, storage rooms, refectories. The moving stone doors blocked the access to the city and from outside left no evidence of a secret entrance. It provides enough shelter to over 20,000 people.

In 1963 while renovating a house in Cappadocia, a Turkish man took out a wall in his basement and was surprised to found an entire room behind it. After further digging, a complex network of spaces at hundred feet beneath the Earth was revealed. Later, it turned out to be the ancient multilevel underground city, carved into the same rock that grows in mesmerizing shapes above ground. Today most of it is welcoming for tourists.

How was Derinkuyu formed?

Ancient volcanic eruptions are the sole cause of the existence of Derinkuyu Underground City in Cappadocia, Turkey. Several million years ago, layers upon layers of ash, built up and eventually transform into a stable molten rock that's also capable of being sculptured. Long after the explosions, Cappadocia citizens understood that they could create their residences into the rock and underground.

Why was the Underground City Built?

The most famous underground city Turkey was constructed in the Byzantine era by its residents to prevent themselves from Muslim Arabs during the Arab-Byzantine Wars between 780 and 1180. Some historians suggest that the Phrygians first building the tunnels to carved their living spaces into the region’s soft volcanic rock between the 8th and 7th centuries BCE. 


After a while, the Phrygian language was replaced by Greek during the Roman era, and Christian residents keep working on the underground cities adding their own cultural and religious requirements such as churches and Greek inscriptions.

The city keeps on preventing their residents from the 14th century when again Christian required a secure place from Mongolians during the assaults on Timur. Once again, it prevents the residents during the Ottoman era, when security was obliged by the Turkish Muslim rules.

Moreover, during the 20th century, the caves were approved to preserve themselves from persecution administered during the Ottoman Empire. It was not until 1923 that the underground cities were totally surrendered after the population exchange between Greece and Turkey and then not rediscovered till 1963. Then a resident found a rare room behind a wall inside his house, and the rest is history!

What is the ten undiscovered Fact of the Underground City Turkey?

The massive subterranean retreat has protected thousands of people in times of crisis. Hence, it has also held several unusual and bizarre realities. So let’s find out ten significant facts of this subterranean city-

  1. The city has an interface of 1500 airing channels that gave pure air to the city’s citizens. These 1500 air-conditioning channels are attached to a 55 meters long ventilation shaft used as a well. 
  2. The city has a vast network of sloping corridors, stepped pits, shafts, and galleries that combine public areas and family apartments. 
  3. Even tombs are found in the city that were probably used for placing dead until the conditions outside were suitable enough for suitable disposal. 
  4. Turkish Department of Culture states that the caverns were initially built during the 7th – 8th B.C., but the town was ultimately completed during the Byzantine Era. This city was in use as late as the early 20th century by the local Cappadocia Greeks. This was reported by a Cambridge scholar identified as Dawkins, who examined between 1909 and 1911. Dawkins addressed: “when the news came of the recent massacres at Adana, a great part of the population at Axo took refuge in these underground chambers, and for some nights did not venture to sleep above ground.” 
  5. The town has numerous large round stone doors that were carefully scaled and were meant for sealing entrances during attacks. 
  6. Not every stage of the city had surface-connected pits to stop poisoning by invading armed forces. 
  7. There are additional rooms that were reasonably used to the left of the school as a place of study. 
  8. Staircases from the 3rd and 4th floor headed to the cruciform church established below the town. 
  9. Of those 200 plus underground towns, the Derinkuyu underground city captivates the recognition because of its exceptional deepness. 
  10. The most exciting fact about the town is that it has a supply of clean running water and fresh air yet at the deepest spot notwithstanding its great base.

Consequently, the structure holds a unique archeological design that is the cause of becoming a tourist attraction. If you find this article helpful, then share this on your social media handles!

Monday, April 12, 2021

History Mystery: Lost Golden City Unearthed in Egypt

History Mystery: Lost Golden City Unearthed in Egypt

A 3,000-year-old city of Egypt is discovered that is lost under the sands is the most significant archaeological breakthrough since the tomb of Tutankhamun.

