Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Archaeologists in Peru find remains of 227 sacrificed children

history mystery

Skeletal Remain of Children – Sacrificial Site in Peru

Archaeologists have located skeletal remains of around 227 children along the coastal desert area, north of Lima, Peru. They had excavated the site utilised by the pre-Columbian Chimu culture which is said to be one of the massive discovery of child slaughter. According to Adina reports, the remains of the children date back between 13th to the 15th centuries.This sacrificial site had been located near Huanchaco, which is a tourist beach side spot north of Lima.

This location was considered to be one of the ports preferred by the pre-Colombian Chimu culture, a society which existed around the year 900. It was located towards the northern coast of Peru till they were defeated by the Inca in the 15th century. It is believed that these children had been slain and buried there, some hundreds of years ago.

It could have been a huge ritual sacrifice administered on these children. As per investigators excavating the site, this seemed to be one of the biggest burials ground of children. Chief archaeologist Feren Castillo informed news site AFP, `wherever you dig, there was another one’.

Killed as Offerings to God

Castillo is of the belief that the site was significant of adjoining burial grounds wherein huge groups of children had marched to the coast and had eventually been stabbed in the chest one by one. It was found that their chest had been cut open and in some instances, their hearts were missing. They had all been buried in a mass grave.

Experts presumed it to be a likely systematic killing ritual on observing a horizontal cut across the breastbone which according to them could be inflicted on the children to remove the heart The archaeologist believed that the children at Huanchaco could be in the age group of 4 and 14 years and some of the bodies had traces of skin and hair when their remains were discovered.

Taking into consideration, the location of the site and the indication of the bodies buried during wet weather, Castillo was of the opinion that the children could have been killed as offerings to the gods, controlling the El Nino phenomenon. This was a biannual climate cycle which would end in catastrophic storms with hurricanes in South America.

Slaughtered to Appease El Nino Event

El Nino was a weather pattern wherein the areas of the Pacific seemed to get warmer occasionally. According to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration mentioned on its website, `the warmer tropical Pacific waters cause changes to the global atmospheric circulation, causing a wide range of changes to global weather.

When the Pacific Ocean would get warm significantly, due to the weather occurrence, it would have an overwhelming effect in the region. The children could have been slaughtered and sacrificed to appease the El Nino event during wet climate. This ghastly site is in the proximity of the UNESCO world heritage site of Chan Chan.

Experts in Chile mentioned in a separate project have revealed new insights on how the Inca civilization utilised `trophy heads’ in maintaining power over captured people. At its pinnacle, in the 16th century, the Inca Empire covered present day Peru together with areas of Bolivia, Ecuador and Chile. More sites have been discovered lately. Huge collection of skulls buried under the streets of present day Mexico City, provide glimpses of a horrific Aztec human sacrifice of the Chimu culture.

The Chimu Culture

This type of weather motivated sacrifice could have taken place at the proximate Chimu site of burial of Huanchaquito. The Chimu culture was very prominent between the years 1200 and 1400, towards the Peruvian coast. This area had been frequently utilised for child sacrifice as spiritual ceremonial. Being one of the most powerful civilisation in Peru, the Chimu civilisation together with its territory expanded towards the coastline of the country till it had been captured in 1475, by the Inca Empire.

Remains of around 140 children were found in 2018. Researchers discovered remains of around 200 massacre llamas in the adjoining areas and it was considered to be the biggest child burial ground in the world. Other areas in Peru have also revealed more secrets. The remains of over 140 children and 200 llamas or alpacas were discovered in April 2018, at a 15th century sacrificial site near Huanchaquito-Las Llamas. According to radiocarbon it reveals that the remains could be from the era of 1450 A.D.

Excavation at Huanchaquito around 2011

According to report, the findings of many Mayan artifacts discovered towards the bottom of Guatemalan lake could have been utilised in ritual animal sacrifice during that era. The excavation had been carried out at Huanchaquito around 2011.

However, the discoveries had been published by National Geographic, last year and this was helpful financially in the investigation of the case. Researchers also came across some footprints which survived the rain and erosion. These footprints resembled those of the children which lead them to their death.

