Monday, October 23, 2017

Is This Proof That Ghosts Exist?

Ghosts

Strange Footage – Mysterious Disturbance at School

In a strange new footage, ghosthas been held responsible for a sequence of mysterious disturbance at a school. The enigmatic ghost video had been filmed at Deerpark School in Cork after motion-activated cameras had been installed at that area. On the night of October 1st at around 3 am, the security cameras at Deerpark had captured something quite peculiar. It portrayed something amazing yet terrifying in a deserted corridor wherein many are still grasping for an explanation. It portrayed a door which opened and closed on its own accord, with furniture rocking back and forth without any support and a locker that flew open, spilling out the paper presumably by a ghost.

At a particular point a `caution wet floor’ sign had been thrown away violently across the hall as though it had been intentionally kicked across the floor. Kevin Barry, Principal stated that they had been alerted to the movements taking place in the school and when they had visited the place to review the movement they witnessed it in the middle of the night. They felt that there was something unusual taking place there since people tend to get some real chill due to the feeling of ghost in the air from time to time when they tend to go to the past of that area.

Old Building – Plenty of History

He informed that it seemed interesting since one of his teachers would bring his pet in with him but the pet refrained to go down that way presumably due to the ghost.That seemed to be very strange. Mr Barry had informed that he was not aware if someone had been playing some sort of a `well-designed prank’ at the school that tends to date back to 1828. He further added that he was sceptical since he had put it up on their Facebook page, simply since they were not aware if this was a prank or not or if someone had been playing games with them. He informed that it was a very old building going back a number of years and it tends to have plenty of history. This could have given them the feeling of the presence of the ghost of the past. He stated that people in old building always tend to hear noises as well as strange sounds of ghost though this was the first time they had really caught something. Often we tend to come across papers strewn about though they were unable to say what it was, they only presumed it could be a student who could have done it.

Footage Captured – Motion-Sensor Detectors

He has also informed that no other motion-activated cameras leading to the corridor had been activated He also informed that since they had motion-sensor detectors they should have been able to detect other people who could have come towards that area on the other cameras, which they have not been able to do. The creepy footage portrayed a door opening and closing on its own with weird things happening in that area giving indication of the presence of some kind of a ghost.Critics observed that the footage had been conveniently captured before the Halloween even at the school on October 29 which had been dubbed `Fearpark’.

Saturday, October 14, 2017

The 500-year old Mummy of Lama Tenzin

Lama Tenzin

Mummification – Embalming & Enfolded in Linen

 
Normal mummification seems to be quite exceptional which needs settings of great temperature together with dry air in order to preserve the body. Several of the mummified bodies seen in museums and text-books had been mummified with the help of chemical process known as embalming and thereafter enfolded in linen.

However, the Buddhist monks in Japan and Tibet seem to have a unique way of mummification and when the monk is alive he tends to have a gradual process of starving and termination of eating barley, rice and been that have a tendency of adding fat to the body. Moreover in preparation for death, he has candles along his skin, which dries it out. The monk is said to die of starvation in a seated position and the fat decomposes after death.

On eliminating the body of fat, the monk can be preserved in a better manner. After his death, he is placed in an underground room for three years to continue the process of drying once again and treated with candles whereby the monk tends to become a statue in prayer. An earthquake that had taken place in 1975 in northern Indian had exposed an old tomb comprising of the mummified body of monk Sangha Tenzin.
 

Preserved with Skin Intact

 
The local police had excavated the tomb in 2004 and had discovered the mummified body which was amazingly well preserved with the skin intact and with hair on his head. He is said to have died in a sitting position having a rope around the neck and thighs. This is an obscure practise which has been recorded in some of the documents of the Buddhist.

A consulting scholar at the University of Pennsylvania, Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, Victor Mair had quoted that the mummy had been at least 500 years old. It is a strange fact that the manner of the mummified body seems to be a natural one with no chemicals utilised in order to preserve the same and it seems to have a certain kind of freshness. As per the report, the mummified body had been preserved for its age.

Local legends claim that he had requested his followers to preserve him during a scorpion infestation in that area and after his spirit had left his body, a rainbow seemed to appear and the scorpions had disappeared.
 

Mummy – Sangha Tenzin

 
The town is said to be around 30 miles from the Tabo Monastery which dates back to 996 CE. The mummified body of Sangha Tenzin is said to be on display in Gue village in the cold and remote Spiti district in a temple two miles from where he had been discovered, in Himachal Pradesh region on the border of Tibet around 6000 metres above sea level. It seems too difficult to reach the town since it is controlled by the Indo-Tibetan Border Police and secluded in the Himalayas.

The temple where the mummy is placed for display is open to the visitors who intends visiting that place. The mummy of Sangha Tenzin is not the only lonely mummy in that region but there are other mummified bodies too in Tibet which had been buried by the Tibetan immediately after the invasion of the Chinese.

Monday, October 9, 2017

Santa Dead, Archaeologists Say


Santa – St. Nicholas – Gift-Giving & Kindness

During Christmas season, parents shared some interesting details with their kids regarding Santa coming and dropping presents as per their requests which had to be sent to him in advance. Saint Nicholas of Myra, presently Demre, had been popular for his secret gift-giving and kindness. Archaeologists in southern Turkey had informed that they have found the tomb of the original Santa Claus known as St. Nicholas which gave rise to the legend of Santa Claus, below his namesake church in the vicinity of the Mediterranean Sea.

The researchers had unearthed an intact temple beneath the Saint Nicholas Church in the Demre district. A special area had been located in the temple at the time of scientific and technological works with assumptions that the tomb could have been buried there. Researchers discovered the untouched shrine while performing digital surveys beneath the surface of the church.

Archaeologists leading surveys at the church in Demre discovered gaps below it and informed that the shrine is beneath the church which has not been touched. Cemil Karabayram, head of Antalya’s Monument Authority had informed the Turkish Hurriyet Daily News that they were of the belief that this shrine has not been damaged at all though it seems very difficult to get to it due to the mosaics on the floor.

Patron Saint of Sailors 

Karabayram informed the newspaper that he is assertive that archaeologist could reach the tomb. He believes that almost 1,700 years after the death of St. Nicholas, Santa would give another gift to the people of Demre in the form of Tourism dollar. Researchers had been working on the excavation for three months with a CT scan, a geo-radar together with eight academics that had been brought in for the excavation work at the final stage. Karabayram had commented that the world’s eyes will be set on here and that they claim St. Nicholas had been placed in this temple without any damage.

He informed that they were at the last stage. St. Nicholas as Santa was well-known for his generous act of kindness and people believed that he placed coins in the shoes of those who left them out for him on his feast day which falls on December 6. Some state that he had been a monk who gave away his immense legacy and chose to reach out to the poor and the sick. Besides this Santa had also been a patron saint of sailors and in particular was very fond of children.

Father Christmas – Europe 

There had been a strange story, more Halloween than Christmas, regarding Santa - St. Nicholas wherein he had saved three children who had been enticed into the controls of an evil butcher. In the 16th century St. Nicholas had begun on his modern, candy-cane hued form in imaginations and images and in Europe he was considered as Father Christmas. Santa is now ingrained in the Christmas dictionary, as the rosy-cheeked image of Christmas who is the topic of movies, constant parental fabrications and debates regarding infancy materialism.

There had been an annual debate on whether it was okay to represent Santa as only white. Last year there had been a photograph of Santa with a shovel near a fence on the border of U.S. with Mexico, a taunt at the immigration policies of Trump. Besides that there was a Santa who had been called a liar for a tale told to a dying child that he was a number one elf of Santa. However, through all this, the remains of the real-life St. Nicholas had actually been the subject of centuries old situation of false identity and grave robbery.

