Monday, July 27, 2020

Wandjina- Spiritual Art Work of Mowanjum People

Wandjina
The spiritual art work of Mowanjum people some four thousand years is called Wandjina. They have found exclusively in Kimberley region of Australia. The people still believe Wandjina paintings posses power and they still treat them with great respect.

According to aboriginal mythology, Wandjina (sometimes named as Wondjina) is god of cloud rain. They are depicted rock art sites spread though out the Kimberley region of Australia. Each rock art site and paintings have different names.

Wandjina- The Spiritual Art Work of Mowanjum People


The Wondjina Paintings were painted predominately using Black, red and yellow on the white background of the rocks. They are of broad-stroke art work. The Sprits depicted in groups and some times in single. The groups of the paintings arranged horizontally or vertically based on the size of the rocks. The paintings depicted the spirits with large upper bodies and heads. They have full body but they lack anatomical detailing.

The Wondjina have larger eyes similar to the eye of storm, nose and without mouse. According to aboriginal, the spirits are more powerful so they do not need a mouth. The Aboriginal believed that Wandjina’s have mouth the rain won’t ease. The headdresses of Wondjina are lines or blocks of colors that depicting the lighting over their heads. To keep the spiritual power within Wondjina Paintings they were repainted annually by the Indigenous people.
The Wondjina is the sacred spirit of the Worrorra, Ngarinyin and Wunumbal tribes of Australia. No one is allowed paint this and the Wondjina image trademarked back in 2015.
Most importantly, Wondjina are radiant and imposing, their dark eyes gazing out from their face spellbind, appearing to rise out from the rock surface.

Friday, July 24, 2020

History of Postal Delivery Services

History of Postal Delivery Services
Now a days, postal service can be run by both private and Government. But in the middle of 19th century government only can run postal delivery service in monopoly. Later part of the century, the postal authorities not only transporting letters and parcels they also taken care of telegraph and telephone service all together. For intercontinental movement they used Shiply later.

 Ancient Postal Delivery System:


At the beginning of 15th century The Roman Emperor Maximilian first established the postal system in his Roman Empire. He first authorizes Franz Von Taxis to run the postal system in his empire successfully. For inter Italian city and states postal delivery service the Emperor permitted Thurn Und Taxis family. In United States, postal system was established in the later years of 17th century. The US postal system was established by the second continental congress with Benjamin Franklin as its first post master general.

The Egypt has the oldest postal service in the world. The Cairo post office department head quarter is functions in the busy street of Ataba. Egyptians developed their postal system, which date back to 2000 B.C., Nile river was used as the main mode of transporting the posts. The postal letters were kept in a box and sealed. They were escorted by the guards throughout the transit. The postal service was run exclusively for the Pharaohs.

Persian Postal System:


In 550 BCE real postal system was developed in Ancient Persia(Iran). The Persian King Cyrus the Great mandated that every region of his kingdom would organize reception and delivery of post to each and every individual citizen. He negotiated with the neighboring countries to follow the same. For the postal service he laid roads from western Iran to the Hakha city in the east.

In India in 322 BCE the Mauryan Empire started the first mail service in the Northern India. Couriers were also used to deliver mails of individuals. And In 13th century the Mysore Kingdom of Mysore used the mail system in the southern India. In the beginning of 19th century The British Raj established the postal system throughout the India. Later it underwent many changes and modernized.
In United Kingdom, the tariff was calculated based on the distance between the sender and the recipient of the letter and the number of pages used in the letter. Later with the postal reform it was worked out country wide flat rate based on the weight of the letter. The fee was levied on the recipient.


The history of Postal Delivery Services is one that goes back many centuries. It is one that involves many different areas and industries that have been involved in the success of this type of service.

The history of Postal Delivery Services is one that is relatively recent in the early part of the 20th century. In this time period, the first deliveries of newspapers were done, which would later become the norm for the next several years.

The history of Postal Delivery Services also involves the first use of a mail's service by a government agency. This would help to make the services of a newspaper more widespread. The history of deliveries/postal services also involves the first use of mail receivers. The use of mail receivers would help to make it easier to deliver goods that are part of postal services. This would help to make it easier for a person to send parcels through mail services.

In the early history of Postal Delivery Services, newspapers were big part of the service. This was one of the first things to change over the years. As it evolved, newspapers began to play a major part in the success of the service.

Methods of Postal Delivery System


One of the first uses of the Postal Delivery Services was to help newspapers with advertising campaigns. As the history of Postal Delivery Services grew, newspapers became more involved with the use of this type of service.

Another part of the Postal Delivery Services is one that involves the first use of a public postal system in a commercial setting. This would help to make the service a more reliable service. This would make the service easier for the service to be used by businesses.