Tuesday, August 27, 2019

Cedars of Lebanon- The Cedars of God

Cedars of Lebanon

Cedars of Lebanon – Economy of Ancient Lebanon

In ancient times the cedars of Lebanon seemed to be very famous trees and were considered as the economy of ancient Lebanon. Usually mentioned in the Scripture as cedars of Lebanon, its wood is aromatic and durable and was preferred for building in Iron Age Israel. In the Bible it is mentioned that David utilised it in building his palace (2 Sam 5:11: 1 Chr 17:1) while Solomon made use of it in building the temple and his palace.

The cedars are massive, beautiful trees which grow in mountainous regions at altitudes of 3,300 to 6,500 feet. They are traced in Lebanon, Cyprus and south-central Turkey. The cedar trees produce cones which grow over the branches and reach a height of 100 feet. The trunk grows to 6 feet in diameter. In comparison to the trees of Israel, the cedar is an expansive tree which is very much praised in the Bible.

The Cedars of God: Land in the Midst of Mountain & Sea

The cedars of Lebanon were used from the dense forests of the mountains and beneath were the fertile land in Beqa Valley with natural harbours lined along the coast. Lebanon geography separates the country into various regions. Viewing the map of Lebanon, one observes it as a land in the midst of mountain and sea. This could help in creating international economy reaching to the far flung regions of the world.

Lebanon was positioned in the centre of Syria and Palestine and both the countries profited immensely from the cedars of Lebanon. Lebanon had been placed in an exclusion position to expand its wealth towards eastward along the trade routes as well as the Mediterranean Sea. Hence the history of Lebanon seems to have a diverse and rich history owing to its ease of travel, trade along the land caravan routes as well as the sea-trade routes.

Esh-Shouf Cedar Reserve

The cedars of Lebanon over the years got relentlessly exhausted. In order to refill the forests, the government of Lebanon has been taking great measures in preserving the cedars. The largest Lebanon’s naturereserve is the Esh-Shouf Cedar Reserve which had been established in 1996.It includes oak and juniper forests together with three cedar forests namely, Barouk Maasser Al-Shouf, Ain Zhalta-Bmohary.

The Esh-Shouf Cedar Reserve cedar forests comprises of 25% of all the rest of cedars prevailing in Lebanon. The cedars of Lebanon were transported west towards the coastal port cities after they were chopped from the snow-capped peaks and loaded to Phoenician ships where it was shipped all over the world.

The cedars of God in some cases like the one in the midst of Hiram and Solomon were bundled together on rafts and transported along the coast to scheduled ports. Byblos, Tyre and Sidon were some of the ports of Phoenician where its culture dominated Lebanon creating an impact on ancient Israel in a tremendous way. Its shoreline seems to be rocky towards the north and sandy in the south.

Cedars of Lebanon- Important Religious Significance

The name `Lebanon’ was derived from the snowcapped mountain peaks. Owing to its closeness to the sea, it enabled the growth of great port cities which molded from natural harbors.The Phoenician culture became expert sailors of ancient times who dominated the nautical occupation and activity. Over the years, several people utilised cedar of Lebanon from the forest.

It was used in building ships by the Phoenicians, while the Egyptians utilised the wood to make paper whereas the people like the Romans and Turks misused the natural treasure for the purpose of trade. It holds an important religious significance and on many occasions, a reference of it, has been made in the Bible. The wood was utilised by Solomon to build up Jerusalem while Emperor Hadrian administered them as royal domain which hindered their destructions.

World Heritage Site- Cedars of Lebanon

At present the cedar of God is still being exploited in spite of the attempt to protect them is being done by Queen Victoria. The British soldiers, had cut down the tree inhabited, by misusing it for railroads at the time of the World War One.

Currently the majority of Cedar trees are situated on the Arz Mountains in Lebanon where the site is considered as UNESCO and the forest has been considered as one of the World Heritage site which is well protected and cherished. As one moves eastward from the coast, Lebanon’s diagram tends to change significantly.You get to see the full view of the Lebanese Mountain towering over the horizon.Characteristic of Lebanon is separated by this range with the Anti-Lebanese Mountains further east which was the source of their prized cedars of Lebanon.

