Thursday, July 31, 2014

Coprolites – Indicate Former Presence of Organism

Coprolites
Coprolites are the preservation or fossilization of the matter of intestine and the excrement of organisms or it could be termed as fossilized faeces and are rare since they decay easily and if located, they are found among sea organisms.

Coprolites
Since they are fossilized faeces, coprolite indicate the former presence of organisms in the vicinity they are found but it does not indicate the exact organism present though in most cases, there are exception as in the case of the shark who have distinctive character of spiral valves in their intestines.

The shark coprolite has grooves which are made by spiral valves and when the organism indicate these distinctive characters, it tends to be possible in classifying the organism with coprolite though it becomes a bit hard to link faeces with certain organism. Its name is derived from a Greek word `kopros’ which means dung and `lithos’ which means stone.

It was first described by William Buckland, the geologist, in 1829 before which they were known as fossil fir cones and bezoar stones. These provided valuable information in paleontology since they gave evidence to the predation and diet of extinct organism and Coprolites vary in size from a few millimetres to over 60 centimetres.

Recognition – Structural Pattern

Coprolites
Recognition of coprolites is supported by their structural patterns like in the case of spiral or annular marking, as in undigested food fragments, by their content and by associated fossil matter and smallest coprolites are difficult to classify from inorganic pellets or from eggs.

Mostly the coprolites contents are of calcium phosphate together with small quantities of organic matter and on analysing them, it indicates the diet of the animal from which it came from.


Coprolites
Coprolites have been found in deposits varying in age from the Cambrian era to recent times and are also found all over the world and some of them tend to be useful as index fossils like the Favreina during the Jurassic period of Haute Savoie in France.

Coprolites are very important in understanding the diet of the organism and also an indicator of the ecosystem surrounding the organism. On researching on the coprolites and its contents, it conveys where the organism lived, like in the case of Ichthyosaurs, extinct, aquatic fish like reptiles.

Mary Anning’s Observation & William Buckland Belief

Coprolites
Coprolite with the internal skeletons of two hundred belemnites – a conical fossil shell of an extinct cephalopod, together with fish scales and bones were discovered in the Ichthyosaur which indicated that they lived among fish and cephalopods.

Coprolite are very valuable than their paleontologic value and there are many who treasure them as gifts. Mary Anning, the fossil hunter noticed that bezoar stones were found mostly in the abdominal region of ichthyosaur skeletons in the Lias formation at Lyme Regis and noted that if these stones were broken open, they would contain fossilized fish bones and scales and at times bones from small ichthyosaurs.

These observations of Anning led William Buckland, to believe that the stones were fossilized faeces and called them Coprolites. He also presumed that the spiral marking on the fossils showed that ichthyosaurs with spiral ridges in their intestines were same to those of modern shark with some of these coprolites were black with ink which were swallowed belemnites.

Monday, July 28, 2014

Hulbjerg Jættestue Of Neolithic Period

Hulbjerg Jættestue
Hulbjerg passage grave is located in southern Langeland. Travel from Rudkobing to the end of the island on 305 highway and 2.5 km before Bagenkop, where highway 305 leads to the west and at this point one will find Gulstavvej which tends to continue southwards.

On taking this lane after approximately 1.5 km turn towards the west, on the right onto Sogardsvej where the site is around 1 km along this lane towards the north side of the road.

The site is a few meters away from the road.The Hulbjerg passage is hidden by a round barrow towards the southern tip of the island of Langeland and originated from the earlyNeolithic period which was known as the Funnel Beaker Culture.

In 1960 the grave was excavated by archaeologist, one of Europe’s leading experts in late Stone Age burials, Hakon Berg of the Langeland Museum anddiscovered the remains of 40 individuals who had been buried during different periods of the Neolithic Age. Majority of them were children and adults from the ancient period of Funnelbeaker Culture which was predominated around 4,800-6,000 years ago.

One of Funnel Beaker Culture Site


Hulbjerg Jættestue
Hulbjerg is one of the Funnel Beaker Culture sites which were lucky to survive, for when Petersen of the National Museum surveyed the site in 1874; there were seven passage graves and dolmen within a square kilometre of the site.

By the end of the nineteenth century, all the passage graves were levelled though the efforts of Hakon Berge of Langelands Museum saved Hulbjerg towards posterity.


Hulbjerg Jættestue
He got engaged in excavations and then a major renovation programme in 1960 – 1961 took place where the entire chamber became filled with earth and the task became difficult for a couple of years.