Inspiration for Dutch Figure Sinterklass

St. Nicholas, as per the Telegraph, had died in 343 AD and had been laid to rest at St. Nicholas church in Demre on the Mediterranean coast of Turkey. Later on he was known as Father Christmas in the 16th century and had been an inspiration for the Dutch figure Sinterklass which had been utilised as the model for Santa Claus.

The researchers had informed that till now they were of the belief that the bones of Santa - St. Nicholas were in Italy. They had studied all the relevant documents between 1942 and 1966 from the notes that were available there. As per these notes, the church had been demolished and rebuilt. During the reconstruction of the church, the traders in Bari had taken the bones.

Apparently, the Telegraph had reported that in 1087, merchants had excavated his bones and had smuggled the same to the Italian city of Bari. It is still said to be a holy site, where the Christians visit it to pay homage to St. Nicholas, - Santa. The Telegraph has reported that the archaeologists state that the pilgrims to the Basilica di San Nicola had been praying to the wrong person. The bones are said to belong to another local priest and not one of the famous saints.

Wednesday, October 4, 2017

Essays on Shooting an Elephant by George Orwell

 
book
Were it not for the 1917 Russian Revolution, George Orwell wouldn’t have written The Animal Farm. Shooting an Elephant became available to the public in 1936 and it is an honest reflection of this famed author’s views towards the British colonial empire. Both fans and critics acknowledge George Orwell for expressing his personal and society’s hidden views using clever imagery.
Shooting an Elephant is a favorite assignment topic in virtually all university English Literature courses worldwide. What’s interesting is that students keep on discovering new angles hidden within the intriguing essay.

Here are some of the themes present in Shooting an Elephant by George Orwell.

1.The blessing and curse of being a police officer 

The Burmese people dread interacting with the British police officers due to one reason. Police brutality. In the essay, George Orwell takes the readers through incidents that portray Her Majesty’s law enforcement agents as cold-hearted monsters.

On the other hand, the colonial officers wield almost absolute powers that make them immune to Burmese ideologies. George Orwell takes readers through the minds of a ruthless police officer and a hapless Burmese colonial subject.

2.Disruption caused by civilization 

The British Empire champions itself as the forerunners of civilization. Their presence in Burma is synonymous with the destruction of the local cultural and environmental settings. In the story, George Orwell emphasizes on nature's serenity by creating a vivid scene of the conspicuous elephant grazing in a paddy field. As the story proceeds, the colonial empire develops an insatiable greed for Burma's natural resources.

3.Intimidation as a tool for retaining colonial power 

It’s common for the colonial officers to apply unnecessary force even when dealing with slight issues. This enables them to maintain a firm grip on Burmese subjects who are hopelessly obligated to serving Her Majesty’s economic interests. In addition, the subjects lack the freedom of expression, which George Orwell finds quite contrary to what civilization actually represents. Despite the benefits gained through intimidation, the narrator feels tired of maintaining a stern act. However, letting his guard down could stir up a rebellion.

4.Strained relationships 

George Orwell is appalled when the Burmese monks display their disrespect towards him and his fellow colonial police officers. As he moves from one point to the other, both young and old mock him in various ways. This is contrary to how the British royalty presents itself as an amiable and popular colonial regime.

5.The colonial regime’s insecurity 

Despite the elephant calming down after a dramatic episode, the narrator is still determined to shoot it down. However, this decision defies the officer’s logic because the giant mammal poses no real danger to himself or the community. Scholars believe that the elephant represents the large but peaceful nations that suffered horribly under British colonialism.

Summing it up 

You can create a list of awesome ideas related to essays on Shooting An Elephant by George Orwell by discussing your interpretation of the story with fellow classmates. This book contains rich themes for argumentative essay topics.

Are there other themes on Shooting an Elephant by George Orwell you’d like us to explain? Feel free to post your suggestion in the Comments box

Saturday, September 16, 2017

The Great Amherst Mystery

Amherst Mystery

Esther’s Haunting Mystery

Towards the concluding half of the 19th century, in a small town known as Amherst in Nova Scotia, Esther Cox had been affected by what she claimed as poltergeists. Esther is said to be residing with her married sister, Olive Teed her husband Daniel together with their two young children.

A brother and sister of Ester and Olive also seemed to live with them along with the brother of Daniel, John Teed. After Ester was almost killed by one of her male friend and had been a victim of psychotic break, due to the poltergeists and her house began to get haunted. Due to ill-health she spent some time at another sister’s house in a nearby region and thereafter returned to Amherst and the hauntings started once again.

After the poltergeists had threatened to burn the house, Esther had moved in with another family where the house became haunted also. Walter Hubbell, a part-time actor and also an occasional paranormal investigator had moved in with Esther. He examined the house for several weeks and finally wrote a popular book based on his experiences, wherein he claimed to have perceived floating objects together with assaults on Esther by invisible forces.
 

Traumatized by Assault

 
As per Hubbell, the incident took place towards the end of August 1878 after Esther aged 18 had been subjected to an attempted sexual assault by a male friend Bob McNeal with a gun.

He had been an acquaintance of the family and she had developed a liking for him, in spite of the fact that he was of a poor character. Esther had been traumatized by the assault and her behaviour underwent a change and seemed depressed. She had undergone immense distress and shortly thereafter the physical occurrences had started.

There had been knockings, rustlings and banging in the night and she began suffering from seizures whereby her body seemed to swell and she began having fever and chills in turns. The objects in the house also seemed to be moving.

 Though the frightened family did not want to draw attention to themselves for fear of mockery these incidents of the poltergeists, which took place led them to consult a doctor and seek his help. Dr. Carritte had been astonished by these events that took place. He witnessed the writing on the wall and the loud claps.
 

Witnessed Several Astonishing Incidents

 
According to Dr. Carritte it was as if someone had been banging on the roof with a sledge hammer and witnessed bedclothes move, heard scratching noises, and the words `Esther Cox, you are mine to kill’ written on the wall towards the head of her bed.

The following day the doctor administered sedatives to Esther in order to calm her and put her to sleep as a result more noises and flying objects exhibited themselves. Life seemed to be very intolerable for her family and with the frightful occurrences and fires which had been set in the house made Esther leave her home. However she was taken in by a kind family which permitted her to work in their dining saloon. But here also the poltergeists tormented her.

The locals witnessed several astonishing incidents in the saloon. They saw a knife which had flown mysteriously through the air and stab Esther and when someone had pulled it out of her, it seemed to fly back again in the same wound. Clergymen, scientist, together with other doctors had explored the hauntings.
 

The Haunted House – A True Ghost Story

 
A popular reverend had visited and witnessed a bucket of cold water appeared to be boiling on the kitchen table. Dr Edwin Clay, a Baptist clergyman had defended Esther on investigating and drawing the conclusion that she was not causing the displays herself.

 He spoke regarding the reality of the case of poltergeists, at several lectures where he had a great audience to listen. The local would gather at Esther’s cottage all over with the intention of catching glimpses of the objects flying through the air or to hear the noises or communicate with the poltergeists through questions and rapping. It is said that Esther also went to Saint John, New Brunswick where she had been examined by a team of scientists who supposedly connected with the poltergeists and assumed that it could be various entities who could be haunting her.

However no explanation has been provided regarding the poltergeists till date though some who did investigate the stories and were of the belief that it was a hoax by Esther. Walter Hubbell had spent six weeks in the home of Esther Cox to document the Amherst haunting and claimed to have been the victim of his own paranormal events which had taken place at her home where he had witnessed several violent incidents with Esther. In 1879, he had published his report known as `The Haunted House:

A True Ghost Story. He had also published a book – The Great Amherst Mystery. He had involved an affidavit of thirteen witnesses who swore that they had experienced the supernatural events first-hand.