Also known as the Mount Lebanon, the Western Mountain Range of Lebanon are said to be the highest and most rocky of the two ranges wherein from this range, the most popular timber had been collected. These trees were utilised by the Phoenicians to construct their extensive navy and also to trade and build their massive evolution.

Wednesday, August 14, 2019

Denisovans: Jawbone Reveals Ancient Human Denisovan Lived in oxygen-starved Himalayas

Denisovans Jawbone

Ancient Human Ancestor – Denisovans

Denisovans, ancient human ancestor, has been revealed by archaeologists, dating 160,000 years back. This is said to be oxygen starved Tibetan Plateau, 11,000 feet above sea level. Research on the genes of the species located in some present people like the Sherpas showed signs of them thriving at high altitudes.

Earlier, it wasunknow how some of the Tibetan natives flourished at these altitudes when the level of the oxygen seemed to be 40% less than that of the sea level.Archaeologists who discovered half a mandible/jaw bone state that the presently non-existent race existed around 100,000 years at a high altitude region.
It was informed that the bone had been located in the year 1980 in a cave in China by a monk before it had been evaluated by researchers. It has been considered to be one of the oldest hominin fossil ever located in the Himalayan region at such a high altitude.

Survive At High Altitudes

It was assumed that Denisovans have interbred with primitive Homo sapiens. Hence their genes are the reason why some types of humans tend to be capable of living at high altitudes.Denisovans DNA samples have been discovered all over Asia stretching right up to Australia and presently in Melanesia.

The Denisovans together with their sub-species, the Neanderthals have been considered to have multiplied with the ancestors of the present generation. The present day Sherpas and Tibetans seemed to have inherited the Denisovans genetic deviations which enabled them to survive at high altitudes.

The cave where the jawbone had been unearthed, Baishiva Karst Cave is said to be situated at an altitude of 10,760 feet. The researchers have not been successful in locating any DNA traces in the fossil though managed to remove proteins from one of the molars.

Archaic Hominins

On scrutiny, it was believed to be that of Denisovans. The research led by Dr Dongiu Zhang, co-leading the research, of Lanzhou University from Gansu province of China had stated that `Archaic hominins occupied the Tibetan plateau in the Middle Pleistocene and had successfully adapted to high altitude, low oxygen environments long before the regional arrival of modern Homo sapiens.

As per the research reported in Nature, the jawbone which was well maintained is said to be tough with very big molars, structures shared by Neanderthals and Denisovans. Researchers were able to date the fossil to at least 160,000 year old, due to the covering of heavy carbonate crust layer. Ancient specimen from Denisova Cave in Siberia seemed to be of the same time era.

Function Related to Fuel-Efficient Car 

Initially a local monk had discovered the Denisovans jawbone in 1980 and had donated the same to the sixth Gung-Thang Living Buddha, a Buddhist Lama who had then passed it to Lanzhou University.

The extinct species of humans, the Denisovans seemed to have lived in Siberia and as far as Southeast Asia. Though the remains of these early humans had only been exposed at one site at the Denisova Cave in the Altai Mountains in Siberia, the DNA analysis indicated that they were widespread.

DNA from the early humans identified in the genomes of modern humans over a large area in Asia, indicated that they once covered an enormous range. According to research it has been revealed that they had established a function related to that of a fuel-efficient car. Their strengths seemed to get more mileage inspite of less oxygen in comparison to that of an average person.

The Sherpas seem to have mitochondria which are miniature rod similar to power plants in cells which have a tendency of being extra-efficient while utilising oxygen. Though the red blood cell count tends to increase at high altitude, it stays below the level where the blood thickens, causing a strain on the heart, resulting in altitude sickness.