The site was 21 meters in diameter with a height of 2.5 meters with an impressive chamber which was approximately 6 meters long and 2 meters wide leading along a passage.

 The walls of the chamber comprised of 13 large uprights, tightly constructed fine wall of hewn stone tiles while on the exterior, the chamber was sealed with clay layered with crushed flint. The ceiling consisted of five large slabs of rock while the floor had small flat stones which were covered in burnt flint.

Skull Showing Traces of Dentistry Skill


Hulbjerg Jættestue
The entire site was circular with the main mound of the tomb standing on a lower mount giving an impression of a two tier effect. The discoveries included a number of skeletons, amber beads, pots and flint tools.

The bones and skulls when discovered were all sorted out in separate piles where one of the skulls showed traces of the world’s earliest dentistry skill of the ancient period.

It was discovered that a flint drill had been used to drill down and puncture a painful abscess in the root canal treatment and this skull has been placed on display at the Langeland Museum.

The burial chamber, besides the skeletal remains also had sharpened flint axes and chisels, flint daggers, decorated ceramics, amber beads and transverse arrowheads.


 It is presumed that the Stone Age people may have visited their dead and could have involved them in their rituals.

Saturday, July 26, 2014

Klerksdorp Spheres – Inexplicable Out of Space Artefacts

Klerksdorp Spheres
Spheres have been found in the mines of South Africa and have been the cause of curiosity for several researchers for many years.

The Klerksdorp spheres are small objects which are spherical to disc shape and have been collected by miners and others from three billion year old pyrophyllite deposits that have been mined by Wonderstone Ltd; near Ottosdal, in South Africa.

These spheres have been considered as inexplicable out of place artefacts which could only have been created by intelligent beings.

Klerksdorp Spheres
Geologists who have researched on these objects are of the opinion that the objects are not manufactured but are rather the outcome of natural processes. The Klerksdorp spheres range in diameter from 0.5 to 10 cm.

As indicated by geologist Paul V. Heinrich they vary widely in shape from either approximate or flattened spheres to well created discs which are inter-grown.With the help of petrographic and x-ray diffraction analyses of the specimens of the objects, Heinrich discovered that they consisted either of hematite or wollastonite mixed with small amounts of hematite and goethite.

From observations done by Cairncross and Nel together with others, it indicated that most of the Klerksdorp spheres that were found in unaltered pyrophyllite comprised of pyrite.

Well Defined Radical Structure

Klerksdorp Spheres
The colour ranged from dark reddish brown, red to dusky red from the specimens that were studied by Heinrich but the colour of objects composed of pyrite is unknown. The specimens of these objects were cut open by Heinrich which portrayed a well-defined radial structure terminating on either the centre or centres of a Klerksdorp sphere and some of them showed well defined and parallel latitudinal ridges or grooves.

Specimens which also consistedof inter-grown flattened sphered, portrayed such grooves. Some of these spheres are elliptical in shape having rough ridges surrounding its centre though some tend to be so balanced in shape and proportion that the grooves around them seems straight and hand carved which makes it unlikely that they were naturally formed.

Hematite/Geothite

Klerksdorp Spheres
The Klerksdorp Museum, in 2002, had posted a letter from John Hund of Pietersburg of South Africa on its website claiming that the spheres were tested at the California Space Institute and scientist had concluded that its balance was so fine, it exceeded the limit of their measuring technology and it was within one hundred thousandth of an inch from absolute perfection.

However the claim that was made in the letter was not verified according to Heinrich and the same was later removed. Heinrich did not discover any perfect balance and shape in the South African spheres that he studied. In Utah, identical spheres were also found which were about two million years old and were known as Moqui marbles or Moqui balls.

They had a sandy interior with a hard, circular exterior made up of iron oxide and Heinrich’s research on one of the Klerksdorp spheres indicated it to be made of hematite which is a mineral form of iron oxide. He also found another sphere which consisted of the mineral wollastonite together with hematite and goethite, a kind of hydrated iron oxide.

Aether vibrations

Aether – Zero Energy Field

Aether vibrations
In recent times, there seems to be various theorists providing us with several alternative physics theories in order to view matter, energy and the nature of the universe and consciousness. New theories have been making attempts to bring together many of the inconsistencies; current theories are difficult to explain.

A common denominator of the new theories is the postulate on the existence of Aether which is also known as Zero Energy Field, Akashic Field, Source Field and several other names and the universe we live in is built on unified unseen foundation of conscious energy - `zero point energy or `aether’.