Zahi Hawass, an Egyptian archaeologist, has reported the “lost golden city” near Luxor from pharaonic times. Some artifacts, tools, rings, scarabs, coloured pottery vessels, and mud-brick houses bearing seals of Amenhotep’s cartouche that were unseen for centuries have also been found.

Zahi Hawass reported that Luxor’s southern province’s mortuary city was encountered under an Egyptian mission on Thursday. The town was established more than 3,400 years ago under the Amenhotep III dynasty, the mighty pharaohs, and ruled from 1391 to 1353 BC.

In September, the archeologists’ team began the evacuation and found mud-brick formations in all directions within a few weeks. The site gave a remarkable cast into the ancient Egyptians’ lifestyle when the kingdom was most prosperous. Hawass says that the Egyptian archeologist is overseeing the excavation and expects to find a tomb filled with treasures.

Hawass said that many foreign archeologists team had initiated the mission to solve the history mystery of the lost golden city but failed. The team excavated a massive city with almost perfect walls and rooms packed with utensils of everyday life. Overall, the place is in a good position of preservation.

History Mystery: Lost Golden City

The excavations recline on the West Bank of Luxor near the Medinet Habu, Colossi of Memnon, and the Ramesseum, or mortuary temple of King Ramses II. It is not far from the Valley of the Kings. Hawass added the state of preservation, and the number of items from everyday life brought to mind another famous excavation. The ancient references comprise three of Amenhotep III’s mansions and the empire’s administrative and industrial centre.

Lacovara has worked at the Malqata palace area for more than twenty years, although not involved in the excavation. He has said that it is a kind of historical Egyptian Pompeii, and it signifies the crucial need to uphold this site as an archaeological park.

This is a very remarkable finding,” says Peter Lacovara, director of the US-based Ancient Egyptian Heritage and Archaeology Fund, impart by the Press association.

Betsy Brian, professor of Egyptology at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, US, acknowledged the discovery and considered it the most important Egyptian discovery since Tutankhamun’s tomb. He is also a specialist of Amenhotep III’s reign and mentioned in a statement that the site encompasses a vast amount of ovens and furnaces for making glass and faience. Along with the litter of thousands of statues.

By finding the biggest history mystery, Egypt is looking for a way to raise its ancient legacy and culture to flourish its tourism industry, which has been weakening after ages of political turbulence and turmoil stirred up by the corona virus pandemic.

Saturday, April 10, 2021

Tomb of Cleopatra: History Mystery Undiscovered

Tomb of Cleopatra       Photo: Arrow Media

Cleopatra VII Thea Philopator (“the Father-Loving Goddess”) was born 70/69 BCE and died August 30 BCE, Alexandria. She was a powerful Egyptian queen, famous in history and drama as Julius Caesar’s lover was the last Ptolemaic ruler of Egypt (subside from Ptolemy of Macedonia). Cleopatra ruled an empire that included Egypt, Cyprus, modern-day Libya, and other territories in the Middle East. Let us know more about the tomb of celopatra- the history mystery undiscovered

According to Ptolemy’s tradition, she married their siblings even did not wish to. The last queen of Egypt and pharaoh allured Julius Caesar first and then Mark Antony to facilitate her desires for Egpyt. She gives birth to Caeser’s son, Caesarion, and ultimately committed suicide when Marc Antony was defeated by Octavian, later known as Augustus Caesar. It is still unclear if the queen committed suicide or by an asp. They were buried together, as both of them had wished, and with them was buried the Roman Republic.

Antony and Cleopatra VII - a doomed lover

Antony and Cleopatra VII are the two most doomed lovers of Egyptian history. Antony was a Roman general who, for a time, allied with Octavian, the two jointly ruling over Rome’s expanding empire. Antony spent much of his time in Egypt, where he fell for Queen Cleopatra; the couple bore three children together.

After a falling out, Octavian and Antony left a battle with each other in 32 B.C., with Antony’s navy being defeated at the Battle of Actium encountered in 31 B.C. Octavian’s armies then arrived in Egypt, and Antony and the queen committed suicide in Alexandria in 30 B.C.

The early archaeologists Suetonius and Plutarch both declared that Antony and Cleopatra were embedded together inside a grave. Plutarch recorded that Octavian gave an order that the body of Cleopatra should be buried with that of Antony in glorious and majestic style. However, finding the tomb of Cleopatra and Mark Antony yet undiscovered. 