Saturday, September 2, 2017

The Minaret of Jam

The Minaret of Jam

Minaret of Jam – Splendour & Multifaceted Design


The Minaret of Jam located in Afghanistan is known for its splendour and multifaceted design and the 64-meter tower is a graceful, soaring structure which is said to be in good condition till date in spite of it being constructed by baked bricks in the 12th or 13th century.

It is covered with intricate brickwork with a blue tile inscription towards the top and is remarkable for the excellence of its architecture as well as adornment, representing the finale of an architectural and artistic tradition of that region.

The Minaret of Jam is located on an octagonal base comprising of four cylindrical shafts resting one above the other and becoming progressively smaller as they tend to go higher. It is made of fired brick and lime mortar having two wooden balconies together with a lantern towards the top.

 Its external is decorated in superb detail covered with brick, stucco and glazed tiles contain sophisticated inscriptions of alternating band of Kufic and naskhi calligraphy, geometric patterns together with verses from the Quran.

The complex decorations together with the inscriptions seem to be clearly visible presently which has led it to be declared as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The tower had been constructed by Ghorid Dynasty at the height of its glory when it reigned over areas of modern Iran, Pakistan, Afghanistan and India.
Minaret of Jam


Turquoise Mountain – Legendary Lost Afghan Capital


It is presumed that the Minaret of Jamhad one been linked to a mosque which had been washed away in a flood earlier to the Mongol sieges.

Archaeologists had located physical evidence of a large courtyard building that had once existed besides the minaret. In Central Asia, it was common to build single huge towers as a means of political power. The Minaret of Jam is said to be both amazingly large and visible owing to its size though hidden from the world because of its location within the valley. The most fascinating concept of the Minaret of Jam is that it could have belonged to the lost city of Firozkoh which is also known as the Turquoise Mountain.

This city had been the capital of Ghorid Dynasty as well as one of the greatest cities in the world and the capital had been totally ruined in the early 1220s by Ogedei Khan the son of Genghis wherein its location had been lost forever to history.

The Turquoise Mountain – Firozkoh is said to be the legendary lost Afghan capital of the Middle Ages and was apparently a prospering multicultural centre. It was believed that the ancient city had been the home of a Jewish trading community, documented by inscription on tombstones that had been discovered in the 1950s.
Minaret of Jam 1


Lasting Legacy – Christians/Jews/Muslims



The minaret seems to be very apparent from the religious point of view. One of the visitors had commented that `this chapter, called Maryam tells of the Virgin Mary and Jesus, both venerated in Islam and of prophets such as Abraham and Isaac.

 It’s a text that emphasises what Judaism, Christianity and Islam have in common instead of their differences. It appears the Ghorids positioned the text here to appeal for harmony and tolerance in the land, a message that is more relevant now than ever’.


It remains as a lasting legacy belonging to a period wherein Christians, Jews and Muslims are said to live side-by-side in harmony and united by their commonalities instead of being divided by their differences.

The effect of the Minaret of Jam is amplified by its histrionic setting with a deep river valley between gigantic mountains in the core of the Ghur province. It is one of the well preserved monuments that tend to represent the extraordinary artistic creativity and the mastery of structural engineering of that time.

 Its architecture and adornment seems to be outstanding with regards to art history, blending together foundations from the earlier developments in the region, in an incomparable manner as well as employing a great influence on later architecture in that region.

Outstanding Universal Value



Its graceful soaring structure is a remarkable model of the architecture and adornment of the Islamic period in Central Asia. It tends to play an important role in their future diffusion with regards to India as demonstrated by the Qutb Minar, in Delhi that begun in 1202 and was completed in the early 14th century.

Ever since the building of the Minaret of Jam which was around eight hundred years back, there were no reconstruction or extensive restoration work carried out in the area. In 1957, the archaeological remnants had been surveyed and recorded when the ruins had been first located by archaeologist. Ensuing surveys and researches have led to simple safety maintenance measures to the base of the Minaret.

Thus the characteristics which express the Outstanding Universal Value of the site, not least the Minaret but the other architectural forms together with their settings in the landscape is said to be unharmed within the limitations of the property and beyond.

The Minaret of Jam had been truly forgotten for several centuries and had only been rediscovered in 1886 by Sir Thomas Holdich, then forgotten again and once again rediscovered in 1957.

Threatened by Seepage/Erosion/Vibration – Road Construction



Presently it is threatened by seepage from the waters of the rivers where it tends to stand, together with erosion, vibrations from the road-construction in the surrounding areas which are threats of intentional destructions together with the continuation of illegal archaeological digs.

Visitors to the Minaret of Jam can climb to the top by a set of stairs that have been shaped like a double helix. The steps first end in an open chamber where the visitors can view out over the rivers and the scenery in the vicinity.

A second set of stairs can be taken to see the lantern gallery. But few visitors tend to make it to the minaret since it is a long and complex climb filled with several dangers and threats, inclusive of local bandits, abduction or execution by rebels.

The Minaret of Jam in Afghanistan is undoubtedly located in the midst of very unsafe area of the present world. With no extensive restoration coming up since the minaret had been constructed, together with little funding in conducting any repairs, it is doubtful if the minaret would be preserved or will be left to crumble into ruins.

Wednesday, August 30, 2017

You Know Nothing, Essay writer

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Friday, August 25, 2017

The Prehistoric Plague House

Skeletal Remains Discovered – Northeast China

Unearthing had been done in the ruin site of a tiny wooden house in northeast China wherein the archaeologist came across the skeletal remains of almost 100 bodies which seemed crammed up. They have been attempting to put them together to know what could have actually taken place at the ruin site.

Anthropologist were of the belief that a prehistoric disaster could have probably killed hundreds of people around 5,000 years ago and had compelled the village to stuff the house full of the dead rather than to bury them.

At some point of time, the house had been set on fire or possibly caught fire as verified by the state of the ruins. It was observed that some of the skulls and limb bones seemed to be charred as well as deformed. It was presumed that the fire had been the cause of the collapse of the wooden roof and damaged the bodies that were there.

 At least 97 bodies had been unearthed from the pile that had been left there which ranged in the age group of 19 and 35 years according to reports. Several of the skeletons had been discovered in a disorderly manner in the ruin site of a crypt-type house dubbed F40, which was a small structure of only 210 square feet by way of size.

According to archaeologist in a published study in the journal Chinese Archaeology had reported that the site in northeast China known as `Hamin Mangha’ dates 5,000 year back and is the biggest as well as the best preserved prehistoric settlement located till date in northeast China.

Plague House

Archaeological Discoveries

Besides the bodies, the researcher also discovered over 100 pieces of pottery, jade works, stone implements together with artifacts of bone, shell and horn at the ruin site. There were three tombs there as well as ten ash pits together with a ditch or moat that had been surrounding the area.

Other important archaeological discoveries comprised of the Niuheliang Goddess Temple which seemed to be the most mysterious site of the ancient Hongsham 5,000 years ago wherein beautiful relics of unknown deities as well as bigger than life statues were found. Moreover, the ruin site of the ancient tombs from the Qijia Culture in northwest China dating 4,000 years back has also shown evidences of human sacrifice.

The site `Hamin Mangha’ dates back to an era where writing had not been utilised and the locals lived in comparatively small settlements, growing crops and hunting for their food. The village comprised of the remains of grinding instruments, arrows and spearheads, besides pottery which gives some insight on their way of living.