Till the 20th century, Western scientific tradition considered that this energy force did exist though the existence of this aether was proven by the Michaelson-Morley (M-M) experiment to be false and most of the scientists believed it to be true. Various reasons seem to indicate that the M-M experiment seems flawed with many researches mentioned, have detailed explanations on how it had been interpreted.

Nature had Four Elements & Aether


Aether vibrations
Aether science is the remaining model of the universe which fits with the evidence that is available now. Current theories like Sequential Physics, Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics, Sub-quantum Kinetics, General System Theory, Harmonic Universe Theory, Reciprocal System Theory, working with these concepts and any number of Unified Field Theories agree that physical reality comes from these hidden energy substance creating all we see and know through vibration.

Greeks scientists and philosophers were of the belief that nature had four elements namely earth, fire, water and air and the atoms were believed to be the main blocks of these elements of the universe. It was Aristotle who had added the fifth element aether and presumed that planets and the stars were made of this aether.

Consciousness Relates to Aether Vibration 

Aether vibrations
In 350 BC, Plato, the Greek philosopher described the five elements, indicating that matter was created from the five Platonic solids which he had described in his book `Timaeus’ where he equated the tetrahedron with the fire element, the cube with the earth, water with icosahedron, air with octahedron and the aether with dodecahedron, the material of the stars and planets.

With this we get to know that that there are a large number of elements in nature than what was known in Greek antiquity though it is a known fact that Platonic solids have an important role to play in the chemistry as the internal organization structure of molecule of several materials like the Platonic solids which are seen in the organization of molecule of natural crystals.

Einstein had stated that space without aether is unthinkable since in space, not only would there be no propagation of light but no space time intervals in the physical sense as well. In new physics, matter is created each moment as a standing wave – a vortex in the vacuum and the condensed centre of the vortex creates the illusion of a particle.

All matter created, absorbs torsion waves which can be static or dynamic and if dynamic, the waves tend to move at superluminal speed, a billion times faster than the speed of light. As per the studies of Kozyrev, thoughts as well as feelings generate torsion waves and consciousness relates to Aether vibration.

The torsion waves could be the basis of several observations in remote viewing telepathy and psycho kinesis.

Wednesday, July 23, 2014

Gobekli Tepe-Navel Of the World

GobekliTepe – An Archaeological Site of Circular and Oval Structures

Gobekli Tepe
Gobekli Tepe, an archaeological site, is at the top of a mountain ridge in South-eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, which is approximately 6 km northwest of Sanhurga. It is a series of circular as well as oval shaped structures set in the slopes of hill called Gobekli Tepe Ziyaret where `Ziyaret’ means `visit’, though this has been left out of the name.

The height of the tell is 15 m and around 300 m in diameter and is around 760 m above sea level. This had been excavated under the direction of Klaus Schmidt since 1996 by a German archaeological team.

Gobekli Tepe
The tell comprises of two phases of ritual use which dates back to the 10th-8th millennium BC and at the time of the first phase, circles of huge T shaped stone pillars were constructed.

Over 200 pillars in around 20 circles, through geophysical surveyswere presently known.

Each of the pillars has a height of around 6 m weighing up to 20 tons and is fitted into sockets which have been hewn out of the bedrock.

In the second phase, Pre-pottery Neolithic B- PPNB, the first being Pre-pottery Neolithic A –PPNA, the erected pillar are small in size and stand in rectangular rooms having floors of polished lime and this site was abandoned after the PPNB era.

The purpose of these structure is yet unknown though an understanding shared by Klaus Schmidt, the excavator was that they were early Neolithic sanctuaries.

Navel Of the World

Gobekli Tepe
Some translate Gobekli Tepe as `Navel of the World’, where Gobek means `navel or belly’, while Tepe mean `hill’ and the corrected translation of the site could be `bulged out hill’.

Sensational media did make attempts to link Gobekli Tepe to the biblical – Garden of Eden and though Gobekli Tepe seems to be old, it does not seem to be unique nor was it a garden.

The site was first recorded in a survey by Istanbul University as well as the University of Chicago in the year 1963 which was identified as a possible Neolithic by American archaeologist, Peter Benedict who assumed that the Neolithic layers were covered by Byzantine and Islamic cemeteries.

The survey also noted various flints and large limestone slabs, where the upper parts of the T shaped pillars were considered to be grave markers.

The hill since long has been used for agricultural purpose where the locals who inhabited the site had moved rocks placing them in clearance piles thereby eliminating archaeological evidence that were at the site.