Tomb of Cleopatra: Mystery Undiscovered

A Theory Put Forward by Kathleen Martínez- a self-taught Archeologist

A grave inholding two mummies entirely coated in gold foil has been unearthed at Taposiris Magna on Egypt’s Mediterranean coast. However, the topographic point was sealed; however, water penetration left the remains miserable and mostly disintegrated the gold foil. To be buried in such made articles of clothing, they have to are people of high rank. This is considered and promoted as a critical clue to the topographic point of the last queen of Egypt.

Kathleen Martínez is the leader of the mining grave and a lawyer. Martínez formed a theory that the tomb of Cleopatra was at Taposiris Magna and convinced Zahi Hawass to allow her quest for it. Martínez works with a crew of Egyptians, and local tribe members is a self-taught archaeologist. In 2005, she cast an idea and asked for two months to discover Egypt’s last queen’s elusive tomb. After fourteen years of excavations, she was only able to found 200 gold coins bearing the queen’s profile.

Very little anthropology matter has endured that is directly associated with the last queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Egypt, most of it consisting of coins release throughout her reign. The written references haven’t any data regarding the situation of her place. 

Plutarch’s narrative of her burial chamber focuses on the material resource it contained and the great drama of her and Mark Antony’s demise days. He remarks that Rome’s Emperor allowed the queen regnant to be interred and embalmed with Mark Antony within the royal place. However, nothing regarding wherever it is located is yet found. 

 History Mystery Undiscovered

Alexandria’s city was once the royal palace of Alexandria has gone through a natural disaster and is now underwater. The tomb of the Ptolemies regimes was made inside the palace boundary. Taposiris Magna was a central port town in Ptolemaic Egypt. It is situated 20 miles west of Alexandria. An immense limestone temple was established there by Ptolemy IV Philopator.

According to the theory formulated by Martínez, Cleopatra cast a grave for herself and Mark Antony in the temple precinct. The reason behind this is assumed that the queen strongly identified with the goddess Isis, consort of Osiris, and wanted them embedded together as incarnations of the deities.

In a decade and a half of mining, Martínez does not discover a legendary tomb, but neither have others. The case with the pair of mummies is the first grave ever reveal inside the temple. However, two priests were unearthed graved at a temple that still shows no clue whatsoever of the presence of the tomb of Cleopatra.

If the theory put forward by her is accurate, then, in that case, she will have put an end to one of Egyptology’s most celebrated mysteries and settled herself as one of the most significant archaeologists in history.

Saturday, April 3, 2021

Twin Towers Attack: Conspiracy Theories Behind It

Twin Towers Attack

Twin towers attack 9/11 would be the massive terrorist attack in American history. It was the day when all Americans came together to help each other. We lost many people that day. Accountants and employers of that building expected a regular day at work when they were killed by a flying plane. The paramedics, firefighters, and police officers had no clue what they were doing and what happened. Most of them died in the line of duty doing what they sacrificed themselves to do.

What happened on 9/11?

On September 11, 2001, a plane was hijacked. The aircraft were encompassing four passengers by the nineteen militants of the influential Islamist terrorist group Al-Qaeda. Around three thousand people were killed as the airplane crossed into the World Trade Center field Pennsylvania and Pentagon.

The hit's result and impact caused the fire in the building and led to the towers' fall. The twin towers attack was intended against New York City and Washington, D.C. It caused massive devastation and extensive death. Many conspiracy theories turn up immediately after the demolition of New York's Twins towers. And which prevail after more than a year and still after two decades.

What are the Conspiracy Theories behind the twin towers attack?

A news report by ADL reveals that anti-Semitic conspiracy theories placing the blame for September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on Jews and Israel. They continue to gain currency worldwide and contribute to a new form of global anti-Semitism. 


These theories are popular among American right-wing extremists, white supremacists, and the Arab and Muslim world. They claim that Israel, not Osama bin Laden, was behind the horrible events of 9/11.