 The researchers in one field season between April and November 2011 had discovered the foundations of 29 houses which seemed simple one-room structures comprising of a hearth and doorway.

Insight – Catastrophic Events/Mass Disasters

These discoveries at Hamin Mangha provided the researchers with the understanding of the prehistoric people of northern China and how they managed with catastrophic events and mass disasters.

The images taken by the archaeologist at the ruin site express the prehistoric scene better than words. The archaeologist had stated that the bones in the northwest were relatively complete while those in the east often have only skulls with limb bones scarcely remaining. He added that in the south, limb bones were discovered in a mess, forming two or three layers’.

The remains were never buried and had been left behind for the archaeologist to find out some 5,000 years thereafter. A team of anthropologists at Jilin University in China has been researching on the prehistoric remains in an attempting of determining what had occurred to these people at that point of time.

The team had published a second study in Chinese, in the Jilin University Journal, Social Sciences edition on their discoveries.

The Jilin team had detected that the people in that house had died owing to prehistoric disaster resulting in dead bodies being stuffed in the house. The dead resulted quicker than they could be buried at the ruin site.

Outbreak of Acute Infectious Disease

Team leaders Ya Wei Zhou and Hong Zhu had mentioned in the study that the human bone accumulation in F40 had been formed due to ancient human putting remains in the house successively and stacked centrally.

 No remains of older adults besides individuals between the age of 19 and 35 were found. The researchers had observed that the age of the victims that were discovered at Hamin Mangha seemed to be the same that had been found in another prehistoric mass burial that had been earlier unearthed in present day Miaozigou in northeast China.

Zhou and Zhu had also mentioned that this similarity of the ruin site could indicate the cause of the Hamin Mangha site had been identical to that of the Miaozigou sites which means that they both could probably relate to an outbreak of an acute infectious disease. Had it been a disease, it killed people of all age group giving no time for survivors to bury the deceased in a proper manner.

The excavation had been conducted by researchers from the Inner Mongolian Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology and the Research Centre for Chinese Frontier Archaeology of Jilin University.

Thursday, August 3, 2017

Dona Juliana Dias da Costa :A Love Affair That Saved Portuguese from Mughals


Love Affair Between Portuguese Woman & Mughal Prince


This is an unusual love affair between a Portuguese woman and a Indian Mughal prince which describes the intensity of her love that the Portuguese woman by the name Dona Juliana Dias Da Costa had over Shah Alam, the son of Aurangzeb. It is said that she not only assisted in safeguarding the Christian in then Mughal-ruled India but was also responsible in spreading the faith in Portuguese India.

Dona Juliana Dias da Costa was considered to be a woman of Portuguese origin from Kochi in the court of Aurangzeb the Mughal Empire in Hindustan. She became Harem-Queen to the Mughal Emperor of India Bahadur Shah I the son of Aurangzeb who became the monarch in 1707.

 Her family had fled the Dutch conquest of Portuguese Kochi while she herself ended in the court of the Mughal at Delhi serving the family of the prince Shah Alam. She continued to be there till the prince did not find favour with his father and escorted him into exile. She was then rewarded when Shah became the Emperor – Bahadur I after the death of his father and her influence became boundless in the court in spite of being a Catholic in a Muslim state.
 

Assisted Italian Jesuit Missionary


  It is said that she had galloped on a war elephant with Bahadur Shah during his fights in order to defend his authority and after his death she continued to be greatly considered but with less influence. While Bahadur Shah I had been alive, she was frequently sought out by European powers such as the Dutch, Portuguese, the British and the representatives of the Pope during her period of strongest power.

She was of great help to the Society of Jesus inclusive of assisting the Italian Jesuit missionary Ippolito Desideri in his mission in evangelising Tibet. In appreciation of her various contributions together with services to the Jesuits, she had been recognized as a Patroness of the Society.

Tiwari and Chauhan had come across the diplomatic role of this Portuguese Catholic woman in the 80s, who had spent four years to write disputably the most inclusive documentation of Mughal, Portuguese, British, Dutch and French interaction in India. They have related the Portuguese method for survival with the Mughals with the help of the love affair story between Juliana and Shah.

Proficiency of Skills – Diplomat Par Excellence


From the moment they had a well-known settlement in Hugli through the favour of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, the Portuguese were comfortable being there till they annoyed his son with their misbehaviours which resulted in sacking the settlement in 1632. As a consequence, 4,000 Christians had been taken captives in dreadful conditions to Agra.

As per the book, the parents of Juliana were among the prisoners and Juliana was born in Agra around 1645 wherein her mother by that time had been attached to one of the ladies in the harem of Shah Jahan. After the death of her parents Juliana had been brought up in Delhi by Father Antonio de Magalhanes. According to the authors, Tiwari and Chauhan due to the upbringing under the Jesuit Fathers, together with the years she had spent in Goa, provided her with the proficiency of skills which made her a diplomat par excellence.

She had skills in expertise in languages, international exposure to the happenings all over the world, inclusive of the knowledge of international trade and merchandise, knowledge of medicine as well as surgery since the Fathers had Portuguese doctors from Goa, in their company. Besides that she had all the royal manners and customs which assisted her in gaining great experience

At 17 - Youngest Tutor to Muazzam/Shah Alam


Though Juliana was married, she became a widow at a young age and in 1681-82 paved her way for access to the Mughal court with the help of Father Magalhanes. Tiwari had mentioned that the Aurangzeb had entrusted the education of Prince Muazzam – later Shah Alam, which was his second son, to Juliana.

She had been 17 and his youngest tutor. Muazzam was 18 and was filled with sorrow for the merciless imprisonment of his grandfather Shah Jahan and with this began their lifelong love affair. The book had also provided the Portuguese letters which had been written by the viceroy in Goa to the Portuguese King expressing him of the favour Juliana tends to hold in the Mughal courts.

 Juliana stated that the book moved wherever Shah Alam had been posted by Aurangzeb inclusive to Goa in order to end the threat posed by Sambhaji the Maratha leader. Later on when Shah Alam had been suspected of treason by Aurangzeb and imprisoned, it is said that Juliana had risked her life in making his seven years of imprisonment, comfortable by sneaking in items of luxury to him. Her faithfulness rewarded her when Shah Alam eventually ascended to the throne after the death of his father Aurangzeb.

Worthy Benefactress of the College/Mission of Agra


The book also explains the role of Juliana in assisting Shah Alam in winning the battle to the throne against his own brother. It is said that Juliana got Shah Alam to organize the Portuguese gunners in his artillery and that proved to be a fruitful move.

The book also mentions of her correspondence with the viceroy of Portuguese in Goa as her power rose in the Mughal court under Emperor Shah Alam - `What becomes more than clear from the exchange of these letters to and from Juliana is not only the higher position attained by her at the Mughal court after the release of prince Shah Alam but her continued devotion in making favours to the cause of Christianity from the Mughal territories also’.

In addition to her diplomatic services the book has also recorded the financial help provided by Juliana to the Portuguese. It states that it was around 1707 that she had said to have given the province of Goa a great fortune valued to 40 to 150 contos. When she died in 1734, the Goa Personnel report of 1735 addressed her as the `Worthy Benefactress of the College and Mission of Agra’ in a most strange statement.

Tuesday, August 1, 2017

Derinkuyu: The Tumultuous History of Turkey’s Underground City

Derinkuyu – Excavated Underground City


One of the deepest excavated underground city, in the Cappadocia in the Central Anatolia region of Turkey is Derinkuyu which is said to be an amazing natural wonder having remarkable fairy chimneys together with battered caverns. Cappadocia is considered to be a wonderful geological scene.