Klaus Schmidt- German Excavator, Explored & Reviewed the Site

Gobekli Tepe
It was Schmidt, of the German Archaeological Institute who had been working at Nevali Cori previously, was on the lookout for another site to explore and reviewed the archaeological literature on the surrounding area and found the Chicago researcher’s briefing of Gobekli Tepe.

He then decided to look into it and explore the site. Using his knowledge of comparable objects at Nevali Cori he recognized that the rocks and slabs were sections of T shaped pillars.

He began excavating the following year, in collaboration with Sanhurfa Museum and soon discovered massive T shaped pillars some of which had been subjected to attempts at smashing by farmers who considered them to be ordinary large rocks.

Monday, July 21, 2014

Stone Ships

Stone Ships – Early Burials – Bronze/Iron Age

Stone Ships
Stone ships were a kind of early burial that was used, during the bronze and iron ages, as well as during the Viking period.

Their shapes were in the form of acute oval stones circles and could have been used to frame graves that were within the sides of the ship though they could also be considered as memorials for the deceased. They could be early burial customs of the Scandinavian which are also found in Northern Germany as well as the Baltic states.

These cremation or grave burial seems to be surrounded by loosely of tightly fit stones or slabs in the outline of a ship and are found in grave areas but which are at time far away from other archaeological remains.

It is not known why the wealthy Vikings were buried in this way but there is a belief that the stone ship portrays a boat which was intended to carry the deceased to the land of the dead since they discovered bones and urns on excavation of the sites.

There are various sizes of ship setting, some of monumental proportions and the largest known stone of such likeness existed in Jelling, which was a gigantic stone ship 354 meters long and the stone ship is the oldestof its kind, the Jelling stone ship in Denmark from the Viking age.

South Mound/Gorm’s Mound

Stone Ships
In Sweden, the size range from 67 meters to a few meters and the orientation also tend to vary. They can be cobbled or filled with stones on the inside or just have raised stones in position of masts and the illusion of them being ships has been reinforced by the use of larger stones towards the end.

 Harold Bluetooth took the stone ship as his beginning point when he erected the two gigantic mounds and part of the stone ship was covered by the south Mound or Gorm’s Mound, Remaining of the oldest Jelling stone ship from the Viking age are traced here, In 1861, while excavating the South Mound, King Gorm’s grave was not discovered but various other monoliths were traced but due to the narrow galleries it seemed hard to get to know what they were like.

Monoliths Surfaced 

Stone Ships
Monoliths also appeared during the excavation of the North Mound that same year which were placed across the gallery and had to be blown away by engineers.

In 1941, another excavation was carried out on the South Mound and they decided to dig down from the top of the mound though they did not succeed in locating a grave but few of the monoliths surfaced which stood in two rows around two meters apart from each other forming an acute angle.

 Through the center of the South Mound, Harold Bluetooth’s large runic stone and the barrow in the North Mound, a line is drawn in the middle of this angle. New examinations and measurements were done in 1992 at the South Mound and it was discovered that the monoliths had been put up in two slightly curved courses,

Saturday, July 19, 2014

The Plain Jars – Laos, Most Mysterious

The Plain Jars
The Plain of Jars in central Laos is one of the Southeast Asia’s most mysterious sites on Earth which is a misunderstood prehistoric place. It is shrouded in myth and mystery fascinating both archaeologist as well as scientists since its discovery in 1930s.

End numbers of large stone jars each weighing several tones, of unknown ancient originhave been found scattered around the Xieng Khouang plain in Laos forming one of the most awesome archaeological collections which appear in clusters and range from a single jar to several in number, on the lower foothills which surround the central plain and the upland valleys.

The Xieng Khouang Plateau is situated at the northern area of the Annamese Cordillera, which is the main mountain range of Indochina. Research done in early 1930 of the Plain of Jars claimed that the stone jars were associated with prehistoric burial activities.

Excavations carried out by Japanese archaeologist together with Lao in the intervening year, have also supported the interpretation with the discovery of human remains, burial goods and ceramics round the stone jars.

Fascinating Sites for Study of Southeast Asian Prehistory

The Plain Jars
The Plain of Jars date back to the Iron Age from 500 BC to 500 AD and is one of those fascinating sites for studying Southeast Asian prehistory.

 It also has the potential to enlighten on the relationship between the complex societies as well as the megalithic structures providing an understanding in the social organisation of Iron Age Southeast Asia’s communities.