Temporary Shelter/Permanent Settlement

Ivory beads and bone were also found in the Denisova Cave with the same deposit layers as the Denisovan fossils, giving some insights on their sophisticated tools and jewellery. DNA analysis in 2010, on a segment of a fifth digit finger bone belonging to a young female, revealed that they belonged to species linked to, though different from the Neanderthals.

Later research indicated that the ancient species of human differed from the Neanderthals towards 470,000 and 190,000 years back. It has puzzled the anthropologist in thinking that the cave could have been utilised as a temporary shelter for these Denisovans or could have been made as a permanent settlement.

A paleoanthropologist at the Natural History Museum in London, Chris Stringer though not involved in the study described the `first use’ of the protein analysis in identifying the Denisovan fossil as a `notable landmark’. In an email to Gizmodo, he explained that it was early days for the research and that they should be alert while the data from the fossil and the relative samples are spare.

Shared Common Ancestor with Neanderthals

However the technique seems promising for charting relationships of fossil hominins where DNA does not seem to be preserved. For Katerina Douka an archaeologist at the University of Oxford not connected with the study, the most exciting aspect of the of the revelation was the location of the new site which was over 3,000 meters above sea level and not the presence of Denisovans outside Siberia. Denisovans during this particular geological era at this altitude seems astonishing according to her.

The discovery fits well with her earlier research. Douka’s team in that study had dated the oldest Denisovan fossils located in Denisova cave to the same era indicated by the Tibetan Plateau fossil.Scientists have found over the past decade, Denisovans teeth together with bone remains, comprising of a portion of a skull. It seems that the Denisovans lived in the cave at intervals from 287,000 years back to 50,000 years ago.

From the DNA analysed, it is presumed that the Denisovans shared a common ancestor with Neanderthals some 400,000 years back. They multiplied with Neanderthals with our species. Presently we find that the people in East Asia, the Pacific Islands, Australia and America tend to have some DNA of the Denisovans.

Friday, August 9, 2019

6 Reasons Why Australia is the Best Place to Study for International Students

There are countless options to think about when you opt to study in another country. Furthermore, there are a host of reputable universities in many different countries you can have a different experience. There exist too many things you may probably think of when you want to study abroad. However, here are some reasons why Australia should be your choice of the country when you are considering studying abroad.

Most people think of Australia as a country with wide-open spaces with countless kangaroos, outback bush, koalas basking in the glory of fresh air and clean water. However, there is more than meets the eye when you talk about Australia. There are many diploma courses in australia for international students that have seen more and more influx of international students. The country boasts of an excellent education system, a well laid-back nature, and better living standards. The following are reasons why you need to study in Australia.

A Growing Destination

Third-placed behind the UK and US, Australia is one of the world's favored destination for international students. Most of these international scholars choose the Australian education system because of its quality, friendly natives, and rich cultural diversity.

Globally Recognized

Students graduating from Australian universities are highly recognized and sought after because of the solid reputation Australian education system has earned itself. The government has put in regulatory measures to achieve top-quality educational standards.

Cheap Cost of Living

Globally, Australia is recognized as the country with the highest living standards with the lowest tuition and living expenses compared to the UK or US. Additionally, foreign students get the chance to study and work part-time, thus able to offset their living costs. Furthermore, international students have the opportunity to get scholarships that assist in lowering the cost of education.

Educational Diversification

Australian educational institutions provide a wide range of degree courses. This way, international students can find suitable study fields to choose from. Additionally, diploma courses in Australia for international students are widely diversified. The first decision for international students is choosing the most reliable school to carter for their needs, from vocational training schools to universities. Also, international students can graduate from one qualification to the next as well as choose a different institution.

Well-Developed Technology

One of the most interesting facts about Australia is the emphasis on technology and scientific research for its international students. It ranks among countries on the frontline on matters technology and scientific innovations. International students in Australia can easily take advantage of this technology development as well as available resources to advance their careers.
Better Working Conditions

For those international students studying in Australia, the government gives them up to 20 hours every week to work while continuing with their education. This opportunity allows them to offset their living costs by earning more money.