 It is scattered with extensive concealed dwelling as well as secret tunnel passages which several people had utilised it for shelter across the centuries. Derinkuyu is quite well-known and there are hundreds of these homes in the region. At a distance of over 250 feet having a capacity of up to 20,000 people this multi-levelled city included everything which a complete population would require to survive a history, damaged with invasions.

Volcanic eruptions had emitted layer after layer of ash, known as tuff or tufa, many million years ago. Over a period of time, the tuff got cemented into a soft, easily carvable though comparatively stable rock. The inhabitants of ancient Anatolia realized that they could carve out their home right in the hillsides and underground. Derinkuyu is said to be one of the several rock-cut dwellings in the region and is the deepest one till date. This underground dwelling had been discovered in 1963 during the renovation of a surface home.

Derinkuy_1

An Astonishing Discovery


An underground room leading to a concealed passageway had opened up when a wall had caved in. On exploring the passageway, the workers had realized that it seemed to lead further into a deep maze and it became an astonishing discovery.

The researchers observed kitchens, bedroom, food storage room, bathrooms, oil and wine presses, wells, weapons, storage, areas, schools, churches, tombs as well as domestic animal stables within the massive eighteen levels of the city. Moreover there were also rooms of different sizes for various needs. Small spaces were said to be rock-cut tombs while the large one provided the perfect rooms for community meetings and schools. It was obvious that the people had intended to be totally self-sufficient.

There was provision of over fifty ventilation shafts which brought in air from above while thousands of smaller ducts distributed the air throughout the full city. Some of the archaeologists are of the belief that an 8 kilometre long passageway connects Derinkuyu to another remarkable underground city in Kaymakli which indicated that there could have been some degree of cooperation between the different civilizations of the Cappadocia region.

Houses were Underground


It is uncertain as to the age and who had built Derinkuyu but it is known that the Hittites had dominated the Anatolia region from 1600 BCE to around 1200 BCE. After this period, the Hittite Empire had contracted into smaller groups probably owing to various invasions and wars.

Consequently, the Phrygians wandered to the area from the Balkans. Hence if the Hittites had built the dwelling as some of the scholars believe, it could have been well before 1200 BCE. Other experts speculate that the Phrygians had built the underground city that could have taken place between 1200 BCE and 800 BCE.

Thereafter, Persians, Macedonians, Greeks, Armenians, Syrians together with several other groups had been in Cappadocia. The earliest acknowledged mention in writing of underground cities in the kingdom of Cappadocia had been from Xenophon, a Greek historian-soldier in 370 BCE. Xenophon had spent time and had traveled throughout the region and in his work he had mentioned that `the houses here were underground with a mouth like that of a well though spacious below and while entrances were tunnelled down for the beasts of burden, the human inhabitants descended by a ladder. In the houses were goats, sheep, cattle, fowls and their young and all the animals were reared and took their fodder there in the houses’.

History Full of Wars & Instability


The history of Derinkuyu as well as Anatolia is said to be full of wars and instability. Some of the former known residents of the Cappadocian region, namely the Hattians, and later on the Hittites had recognized the area as a valuable trade zone thorough early relationship with their Assyrian fellow citizen. Several tribe and thereafter large governments had motivated to control Anatolia for ages owing to its location that has served as a main trade bub between Asia and Europe.

 It was for these reasons, which the areas in Anatolia had been historically extremely volatile and had been invaded and captured often by various groups. The Roman had captured the lands of Cappadocia in 17 CE and had made it a Roman province under Emperor Tiberius and during the early days of Christianity, the Christian colonies had occupied Cappadocia.

They utilised the underground cities as a means of safety from Roman persecutions. The city of Derinkuyu had been planned with safety perceptions which illustrated that the underground dwellings were intended as refuges. The doors comprised of roll-able disc-shaped stone having a small hole towards the centre which covered entrances and passaged during raids.

Safety an Important Factor


Some speculate that the hole enabled soldiers to shoot arrows out or probably a strong beam through the hole enabled users to open and close the door with ease. It could also have served as one of the first `peepholes’. Since the doors only seemed to open and close from the inside, the inhabitants in the complex had total control. It had been quite easy to defend the village through a small opening against a large opening wherein anyone could walk in easily.

Each level seemed to link to the next level through a hallway having same stone door. Besides this, narrow passages compelled people to go through a single file and this again made it much easier to defend against incoming soldiers. The underground city also had a water containment system which took safety as an important factor. It seemed that one of the main ventilation shafts also served as a huge well.

But the wells in the city did not connect together nor did they all go to the surface. This safeguarded the inhabitants from invaders who would think of poisoning the entire water system from the outside. Cappadocia and Derinkuyu are said to be unbelievable histories together with amazing ancient dwellings that tend to go deep underground.

Wednesday, July 19, 2017

Papin Sisters: The Shocking Housemaids’ Crime That Shook France – Part II

Papin Sisters

Injuries on Face & Head


The police on entering the house had gone up the stairs and witnessed the awful scene where most of the injuries had been on the face and head of the victims. But the legs and bottom of the daughter portrayed deep knife grazes and both the women were beyond recognition since their faces had been completely ruined. Their teeth laid scattered around the room and one of the eyes of Genevieve had been lying on top of the stair.

Later on it was observed by the investigators that the other eye was under her body while the eyes of Madame were hidden within the folds of her neck scarf. Mrs Lancelin had been lying on her back with her legs apart with only one shoe on while the body of Genevieve had been facing down. A kitchen knife soaked in blood with a dark handle laid near her right hip.

 The entire space was covered with blood which had also been splattered on the walls two meters above the bodies. After the bodies had been discovered by the police, they searched the entire house. They pondered in their mind if the killer had done the same thing to the sisters.

Sisters Confessed Crime


However when they climbed the upper level where the bedroom of the maids was located, the door seemed to be locked. A locksmith had been called to unlock the door and when the police had they had found the girls in bed together with the robes on.

 Near the bed on a chair was kept the bloody hammer with traces of hair stuck to it. When questioned by the police on what had happened, the sister had instantly confessed the crime. The police had arrested the sister and had taken them into custody. Christine had become distressed and had fits when the police tried separating the girls. Ultimately, the authorities permitted a meeting between the two sisters and reported Christine had behaved and spoke in a manner which implied a sexual relationship.

Three doctors had been appointed by the court to order mental evaluations to the sisters to define if they were sane. Christine had shown indifference to the world and indicated that she had no attachments except to Lea. It was reported by the doctors that Christine’s affection for her sister had been of family devotion and that they had not noticed any type of sexual situation in the relationship.

No Pathological Mental Disorders


Lea on the other hand had considered Christine as a big sister or a mother figure and the appraisal stated that the sisters had no pathological mental disorders and no family history. The doctors considered the sisters, completely sane, indicating that the unusually closeness had caused the girls to act out together, both equally responsible for the murder.

 The jurors, at the hearing had taken only 40 minutes to consider and found that Christine and Lea Papin guilty of the murder. Lea had received a 10-year prison sentence while Christine had to face the guillotine, though the sentence had been transformed to life in prison. The gruesome double murder had infuriated the city and shocked the whole of France since there had never been such cruelty in a murder such as this.

Several people wondered why these two girls who seemed to be decent and had been treated well in their domestic positions could be so full of deep hatred that had led them to commit this hideous crime The murder seemed to be very atrocious and the gouging out of eyes along with their fingers seemed to be an act of animal savagery.