There are over ninety sites within the province of Xieng Khouang with each site ranging from 1 up to 400 stone jars where the jars vary in diameter and height between 1 and 3 meters. These have been hewn out of rock and their shape is cylindrical with the bottom being wider than the top.

These stone jars are not decorated with the exception of one jar at Site 1 which has a human bas relief that has been carved on its exterior. China is drawn parallel between `frogman’ at Site 1 and the rock painting at Huashan in Guangxi. The paintings depict large full frontal humans with arms that have been raised and the knees bent which date back to 500 BC-200 BC.

Stone Markers to Mark Grave

The Plain Jars
Most of the jars have lip rims presuming that all stone jars supported lids though few stone lids have been recorded indicating that the bulk of lids could be fashioned from perishable material and hence no trace of them.


Stone lids with animal have been observed at some of the sites like Ban Phakeo while the bas relief animals are presumed to be monkeys, frogs and tigers.

The Plain Jars
Besides the stone lids there are also stone discs which have one flat side and are grave markers placed on the surface to either cover or mark a burial pit and these grave markers are found more infrequently than stone jars and in close proximity.

Besides these, there are other stone markers which are not worked upon but have been placed intentionally to mark a grave.

 Towards north of Xieng Khouang one will find an extensive network of intentionally placed largely unworked stones which mark elaborate burial pits while the chambers are known as standing stones of Huaphan. On observation it indicated that they belonged to the Bronze Age.

Thursday, July 17, 2014

Lost city of Dwaraka Where Sri Krishna Lived

Dwaraka City – Archaeological finding of underwater structures

Dwaraka
Dwaraka is a city as well as a municipality of Devbhoomi Dwaraka district in Gujarat state of India and is one of the foremost Chardham four sacred Hindu pilgrimage sites. It is also one of the Sapta Puri, seven most ancient religious sites in the country.

This city is mostly identified with the Dwaraka Kingdom which was the ancient kingdom of Krishna and is believed to be the first capital of Gujarat. The lost city of Dwaraka is evidence that plasma mythology as well as electric universe catastrophe took place with further evidence that the ancient stories of awe and shock in the skies and solar systems were based on true incidents.

Archaeological discoveries have led to findings of underwater stone structures which indicated settlement during proto historic period with evidence of stone block with Gujarati script. The stone that are dressed showed that dowels had been used and on close examination of anchors that were found on the site, indicate that the harbour site dates to historical times along with the underwater structure being of late medieval period. The cause of the destruction of the ancient port could be the coastal erosion which probably took place during that time.

Dwaraka – State where Sri Krishna Lived 


 Dwaraka
Dwaraka, according to Vishnu Purana, got submerged by the sea after the death of Lord Krishna and was regarded as a great metaphor and a part of a story which was accompanied with great myths.

 Towards early eighties, an important archaeological site was discovered at Dwaraka, in India which was the legendary site of Lord Krishna. Recent discovery has led to believe that the whole coast of western India sank by about 40 feet around 1500 BC.

The earliest historical record of the lost city dates back 574 AD and occurred in the Palitana Plates of Samanta Simhaditya while the inscription is referred to Dwaraka being the capital of the western coast of Saurashtra, the important state in which Sri Krishna lived.

Archaeological Discoveries by Dr. Rao 

Dwaraka
Recent archaeological discoveries by the pioneering team which was led by Dr. S. R, Rao, are the structures found under the sea bed off the coast of Dwaraka in Gujarat.

Dr. Rao, one of India’s respected archaeologists and an emeritus scientist at the marine archaeology unit of the National Institute of Oceanography, had excavated a large number of Harappan sites inclusive of the port city of Lothal in Gujarat.

The archaeological site discovered underwater at the Bay of Combat near Dwaraka dates back to 7500 BC and the oldest sites of ancient civilization.

 Dwaraka
The excavation done by Dr. S. R, Rao at Dwaraka site indicate that the descriptions that are found in the texts are not to be regarded as fanciful but to be treated as true events as seen by the authors.

The architecture of the old Dwaraka city of Shri Krishna is also considered to be majestic and amazing and this wonderful discovery has perplexed all those who had been speculating over the years that Vedas and Puranas were products of imagination and not just mythical stories.

Dwarkadhish Temple/Island of Bet Dwaraka

From all the temples at Dwaraka, which have been dedicated to Lord Krishna, two are of importance here, the first being the majestic and huge Dwarkadhish Temple also known as Jagatmandir and its sanctum also known as Nijmandira which has a shikhara of its own.