Australia is indeed a place to study and start your career smoothly. Today, the country has simplified the requirements for international students who want to pursue their education in this developed nation. There is indeed no better place to be and study like Australia.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

The Underwater Ruins of Japan: Yonaguni Monument

The Underwater Ruins of Japan: Yonaguni Monument

Immersed Ruins – Southern Coast - Japan

An immersed ruins estimated to be about 10,000 years old is said to be lying towards the southern coast of Yonaguni, in Japan. There is a lot of controversy doing the rounds on the immersed ruins between experts who were of the opinion that it was man-made while more conservative scientists debate that it had been carved by natural phenomena.

This overwhelming site had been identified by a driver who had ventured as far off the Okinawa shore in the year 1995 and had been spell bound on discovering the sunken planning of the monolithic blocks. It seemed as if the immersed ruins had been terraced into the side of a mountain. This amazing discovery sparked immediate argument drawing many diving archaeologists, curious hobbyists and media who were unable to arrive at a valid conclusion of its existence.

Several attempts were also made later in the year to assemble data and map out the structure. These discoveries exposed several astonishing things inclusive of what seems to be huge arch or gateway of enormous blocks. These appeared to be fitted together precisely, at right angled joins, carvings and the same seemed similar to stairways.

This gave rise to crossroads and paved streets with grand staircases giving way to plazas surrounded by couple of towering landscapes similar to pylons.

Peculiar Formation

The teams on utilising grid search patterns, discovered five sub surface archaeological sites near three offshore islands as they drifted out from the south coast of Okinawa. It is said that the locations of the immersed ruins tend to differ at depths from 100 to only 20 feet.

Supporters of view of the site stating that they are man-made point out features like two round holes which are said to be around two feet wide, and a straight row of smaller hole which seem to be attempts of splitting off a portion of the rock through wedges, similar to ancient quarries. Marine seismologist of the University of the Rykyus, Professor Masaaki Kimura, pointed out various signs like plus sign and V shape which seems to indicate that humans had worked and which could have been made by wedge-like tools considered to be known as kusabi.

Though most of the features at Yonaguni have been seen in natural sandstone formations all over the world, the awareness of the various peculiar formations together with 90 degree angles in such a manners seems strange.

Tectonic Movement

Inspite of the several features presented at Yonaguni, there are yet some group of scientists who had researched the formation and are still obstinate on the natural formation of the large blocks, could be the outcome of tectonic movement together with the other natural occurrences.

One of the scientist, Geologist Robert Schoch of Boston University is of the opinion that the structures had been formed naturally, acknowledging that they could have been utilised or modified by humans ages ago. Moreover he also pointed out that the site seemed to be situated in an earthquake prone region which fractured the rocks regularly.

John Anthony West was also of the opinion that the so-called walls were natural horizontal platforms which fell in a vertical position when rock beneath seemed to wear away while the alleged roads tend to be channels in the rock. The other instances of natural formation having flat faces together with sharp and straight edges are said to be the basalt columns of the Giant’s Causeway and the natural staircase formation on Old Rag Mountain.

Search On For More Evidence

Several scientist continue to prevail in their searches for more evidence of their man-made nature, presuming that the stone structures could be the remnants of an ancient city which could have been existed 10,000 years back. This could have been there when the level of the sea had been much lower that what it is at present.

Graham Hancock an explorer and researcher had mentioned in his named `Underworld’, wrote that “It was the submerged structures of Japan that first awakened me to the possibility that an underworld in history, unrecognized by archaeologist, could lie concealed and forgotten beneath the sea”.

 He draws the similarity between Yonaguni together with the other immersed ruins found below the waters of Lake Titicaca and in Dwarka. This is, off the coast of India offering additional proof in the existence of a huge underwater world comprising of structures extending back to the vaguest chapters of human ancient times.

Presuming the structures of Yonaguni are the remains of a prehistoric city, one possibility of the prehistoric inhabitants of Japan could be called the Jomon. They existed from 12,000 BC to around 300 BC and established a stylish culture.

Investigations are still on with the immersed ruins by scientists which has overwhelmed them on how they relate to the ancient past and to solve the mysteries with regards to their origins.