These theories are a new turn on centuries-old accusations charging that Jews manipulate and control world affairs for their benefit. They are willing to wreak destruction on the world to attain dominance. Conspiracists reporting these theories argue that the 9/11 twin towers attack fit into the pattern of deceit, manipulation, and corruption that has been the Jews' "trademark."

In connection with the Internet, the conspiracy theories have prompted a bizarre cross-fertilization of anti-Semitic beliefs between European. Anti-Semites of America on the one hand, and Arab and Muslim anti-Semites other.

Foregrounding and Anti-Government Conspiracy Theory

The chief two believe that government officials had previous information on the interventions. But they did not respond on time. The towers falling were a consequence of controlled destruction to affect intense aircraft collisions.

Thus, it is theorized that a missile knocked the pentagon. But with more proof, theorists are starting to accuse the pentagon. And declare the towers collapsing happened from explosions.

The conspiracist theorists of the 9/11 twin towers attack claim that the U.S. officials had prior knowledge about the attack. For instance, Michael Meacher is a retired British environment minister and member of Tony Blair's government. He said in an interview that the United States was knowingly unsuccessful in preventing the attacks.

Some primary debates if the United States Armed Forces and the Bush authority had prior awareness of the planned attack methods related to Al-Qaeda's activities inside America. The put option of the United Airlines, American Airlines, and other traders designate the prior knowledge. Also, the reason for not publicly disclosing the identities of traders.

Anti-Semitic Basis of 9/11 Conspiracy Theory

According to Anti Defamation League (ADL), Anti-Semitic conspiracists claim that Israeli agents carried out the 9/11 attacks. They allege the only ones with enough cunning and wickedness to commit such an act. Their theories bring the Orders of the Elders of Zion into the 21st era by refreshing a well-known theme: Jews are inherently evil and have a "master plan" to rule the world.

The Devil's Advocate has shifted the level, Conspiracy theories, including Jews, revealing that "The conspiracy theories concentrate on Israel, not Jews."

World Trade Center Conspiracy Theory

The Conspiracy theorists believe that the World Trade Center was the cause of regulated destruction. Conspiracist theorists consider the World Trade Center came down in a controlled demolition. Later, Larry Silverstein decided the best thing to do would be to detonate seven hours after the towers were hit. Theorists believe a plane never crashed because debris was never recovered and where the aircraft would hit would be very small to fit a bigger Boeing 757.

In this case, NIST inspectors discovered destruction to the structure and considered the intense burning, which is the cause of the towers' ultimate fall. WTC 7 might have faced the physical damage it acquired or the fire that burned for hours. But those linked factors, along with the building's unusual construction, were adequate to set off the chain-reaction destruction.

Foreign Government Theory

Some conspiracists believe that the Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) of Pakistan has played a significant role in funding the attack to succeed. There are also alleges that many other foreign intelligence powers, like the Israeli Mossad, had foreknowledge of the attacks. Saudi Arabia may have performed a part in funding the attacks.

There are also alleges that many other foreign intelligence powers, like the Israeli Mossad, had pre-knowledge of the attacks. Saudi Arabia may have performed a part in funding the attacks.

General Hamid Gul is a retired ISI leader. He considers the attacks were an "internal matter" arising in the United States, executed through Israel or neoconservatives.

Francesco Cossiga is the former President of Italy from 1985 until his 1992 retirement over Operation Gladio. He stated that it is general knowledge among the Italian center-left that the 9/11 attacks were a collective action CIA Mossad. A report designated that he did not accept this.

No-planes Conspiracy Theory

Retired lead economist under the Bush administration, Morgan Reynolds within the Labor Development, disputed that any planes are employed in the attack. Reynolds declares that it is absurd that the Boeing aircraft of Flights 11 and 175 could have entered the towers' steel structures. He said that digital compositing was used to represent the aircraft hits in both news stories and amateur video.

Although discussion of no-plane theories is still banned from certain conspiracy theory websites, they advocate that they have sometimes been threatened with violent disturbance by posters at other conspiracy opinion websites.

By understanding at straws and blaming anything other than ridiculous, aimless brutality, Truthers believe that the very trademark of al-Qaeda's campaign. The truthers try to make an order where none exists. In conclusion, the only people they want to consider better themselves.