The Postal Service would become a more reliable service over time, which would lead to the use of the Postal Service becoming more widespread in the United States.

There would be different types of goods that would be delivered through the postal services. One of the most popular items that would be delivered would be newspapers, which is why there would be different types of newspapers delivered through the postal system. The first type of newspaper that would be delivered through the mail would be newsprint. Newsprint would be delivered by the mail services through the use of a delivery service. This would help to make it easier for the delivery service to deliver newspapers, which would eventually lead to the use of this type of service being used.

Newspaper Delivery System


The use of the newspaper would continue to evolve over time. This would continue to include the use of newspapers that would be delivered through the postal service.

There would be different methods for the delivery of this type of service, which would include the use of trucks that would be used. This would be used to make it easier for the delivery of newspapers through the mail services. The trucks would be used in order to make the delivery easier.

There would be different types of newspapers that would be delivered through the services of the mail. This would include the use of newspapers that would be delivered through a newspaper delivery service. There would also be the use of newspapers that would be delivered via a post office.
As the Postal Delivery Services evolved over time, there would be the introduction of different types of delivery methods. This would include the introduction of different types of delivery services that would be used.

Friday, June 26, 2020

Narmer Palette- The Ceremonial Engraving

Narmer Palette
The Narmer Palette is an Egyptian Ceremonial engraving. The Chevron shaped stone tablet is over two feet tall. It also is known as the Victory Palette and Great Hierakonopolis Palette. The palette shows the first Dynasty King conquering his foes and uniting upper and lower Egypt. The palette is almost the first of its kind dating back 3200-3000BCE. It also depicts one of the earliest hieroglyphics to date. The tablet is said to be made from a single siltstone and represents the first ceremonial tablet of its kind. The very fact that the tablet is found to be carved on both sides shows that it was used for ceremonial purposes and not of the ordinary kind. The palette intricately depicts the king of the First Dynasty in Egypt defeating his enemies and securing the Approval of the gods for uniting the lower and upper parts of Egypt.

The Narmer Palette Scenes: 


The engraving shows a king defeating is enemies only to unite Egypt under one rule. Traditionally such a King is called Menes- a king of the first dynastic rule of Egypt that united both the lower and upper halves.

Menes was also associated with his predecessor Narmer who also had ambitions of uniting Egypt under one rule using peaceful means. This was according to discoveries made by the BCE historian Manetho. Another ruler who also had aspirations of ruling a unified Egypt was Hor –Aha, Menes’ successor.

Based on earlier records of Manetho the chronology depicts Menes as the first king of Egypt’s dynasty. But since then records have been lost. Piecing back the earlier records however shows that Manetho might have been wrong. Subsequent archeological finds of artifacts and temples shows the view that Menes was the first king to be wrong. When the Narmer palette was eventually found, there was no express sign showing that it belonged to Menes as the King of the first Dynasty in Egypt. As time passed Menes is now come to symbolize the three kings wishing to unite the upper and lower halves of Egypt and not just one king.

Later Egyptologist Flinders Petrie associated Menes with Narmer, claiming that the two were in fact one person. Menes was merely an honorary name meaning “one who endures” and was conferred on Narmer, this was according to Petrie. As for Hor- Aha- the name is again associated with Menes in that the king was also given the honorary title of Menes.

Archeological Finds 


So technically the reference to Narmer was then assumed to be the first king of first dynasty Egypt. The Narmer palette was conferred on him when he united both halves of Egypt under a single rule. The palette shows the king of upper Egypt defeating the then ruler of lower Egypt into uniting Egypt as a whole.

Based on found records and archeological finds Egypt’s unification took place between 3150 BCE to 2680 BCE. Dates for unification of the first dynasty is normally accepted to be 3150BCE but for the second dynasty it is between 2890-2670BCE. This shows that the unification under the second dynasty rule did not last and every king had to put up with civil unrests. Records of the time show that mostly all the unrest was between the lower and upper halves of Egypt and there was no foreign element at play.

Unification under Narmer’s rule was most assuredly done under a military campaign and not through peaceful means. This was as depicted by the palette.

Narmer Palette Depictions: 


On one side of the palette we see Narmer wearing the war crown of Upper Egypt as well as the wicker crown signifying his defeat of Lower Egypt. At the bottom of the same side we see two people capturing the entwined bodies of two serpentine beasts. The two serpentine beasts are commonly interpreted as being the Lower and Upper halves of Egypt. There is however no proof for this interpretation.

Still lower on the section, the king is depicted as a bull ramming the city walls and trampling his enemies with his hooves.

The other side of the Narmer Palette shows a single large image of Narmer with his war club with which he is about to strike down his enemy that he is holding by the hair. Beneath his feet are two men who are either dead or trying to escape his wrath. At the back of the king is a servant who holds his sandals and above is the god Horus that is supposedly pleased with the proceedings.