No Logical Motive For Crime


Philosophers, psychotherapist, writers together with the others started to chime in with their theories and some intellectuals expressed sympathy with the two girls. They saw the crime as a reflection of oppressive class divisions, poor working conditions together with prejudice while others believed strongly that since the girls had worked in decent employment with kind family, ate the same meals which the rest of the family had and had generous monthly salary, there was no logical motive for this kind of crime.

Some sources presumed that the girls could have been starved of love and affection. They had spent their formative years away from their parents’ instability with the members of the family who should have shown love to them. However they eventually had to go to a Catholic orphanage and there is no indication that they had suffered or were not cared for.

At the trial, a fourth doctor had testified and the girls could definitely not be normal. He had proposed that the relationship between Christine and Lea was a total merger of personalities. Lea had lost her identity to the dominant personality of Christine. In principle, there was no Christine and no Lea. The killer could really be the joint personality of two, a third identity. Psychotherapists all over the world are scrambling for a diagnosis.

Sensational Theory


Another more sensational theory had emerged – did Mrs Lancelin discover that the girls were having an incestuous homosexual relationship and did she perceive something which was not intended for her eyes and that could have been the reason why the girls gouged out the eyes with their bare hands. Christine did not fare well without her sister, in prison.

 She had displayed bouts of madness and had become strictly depressed and dejected and ultimately refused to eat at all. The prison officials then transferred her to a mental institute but there she continued to starve herself till she died in May 1937. Lea on the other hand had shown exemplary behaviour and served only 8 years of her 10-year sentence. She became a free woman in 1941 and lived with her mother in Nantes, France.

 There she worked in hotel housekeeping under an assumed name. Some say she died in 1982 but in 2000 while making a film – In Search of the Papin Sisters, Claude Ventura claimed to have found Lea living in a hospice centre in France. She had suffered a stroke and had been partially paralyzed and not in a position to speak and has passed away in 2001.


Papin Sisters: The Shocking Housemaids’ Crime That Shook France – Part I

Papin Sisters
Credit:neil-paton.tripod

Christine & Lea Papin – Famous for Murdering


In a location in northwest of France is a city called Le Mans known for little famous car race which tends to take place once a year – the `24 Hours of Le Mans’. However with a brief fleeting look at the entry of `Le Mans’ in Wikipedia in the section of Notable People one would perceive down in the 7th position in the midst of twenty difference aristocrats, priest together with well-known musicians, names of Christine and Lea Papin. These two sisters had gifted the city with some amount of dishonour which would then never have been achieved.

The Papin sisters instead of being famous for a splendid and promising accomplishment were famous only for murdering in the most horrific manner, their domestic employer together with her daughter in 1933. The Papin sisters belonged to a troubled family in Le Mans. Their mother was Clemence Derre and their father Gustave Papin. Though there were rumours circulating that Clemence had been having an affair with her boss, Gustave seemed to love her.

When she got pregnant in October 1901, Gustave had married Clemence and baby Emilia Papin was born in February 1902. However it kept Gustave wondering if Clemence still continued with her affair. He then decided to get a job in another town to take Clemence away from Le Mans.

Birth of Emilia


Two years after the birth of Emilia, Gustave made an announcement that he would be taking a new job in a different town. At this Clemence had threatened to commit suicide instead of leaving Le Mans. This gave rise in strengthening his suspicions that had she been having an affair. After she had come round to her senses, the couple then moved and began life afresh.

As they progressed their relationship seemed to be more volatile and according to reports Clemence showed no affection for her husband and children, becoming an unstable individual. Gustave on the other hand turned to alcohol. Clemence had sent Emilia who was 9 or 10 years old to the Bon Pasteur Catholic orphanage. Thereafter there were rumours stating that her father had raped her. Later on she had joined the convent and had become a nun.

Clemence had also given birth to two other children and both of them had been sent away at an early age by Clemence and her husband. Christine was born in 1905 being the middle child of the family seemed to be the difficult child. Immediately after her birth, her parents had handed her over to her father’s sister who had been happy to have her. She remained there with her aunt for seven years after which she went to a Catholic orphanage.

Papin Sisters

Christine - Strong Personality/Lea - Shy


Though Christine preferred joining the convent, her mother did not permit her and sometime later engaged her into service. Having an average intelligence she seemed to have a stronger personality than Lea her sister. Her employers had stated that she would be rude at times though she was a hard worker and a good cook. Lea born in 1911 on the other hand was shy and the youngest child of three girls.

She seemed to be somewhat lower intelligence than her sister and was an introvert, quiet and obedient. Lea had grown up with her mother’s brother till he died and thereafter had joined a religious orphanage till the age of 15 years. In 1926, Christine and Lea Papin being of age were fortunate to have a domestic live-in job together in the home of the Lancelin family in Le Mans. It was a home of a retired lawyer, his wife Leonie together with their adult daughter, Genevieve.

 Christine worked as the family cook and Lea cleaned the house. The Papin sisters seemed on most account good and mode housemaids and every Sunday they would dress up and attend church service. They had built up a reputation of being diligent workers with good behaviour.

The Papin Sisters – Unsocial


Being known to be quite unsocial, Christine and Lea preferred to be by themselves and everyday during their two-hour break after lunch, instead of going out to enjoy themselves, they rather preferred staying in their bedroom. The Papin sisters, by 1933 had been with the Lancelins for 6 years. Christine was 27 years while Lea was 21 years old. That year on February 2, Mrs Lancelin together with her daughter have returned home at around 5.30 to an almost dark house and it had been the second time in a week when due to malfunctioning of iron while Christine had been ironing ,had resulted in the electrical fuse to blow up. Strangely the repair man who had returned the iron that day found nothing wrong with it.

When Christine had informed Mrs Lancelin that the iron had broken down again, she became angry and an argument took place. Mrs Lancelin had been a strict employer and would often put on white gloves to check for dust, would give feedback on Christine’s cooking and make Lea redo the cleaning when she found that she had missed a spot. However this time seemed to be a different affair. It was said that Christine had snapped and being at the top of the stairs on the landing of the first floor had leaped at Genevieve tearing out her eyes with her fingers.

Brutally Slaughtered the Two Women


Lea had quickly joined in the struggle and grabbed Mrs Lancelin. Christine had ordered her to gouge out the eyes of Mrs Lancelin after which Christine ran downstairs to the kitchen to get a knife and hammer and returning back upstairs had clubbed and sliced the mother and her daughter. The sick sisters also utilised a pewter pitcher lying on a table at the top of the stairs to bash the heads of the ladies.

According to experts the incident had lasted for about 30 minutes but eventually the maids had brutally slaughtered both the women. When Mr Lancelin together with his son-in-law had returned home between 6.30 and 7.00 pm the door had been bolted from inside and they were unable to enter though they knew that someone was at home. The house had been in total darkness except for a faint light coming from the upper level of the house. This gave rise to suspicion and hence they sought the help of the police.

Monday, July 10, 2017

Why They Fight Russia in the Air, But Not at Sea

Open Ocean Combat

We have been observing rising violence on the land, sea as well as in the air, after a break of some years, from some familiar sources. As in the past few months there have been recurrent conflicts on the sea, particularly from the Chinese as well as the Iranians.

But in the case of the Russians we only seem to knock up against their elements in the sky which is due to two core elements namely geography and terror. Though several may not be aware of it, it was not till recently that such things like an `open ocean’ combat had taken place in military history. Navies had for most of the time, found themselves restrained either by depth, winds or currents to certain routes.

Besides that there had been the tussle to essentially discover their opponent out on the open ocean and for this purpose, certain chokepoints have envisaged various naval clashes. Credits of our own independence is due to one such fight between a French battle fleet and the British Royal Navy which had stopped the British from being capable of evacuating Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1781 and eventually had terminated the war.