 It belongs to the 12th-13th century AD while the grand edifice inclusive of the five storeyed mahamadapa stands on 72 carved pillars belongs to the 15th century AD. The second is the `island of Bet Dwaraka’, which is said to be the pleasure resort of Krishna where his consorts Satyabhama and Jambavati seemed to have resided here.

Dwaraka
Besides this, the island is also known as Sankhodhar or Sankoddhara due to the large quantity of conch shell found in this place. There is also a story behind this in the Padma Purana, where Sankodhara made attempts to steal or destroy the Vedas wherein Vishnu intending to kill him took the form of a fish. The Gargya Samhita on the other hand has a different version regarding Sankhodhara.

 Dwaraka earlier, according to mythology, had been known as Kushasthali which had been abandoned by King Revata after the town had been attacked repeatedly and when Revata returned he had found Kushasthali who had settled by the Yadava in what is known as Dwaraka. King Revata later on married his daughter to Balarama.

Mythology and History 

Dwaraka
Mythology and history are intertwined so deeply in Hindi epics such as the Mahabharata, the Puranas and the Ramayana that it tends to get difficult in identifying fact from fiction. Mahabharata is called history or itihaasa and while most scholars tend to agree that the incidents related in the Mahabharata or the Ramayana are based on historical or factual, there is a lot of speculation over the extend of the details and additions that could have taken place over the years.

For instance, Mahabharata relates that a billion people had died in the war at Kurukshetra, which could be an exaggeration on the number which conveys the huge loss of lifethat occurred within the eighteen days of battle at Kurukshetra while on the other hands, scholars are speculating that the modern day towns and places like Kurukshetra, Indraprastha, Mathura etc. seem to be the same as those mentioned in Mahabharata.

The city of Dwaraka which was founded by Shri Krishna and whose destruction he foresaw remained submerged for many years. Krishna was responsible in influencing the course and evolution of Hinduism more than Rama and it is natural to expect sociologist, archaeologist and historian together with religious scholars to take deep interest in this town and its history.

Underwater Cultural Heritages Needs Protection 

Krishna
Recently more than two hundred experts from around eighty four countries had gathered under the aegis of UNESCO in Paris and examined a draft convention on the submerged city and unanimously agreed that the underwater cultural heritages needed protection from destruction as well as pillaging in Dwaraka. Krishna had built a mighty empire on a site which was selected for him by Vishnu’s learned `vahan’, Garud where the city he built was supposed to have extended over 104 kms.

The city was surrounded by a moat and well-fortified, spanned by bridges which were removed when attacked by enemies. Archaeological excavations have discovered artifacts which indicate that modern Dwaraka is the sixth settlement on this site while the earlier cities at various times had been washed by the sea.

Tuesday, July 15, 2014

Saturn Theory Else Saturn Configuration

Saturn Theory – Saturn Model/Saturn Myth/Saturn Configuration

 Saturn Configuration
The Saturn theory, also known as Saturn Model, Saturn Myth as well as Saturn Configuration, besides presenting a comprehensive example of ancient myth also offers different approach to understand the recent history of the solar system.

 The theory indicates that the neighbouring planets had settled only recently into their present orbits where the earth had previously been involved in a planetary configuration of different sorts along with Saturn, Venus and Mars.

Saturn Theory
It is an idea which is based on comparative mythology that the Earth had been in close proximity or even a satellite of the planet Saturn that seemed like a sun, though this idea met up with several criticisms on political as well as mythological grounds.

Several researchers suggested that according to mythology, Saturn could at times be referred to as a night sun and could have gone through a nova like phase.

It is claimed that Immanuel Velikovsky who theorizedthe solar system’s configuration found it different in human history that was recorded into various myths though he was not the first one to come up with these theories but just the first to make a start.

Ancient Worship – Saturn, Lord of the Sky

Polar Configuration
With regards to the solar system, it is certain that it did not look the same always and it became an indisputable fact.

 The planets Mars and Earth have similar axial tilt to Saturn and Neptune and the Greeks seemed to be aware of the Saturn’s rings though the telescope was not invented for centuries, Saturn was emphasized as being the lord of the sky in ancient worship even though Saturn was a slow moving pin point of light which was of less impressive nature when compared to Venus and Jupiter.

The words Sol and Helios were used to refer to Saturn. Saturn is a winged disc and there isvarious winged disc imagery, like the sun boat arch which looks more like a crescent one would see on a planet, moon phase.

The Nebra sky disk has additional ark which seem like Saturn’s rings. There are several myths related to celestial catastrophe like a rainbow which is seen in the sky after the rain.