Saturday, June 6, 2020

Ibn Battuta, His Life and Travel Tales

Ibn Battuta
Never was he to travel any road a second time is something that was followed by Medieval history’s most renowned travelers- Ibn Battuta. Ibn Battuta lived by this mantra too.

A famous scholar and traveler, Ibn Battuta made his passion for travelling around the world not only his source of income but also what he is most famous for. Ibn Battuta is one of the greatest Muslim travelers of the medieval centuries. Many would even argue that he is the best.

Where the traveling all Began: 


Ibn Battuta belonged to a Muslim family known to produce judges or qadis as they were commonly called. Typical of being born in a Muslim adjudicators family, Ibn Battuta received the traditional juristic and literary education in Tangier, Morocco.

After that, to fulfil his duty and widen his ever increasing knowledge base, he decided to go to mecca for Hajj. It was over there that he also decided to learn under other famous scholars of the time in Egypt, Syria and Hejaz.

To say that he accomplished what he set out for would be an understatement. Not only are there records showing the various enumerations from the scholars he studied under, but there are also various diplomas to his credit. These diplomas qualified him for various judicial offices as well. But his educational background does not end here either, the claim that he was also a former pupil of the then highly renowned authorities on Islamic sciences, made him a guest star in many courts.

Ibn Battuta- The Passion for Travel: 


It was only after travelling to Egypt that the passion for travels was born. After landing in Egypt through Tunis and Tripoli, Ibn Battuta decided that he loved travelling. That is when he decided that he would never travel any road twice.

While at that time Ibn Battuta’s contemporaries travelled for pilgrimage or trade or education, he traveled because he simply- enjoyed it. It was at Egypt where Ibn Battuta’s love for different countries and it’s people blossomed. He just had to learn more.

But it was not only fun and games either; Ibn Battuta made a living from his journeys as well. Using his scholarly status he enjoyed the benevolence of many a ruler and sultan alike. This thus gave him an income that contributed to all his travels.

The Journey of Ibn Battuta: 


After Cairo, Ibn Battuta visited Syria. It was here that he joined a caravan to Mecca. He thus completed his pilgrimage in the year 1326. After this he then travelled via the Arabian desert to Iraq and then onward to Iran, Azerbaijan and then to Baghdad. It was in Baghdad that he met the last of the Mongol

Khans of Iran- Abu Said. Besides that he also came to know many other lesser rulers of that time. For many years Ibn Battuta spent life as a devotee in Mecca between 1327 to 1330. But this long stay as a devotee was short lived. Ibn Battuta soon realized that life as a devote was not for him and in 1327 he set sail to Yemen.

Arriving at Yemen he then crossed it by land and then set sail again from Aden.

His travels then brought him to the eastern African coast. Ibn Battuta then traveled the length of the coast visiting all their trading routes. The return journey took him through southern Arabia, Oman, Hormuz, southern Persia as well as across the Persian Gulf. All this travels culminated back to Mecca in 1332.

Ibn Battuta’s Visit to India: 


After that Ibn Battuta set his sights on the Sultan of Delhi. Hearing of the Sultan’s favorable treatment of Muslim scholars, Ibn Battuta decided to try his luck in Muhammad Bin Tughlaq’s court in Delhi. His travel again started off in Egypt and then ended in a boat sailing to Asia Minor. This brought him across the upcoming Ottoman Empire and his history of that region during that time.
After stopping in a number of locations and receiving the hospitality of various rulers and sultans of the time, he then embarked on his journey to India. After traversing the Hindu Kush range he then arrived at the frontiers of India.

Ibn Battuta’s stay in India: 


At this point Ibn Battuta was already a man of high regard both in his circles of travelers as well as scholars. At this point in his journey he had a number of followers and attendants as well. Through his journey to India he also brought with him his own harem of wives and concubines.

The Tughlaq dynasty emperor lived to Ibn Battuta’s every expectation. Not only was he highly generous in his welcome and the numerous gifts he showered on Ibn Battuta, he also made him qadi of Delhi, A post that he was to hold by him for several years.

Life at court was not all that glamorous: 


For a few years life at court seemed easy and full of promise. But then shortly danger set its sights on everyone at court. Sultan Muhammed was known for his generosity but Ibn Battuta soon realized for his cruelty as well. The Sultan ruled the greater part of northern India with an Iron fist. This iron fist did not seem to discriminate between Hindu or Muslim. While his bad temperament stayed outdoors for a short duration they soon set their sights indoors as well, namely his courts.



The Sultan grew more and more suspicious of people in his court every day. Ibn Battuta started seeing many of his friends fall a prey to the Sultan’s increasing suspicions. It was not surprising then that he too fell from the Sultan’s good graces. But in a matter of time, he again came into the Sulatn’s good books and became envoy to China in 1342.