Chokepoints – Straits Leading to Ocean

The fight had begun right at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay where the French had been waiting for the Brits and hence it had been that these chokepoints like straits leading to the ocean had turned out to be blockages for those following them also.

 It was this that had been driving the Russian crazy for at least four centuries. The Russia Empire since the time of Tsar Peter the Great had pursued expansion to increase not only their wealth but regularly endless search in obtaining unfettered access to the sea. Fettered termed has been utilised since the Russia had actually been restrained with regards to their access to the open oceans.

Their port towards the top of the Baltic Sea in the Gulf of Finland had been initiated by the same Tsar Peter and had been humbly named after him. St Petersburg has long given the Russians the facility to move in the adjoining bodies of water though a bit more.

Getting to the actual blue water and the whole of the globe would mean getting beyond the Danes as well as the Norwegians or even both and that alone was not a convincing proposal even before NATO.

Deep Water Sheltered Port – Access Black Sea

Destined towards the north by geography at the entrance of the Baltic and with ice above the Arctic Circle, the Russians moved south and ran into the same kind of situation as they stretched. Tsarina Catherine the Great had pressed downward and had incorporated the Ukraine together with it the Crimean peninsula into greater Russia.

 The Russian naval base of Sebastopol with her founding had a deep water sheltered port which enabled them to access the Black Sea. However they still has been hemmed in now for a number of centuries by the ironclad lock of the Bosporus more recently at least nominally by the Treaty of Montreaux.

Even if they managed to get out, they would still only have access to the Mediterranean and not the actual open ocean. They tend to have access to the Pacific though it is quite far away from their epicentre and there their operationary to be mostly expeditionary just on leaving the base.

Rodina – Motherland – Land Issue

All this goes a long way in comprehending half of the reasons why the Russians are seen nudging up against us from the sky. To comprehend the remaining half, one could recall that the Russians tend to be really, extremely, fearful. It seems to be all about defense of the Rodina, the `Motherland’ for them and that seems to be a land issue.

 All that they do and design is said to be directed upon that individual prevailing passion. For this purpose, the Russian and before that the Soviet, Navy was and is, designed with power projection in mind as well as with disruption of anyone who tends to influence events on land and hence would be a land threat to them.

It is for this reason that they tend to have an extensive, and to some extent technologically striking, track record in submarines building though not aircraft carriers. This is also the reason why they seem to make long-range anti-ship missiles though are not progressing anything even distantly impending an oceanic system of at-sea replacement or restoration.

A century ago, they had given up on true battleships and knew that they could never combat their way out from their two significant naval bases on the surface and stopped attempting. On the contrary they aimed on developing the weapons which could stop America as well as the other NATO and world allied from getting to Europe and through it, on land, to the Motherland.

Friday, July 7, 2017

Existence Of Orbiting Supermassive Black Holes Confirmed

Black Holes

Research on Interaction Between Black Holes


Astronomers at The University of New Mexico have informed that for the first time they have accomplished observing and measuring the orbital motion between two supermassive black holes hundreds of millions of light years from Earth, a discovery said to be more than a decade in the creation. Krishma Bansal, graduate student of UNM Department of Physics & Astronomy is said to be the first-author on the paper `Constraining the Orbit of the Supermassive Black Hole Binary 0402 +379’ published recently in The Astrophysical Journal.

 Bansal together with UNM Professor Greg Taylor and colleagues at Stanford, the U.S. Naval Observatory and the Gemini Observatory had been researching on the interaction between these black holes for 12 years. Taylor had informed that for a long time they had been looking in space to attempt and find a pair of these supermassive black holes orbiting as a result of two galaxies reunion.

Though they conceived that this should be happening, no one had seen it till now. An international team of researchers in early 2016, comprising of a UNM former student working on LIGO project had identified the presence of gravitational waves endorsing the 100-year-old prediction of Albert Einstein, surprising the scientific community.

The Very Long Baseline Array - VLBA


These gravitational waves had been the consequence of two stellar mass black holes bumping in space within the Hubble time and due to the latest research, the scientists are now in a position of beginning to comprehend what leads up to the merger of supermassive black holes that tends to create ripples in the fabric of space-time.

 They have begun to learn regarding the evolution of galaxies together with the role these black holes tend to play in it. Researchers have been able to observe several frequencies of radio signals emitted by these supermassive black holes – SMBH by utilising the Very Long Baseline Array – VLBA, which is a system made up of 10 radio telescopes all over the U.S. and operated in Socorro, N.M. The astronomers, over a period of time had been capable of planning their course and confirm them as visual binary system.

It meant that they observed these black holes in orbit with one another. Bansal had informed that when Dr Taylor had handed over the data, he had been at the beginning of learning how to image and understand the same. As he learned there was data going back to 2003 and they planned it, determining they were orbiting one another and the same was thrilling.

An Unbelievable Achievement


The discovery for Taylor was the outcome of over 20 years of work with an unbelievable achievement considering the accuracy needed to pull off these measurements. At approximately 750 million light years from Earth, the galaxy called 0402+379 together with the supermassive black holes in it, were exceedingly isolated though were also at the precise distance from Earth and from each other to be observed.

Bansal has informed that these supermassive black holes tend to have a blend of mass of 15 billion times that of the sun or 15 billion solar masses. The incredible size of these black holes means that their orbital period is about 24,000 years. While the team has perceived them for a decade they have still to look out for the slimmest curvature in their orbit.

Roger W. Romani, professor of physics at Stanford University as well as the member of the research team had informed that if one imagines a snail on the recently discovered Earth-like planet orbiting Prixima Centauri – 4,243 light years away, moving at 1 cm per second, it is the lanky motion they are determining here.

Binary Stars Offer Incredible Insights


Taylor had commented that what they have been able in doing is a true chemical achievement over the 12-year period utilising the VLBA in achieving adequate resolution and accuracy in the astrometry to really see the orbit happening, has been a bit of victory in technology to have been able to do so. Though the technical accomplishment of this finding has been really remarkable, Bansal and Taylor have stated that the research could also teach them a lot more regarding the universe where galaxies come from and when they go.

An astronomer with the U.S. Naval Observatory, Bob Zavala stated that the orbits of binary stars offer incredible insights regarding stars and now we will be in a position of using same techniques in understanding supermassive black holes as well as the galaxies they tend to reside in. On-going observation of the orbit and interaction of these two supermassive black holes could be helpful in obtaining an improved understanding of what the future of our galaxy could look like.

 Presently the Andromeda galaxy that has a SMBH also at its core is said to be on a path to run into with our Milky Way. Bansal has informed that the research team would be taking another observation of the system in three or four years and confirm the motion and gain an accurate orbit. The team in the meantime, anticipates that the discovery would encourage related work from the other astronomers across the globe.

Wednesday, July 5, 2017

'Second Earth' Proxima b Could Support Alien Life After All


ALIEN LIFE ON THE PROXIBA B

People can’t take away that we belong to the mother Earth and we are her children. Now, ever since the space travel came into inception, man has travelled to far distant lands in search of water and life and air. They have been successful to some extent. The best thing is that the last summer the researchers and the other scientists announced that the nearest star which is close to our Earth can be considered as the Second Earth. The name has been given Proxima b. the report suggests that alien life is possible on this second earth as the conditions supports that of the survival of life. it is indeed a great news.

THE FACTS

Last year in the month of August, the news of Proxima B came into existence. The planet is not more than 4.2 light years from our own planet. The discovery has led to the conclusion that the second earth has the perfect atmosphere to receive enough sum of light in order to sustain the fluid water on the body. There were some questions raised after the discovery of the Proxima b. well, the first one to shoot was that it might be the cause of a huge amount of radiation due to the proximity. Finally, the conclusion from the scientists is that this new planet can support life.