Morning/Evening Star Myths

Saturn Theory
Besides, the morning star and the evening star myths were the two suns and not two phases of the planet Venus and the Sumerians related them to Enlil and Ea and when they went down they were referred to a big, though dim lighted star called Nibiru.

Saturn theorist thought there was a polar configuration because the sun was described as rising and setting in the same place and the Sumerian made it sound like a big star that crossed the sky.







Evening Star



It is also believed according to the ancients that Saturn ruled the sky at some point of time in the distant past.

There are also other stories like, Christmas is the remnant of the ancient Saturnalia festivals and one can find evidence that Helios and Kronos are one and the same and that Helios or sun was the name that was given to Saturn in the past.

Sunday, July 13, 2014

Cheomseongdae – Stone Astronomical Observatory

Cheomseongdae
Cheomseongdae is a stone astronomical observatory in Gyeongju in South Korea which means star gazing tower in Korean. It is the oldest surviving observatory in East Asia which dates back to the 7th century during the time of the Kingdom of Silla with its capital in Gyeongju.

The Korean government designated Cheomseongdae as the country’s 31st national treasures of South Korea, on 20th December, 1962. It is also seen as symbols on Korean coins and in travel literature. From early history, Koreans were known for their fascination with the stars and believed that influences from the stars could dictate the happenings in the universe, society, history as well as the life of a person.

Cheomseongdae
This view originated from China, who considered that the heavenly bodies determined the course of people’s live and history and the difference between astronomy and astrology is at times not clear. Inspite of this, the Korean’s interest in nature and the movement of the heavenly bodies for over 2000 year, has given rise to a large amount of astronomical knowledge.

Cheomseongdae
And the Cheomseongdae had become a fitting national symbol since the observatory represents the Korean’s quest for scientific as well as philosophical knowledge. According to some scholars, they were of the opinion that Cheomseongdae’s design was influenced by Buddisim due to the similarities in its design with that of Mount Sumeru, the centre of the world, according to the Buddhist mythology.

Cylindrical in Shape, Resembling the Upper Part of a Milk Bottle

Cheomseongdae
Cheomseongda is 5.7 metres wide at the base, 9.4 tall and cylindrical in shape, resembling the upper part of a milk bottle. Half way up the structure, an opening is constructed and it is presumed that the astronomer gained entry into the tower through this opening with the use of a ladder.

Presently the upkeep of the tower is not maintained and dirt has filled the tower to the opening level. Archaeologists were of the belief that the star gazer would reach the top of the structure through another ladder from inside. There are eight rectangular stones, eight by six feet, resting on top of the tower, which are positioned to form two squares.

From the opening inside the tower, are two sets of stone bars positioned parallel to the top of the opening which according to the archaeologists supported the stairway to the top.

Constructed out of 362 Cut Granite

The tower was constructed out of 362 pieces of cut granite which represented the 362 days of the lunar year. The window area was framed with three stone tiers which made a total of twenty seven circular layers of stones. Cheomseongdae was constructed by Silla engineers in 647 CE in honour of the Queen Seondeok who was the 27th ruler of Silla.

 Twelve of the layers were placed below the window level while twelve were placed above where some debated that those twelve tiers represented the twelve signs of the Korean zodiac or the twelve months of the year. Besides these, there were twelve large base stone which were set in a square along with three stones on each side which represented the twelve months of the year along with the four seasons.

Wednesday, July 9, 2014

History Mystery - The Squatter Man


The Squatter Man


The Squatter Man– Prevalent Symbol

The Squatter Man
The Squatter or stickman figureis a prevalent symbol which is found in every culture and is often confused with a distorted version of the human form. The Squatter Man image is an archetype that has been carved into rocks or petroglyphs by prehistoric man which has been recorded by almost all nations and civilisation on the continents in ancient times.

It was believed that the ancients painted colour rock art and started painting strange white shapes and figures where everyone started painting the same images at the same time. Many are speculating that these races were either in contact with one another or they were all inspired by the same event which could be the most likely way of having seen it, if the event was in the sky.

 The Squatter Man which has been recorded across the world is: Australia, Northern Europe, the United Arab Emirates and Malta. These images were the same and so inspiring that they had to be recorded for the people of the future generation.