His journey to China was waylaid with problems right from being attacked by Hindu Insurgents to being shipwrecked with all the gifts he had for the Chinese emperor. At this point, Ibn Battuta was seriously afraid of the Sultan and decided to go to the Maldive Islands. It is here that he got married into the royal family and even aspired to be Sultan someday himself.

Wednesday, May 27, 2020

Galaxy – XMM-2599: Dead Monster Galaxy in Distant Universe

Galaxy – XMM-2599

Ultra-Massive Giant Galaxy – XMM-2599

According to reports, astronomers are anxious regarding an ultra-massive giant galaxy which dates back to the ancient days of the universe. It has been named XMM-2599. Astronomers are of the opinion that the galaxies lived fast and died young. If one tends to gaze at the night sky with a telescope and see beyond the naked eye, they will see numerous stars which are in fact imposters. Several of these points of light are in fact galaxies which are a collection of millions and trillions of stars. Galaxies are formation of stars, dark matter and dust which are held together through gravity. Astronomers are uncertain on the formation of galaxies.

Some of the astronomers are of the opinion that gravity tends to pull dust and gas together for the formation of single star. These stars then have a tendency to draw closer into collection which eventually become galaxies. Several of the galaxies tend to have black holes towards the centre which produces a great amount of energy. This can be seen by the astronomers over great distances. A galaxy’s central black hole, in some instance is extremely big or active even in the case of comparatively small galaxies.

Galaxy – XMM-2599 in Existence – 2 Billion Years Ago

The giant galaxy XMM-2599 had been in existence around 12 billion years back. According to data and measurement astronomers taken, utilising W. M. Keck Observatory’s Multi-Object Spectrograph for Infrared Exploration, it has rapidly moulded into a bunch of stars and died. It is unknown why the galaxy seemed to die down. The astronomers have concluded that the cause of its death is unclear though there could be numerous possible explanations.

Its expiry seems surprising since the galaxy passed away during a time when the other galaxies seemed to be stirring out stars in enormous masses. The observatory is located in the proximity of the summit of the dormant Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii. Benjamin Forrest, lead study author and postdoctoral researcher in the University of California, Riverside’s Department of Physics and Astronomy had commented that the galaxy had been in existence much before the universe was 2 billion years old and XMM-2599 had already moulded into a mass of over 300 billion suns, thus making it an ultra-massive galaxy.

Descendent –Population of High Star Formation

The galaxy at its peak had the capability of creating over 1,000 solar masses comprising of stars in a given year. This is considered to be an incredible high rate of formation of stars in comparison to its own galaxy, the Milky Way - its one new star each year. Strangely, XMM-2599 formed several of its stars in a massive state when the universe seemed to be less than a billion years old. By the time, the universe became 1.8 billion years old, it seemed to be inactive.

According to the opinion of Danilo Marchesini, study co-author and an associate professor of astronomy at Tufts University in Massachusetts, XMM-2599 could have been a descendent from a population of high star formation, dusty galaxies in the initial stage of the universe which the new infrared telescopes have recently revealed.

Galaxy – XMM-2599 Caught in Inactive Phase

However astronomers are uncertain on how the massive galaxy could have evolved. In comparison to the other known galaxies in size, this formation seems strange. XMM-2599, based on their models could still be forming stars. Gillian Wilson, professor of physics and astronomy at the University of California, Riverside Forrest informed the amazing fact that XMM-2599 seemed interesting and unusual since it had stopped forming stars probably due to its restriction in obtaining fuel or its black hole seemed to turn on.

He further added that results call for changes in how models turn off star formation in early galaxies. XMM-2599 has been caught in its inactive phase. Astronomers are now speculating on what would happen now that the galaxy is no longer forming stars anymore and is unable to lose mass. Wilson is contemplating that as time goes by, its gravitational attraction of nearby stars could help in formation of galaxies and end up being a bright city of galaxies.

Answers – Ultra Massive Giant Galaxy

It is essential to note that when we gaze at distant areas of space, we tend to peer back in time due to the time light it takes in reaching us and hence the giant galaxy has now met its fate A professor of astronomy and co-author at UC Irvine stated that this the result could be a strong possibility. Cooper commented that perhaps during the following 11.7 billion years of cosmic history, XMM-2599 would be the central member of one of the brightest and most massive clusters of galaxies in the local universe. Moreover, it could continue to exist in isolation.

Alternatively, we could have a scenario which would lie between these two results. The astronomers have been permitted additional time limit at the observatory in order to carry out their research on the complex galaxy. They are waiting in anticipation in discovering the answers to their various question with regards to the ultra-massive giant galaxy.