THE DISTANCE

The planet is very cool and is only 25.2 trillion miles from our earth. It is a red dwarf planet which belongs to the system of Alpha Centauri. This second earth is now a part of the Star shot project. The name is given as it is almost the same size of our own earth. The atmosphere is considered to be the same as that of our own earth. To break the barriers of climate’s knowledge, the scientists from the University of Exeter are doing their research.

THE WORKING

The Met office unified model have been used in order to understand the climate of the second earth. This is a great step as the weather pattern is the most important part of the planet. It will ensure whether life is possible or not. The weather is almost similar that of the earth. So, life is habitable on this second earth. The atmosphere comprised of carbon dioxide traces. So, life is possible on this planet.

THE FURTURE

The future is unpredictable but still we live with our hopes. This is what makes our lives more enchanting and give us one more reason to live another day. In the near future, there may be experiments held on the grounds of the second planet whether life can rally sustain with the elements found on the surface of the planet. The temperature of the planet is between -90 degree Celsius to 30 degree Celsius. The presence of liquid water makes the possibility even clearer.

Tuesday, July 4, 2017

Your Guide to Solving the Next Online Viral Maths Problem

Precise Means of Online Equations - Explained

Several times we may have come across an online post or a fragment of a social media feed stating something such as `This math Problem is Stumping the whole Internet & Can You Solve It? Or Apparently 9 out of 10 people get this wrong. Do you know the answer?

‘At the core of the post there tends to lie numbers and symbols. Irrespective of how hard you may tend to try, it may seem impossible to accept the challenges. One may attempt to do so and on checking on the comment sector you are likely to get to know that some have agreed with your answers while the others tend to have a different point of view. The precise means of approaching these online equations with the least of hassle is explained below:

Language of Mathematics


We tend to read from left to right in the English language and hence it seems natural to view mathematical equations in the same manner. However one would not try to read Arabic or Mandarin in the same way nor would they try to do so with the discrete language of mathematics. In order to be maths-literate, it is essential to comprehend some of the applicable rules regarding spelling and grammar in mathematics.

 A set of firm rules called the order of operations tends to express the precise arithmetical grammar wherein it conveys to us the system in which the mathematical operations need to be performed such as addition and multiplication when they both appear in an equation. The mnemonic BODMAS – Brackets, Order, Division, Multiplication, Addition, and Subtraction, in Australia tends to teach students in assisting them to recall the correct order.

In BODMAS, the order tends to refer to mathematical powers like squared, cube or square root. This could be taught in other countries as PEMDAS, BEDMAS or BIDMAS though all these may come down to precisely the same thing. For instance, it would mean that if we have an equation containing addition as well as multiplication we tend to carry out multiplication first irrespective of the order where they are written.
While considering the equations:
  • (a) 3 x 4 + 2 
  • (b) 2 + 3 x 4
When BODMAS is applied we see that these equations are precisely the same or equivalent and in both the cases we tend to calculate 3x4=12 and then calculate 12+2=14. However some may tend to get an incorrect answer for the second equation since they would have tried solving it from left to right. They may do the addition first (2+3=5) and thereafter multiplication of (5x4) in order to get a wrong answer of 20.

Brackets tend to make a difference


It is here where the brackets tend to be beneficial segment of arithmetical punctuation. A well placed bracket in maths could change the calculation completely. They are utilised in providing a specific part of an equation and we always carry out the calculation within the bracket before dealing with what is outside the bracket. If brackets are introduced around the addition in equation in the above equations we then tend to have two new equations namely
  • (c) 3x(4+2) 
  • (d) (2+3)x4

Correct Understanding of Operation


These equations are not equivalent to each other and in both the cases, the bracket conveys to us to carry out the addition before doing the multiplication. This would mean that we have to compute 3x6 for (c) and for (d) 5x4. We now arrive at different answers wherein the answer for (c) is 18 and (d) is 20. In the case of (a) and (b) equations brackets were not essential since BODMAS conveys to us to do the multiplication before addition.

But with the addition of brackets which reinforces the BODMAS rules could be helpful in evading confusion. Comprehending BODMAS is likely to get us most of the way with regards in resolving the problem though it also assists in being aware of the commutative as well as the associative properties of mathematics. Calculated process is said to be commutative if it is not considered in which order the numbers are said to be written in and addition is commutative since a+b=b+a. However subtraction is not a commutative since a-b is not the same as b-a.

 Moreover it is also direct to display that multiplication is commutative while division is not. An operation is said to be associative when we have numerous successive incidences of this type of operation and it does not matter to which order we carry them out.

Moreover addition as well as multiplication seems to have this property and though subtraction together with division does not have the same. Once the understanding of the correct order of operation together with the associative as well as commutative properties has been arrived we tend to have the tool-box in solving any well-defined arithmetical equation.

Friday, June 23, 2017

Operation Gladio

Operation Gladio – Nickname for - NATO

Operation Gladio is the name given for a secret North Atlantic Treaty Organisation – NATO `stay behind’, procedure during the Cold War in Italy. Its resolution was to formulate and implement armed resistance in case of a Warsaw Pact attack and conquest. It was a NATO backed revolutionary network that had been established after WW2 initially inspired due to fear of the USSR.



 It had been called the `stay behind network since in case of doubt if the Red Army would invade Europe, its member had to `stay behind’ enemy line to disrupt Soviet control. Gladio is said to be the Italian type of gladiu a kind of Roman shortsword. The stay-behind operations had been prepared in several NATO member countries as well as some neutral countries.

The role of the Central Intelligence Agency – CIA in Gladio as well as the extent of its activities at the time of the Cold War era together with any connection to terrorist attacks perpetrated in Italy at the time of the `Years of Lead’ – in late 1860s to early 1980s, were the topic of debate. Switzerland together with Belgium were the countries who had parliamentary inquiries in the matter. Operation Gladio had first been known in 1990 in Italy after more than 40 years of secret operations.

NATO’s Secret Armies


It had been revealed by the members of the project that identical projects prevailed in most of the countries of Western Europe. These stay-behind networks had been in essence, super-secret armies in about 14 European countries that had been kept undisclosed from the official governmental structure of the host countries.

They were controlled by the other forces like the CIA and MI6 which were mostly inactive though were also involved in anti-communist activities comprising of anti-democratic tension together with false flag `terrorism’. Gladio or Sword in Italian was the name technically given to their operations in Italy though has since, come by extension to stand for the phenomenon as complete.

 Indication of such type of arrangement that had been kept concealed from both public as well as politicians democratically elected governments in the host countries for a quarter of a century had been exposed through a series of scandalous revelations in Italy together with other NATO countries at the time of the 90s.

It had been meticulously documented by Daniele Ganser, a Swiss historian in his 2004 book – NATO’s Secret Armies. This had debatably been the most shocking book ever to be unnoticed by the corporate media.
 

Accepted/Confirmed Instance of False-Flag Terrorism


  Evidence in the Ganser book of terrorism focused against the people by secret armies had been funded and organised by NATO as well as answerable to deep state elements with NATO, MI6 together with CIA instead of the respective governments, is said to be too shocking that the initial reaction of several people would be to discard the same.

However, in Italy, Switzerland and Belgium, the claims have been authenticated by juridical inquired and have been debated in the European Parliament. Gladio and its stay-behind networks could be one of the historically `accepted or confirmed instance of false-flag terrorism.

 The resolution, documentation together with the confessions and convictions tend to confirm that Gladio is said to be much more than the media or government would have you to believe a mere plot theory.