Petroglyphs – High Energy Plasma Discharge Event

The Squatter Man
The Squatter Man petroglyphs were mapped with their GPS location, orientation and its type by a group of scientist and their findings of 100,000s of Squatter Man petroglyphs had been analysed and it was found that it pointed to a location in the southern sky, One of the most leading high energy Plasma Discharge research scientists in the world, Anthony Peratt recognised that the rock art or petroglyphs, geoglyphs and pictograms were the same as the result of what he had seen.

Thereafter he carried out an extensive field study on cave drawings as well as rock art, all around the world. His discoveries were that these petroglyphs were a recording of a high energy Plasma Discharge event which was seen in the Earth’s atmosphere that was witnessed by the ancient people at that time.

Chances of Synchrotron Radiation Release

If one searches for the Squatter Man and Tree of life images from across the world, one would notice that everyone had seen them and these associated images had been carved into rock. It was noticed that rock art went from being colourful paintings of the world to suddenly white surreal images which were chipped and painted white or red line together with outline which seemed to have occurred often on a global event.

Besides, Peratt, Anthony van der Sluijs also investigated the Squatter Man images as well as the various other visual geometric patterns and both of them found that most of the rocks that were used for the petroglyphs had certain characteristics, with similar directions with mountain or hill ranges shielding those who created the rock art.

 If the Squatter Man were of Plasma Discharge as seen in the heavens then there could be chances of Synchrotron Radiation release depending on the stage of the instability that would be harmful or even lethal to anyone who were exposed to it in the open space. Images of the Squatting Man as well as the Tree of life were also seen on the island of Malta which were carved and drawn on pottery as well as in limestone columns.

Tuesday, July 8, 2014

Je-ju Island Mystery


Je-ju Island
Jeju Island – A Volcanic Island

The Jeju Island, a volcanic island is dominated by Halla Mountain, volcano 1,959 metres high and also the highest mountain in South Korea with the island measuring around 73 km across, east to west and 41 km from north to south.

 This island was formed completely from volcanic eruptions around 2 million years ago during the time extending from the Tertiary to the beginning of the Quaternary period consisting mainly of basalt and lava.

It eruptions occurred during the Cenozoic era and it has a humid subtropical climate which is warmer than that of Korea having four distinct weather seasons.

The winters are cool and dry while the summers are humid, hot and at times rainy. It has a crater lake which is the only crate lake in South Korea.

Mysterious Road/Dokkaebi Road 

The Jeju Mysterious Road also known as Dokkaebi Road is located on a hill at the foot of a mountain connecting two major highways on Jejudo Island. It has received its name due to an optical illusion which makes the downward slopping road appear to rise uphill and cars stopping on the road and left out of gear seem to roll uphill.

The road has a three degree downward slant though it looks to go uphill due to the surround terrain which created the optical illusion. One should take advantage of exploring the Mysterious Road on the Jeju City side of the island, while going through Loveland.

It would be a wonderful experience before driving on the actual road though it will enhance the experience with its optical illusion Technically the Mysterious Road is an optical illusion where the countryside makes the road seems like its travelling uphill while in reality the road is a downward slope.

The gravity of the road makes it an interesting experience and one of the most appealing places to visit and witness the experience.

Optical Illusion 

This is due to the gravity wherein a place where a slight downhill slope may appear to be an uphill slope because of the layout of the surround land creating an optical illusion where water flow uphill or a car left out of gear seems to roll uphill.

There is no charge to visit Jeju Mysterious Road though one would need to hire a taxi or a bus to get there where at the end of the road one will find food tents, gift shops and mini marts or probably a bottle to witness the experience of the mysterious road while visiting this amazing island.

The drive on the mysterious road is a slow process since there are many visitors on the road interested in witnessing this awesome experience. As the drive starts, the car is in neutral and pointed to the upwards motion of the car and keeps driving steadily uphill but without the engine power to aid it.

 The traveller also gets a strange feeling of the gravity pull of going uphill and one will find several types of bottles placed on the road placed by other to witness the scene as the bottles defied gravity and moved uphill.

Rule of Thumb – Procedure or Practice

Rule of Thumb
Rule of Thumb is a procedure or practice which had been developed from experience and common understanding but it had nothing to do with technical or scientific knowledge. It had first been used in 1962 in English and the expression relates to the making of rough estimates of measurement with the use of the thumb, i.e. the distance to the first knuckle which was about an inch.

The origin of the phrase is not known and the earliest knowledge comes from J. Durham’s `Heaven upon Earth’, 1685, wherein he states `Many profess Christian are like foolish builder who build by guess and with the rule of thumb’.

The phrase also existed in various other languages and the plural form is rules of thumb. The phrase is presumed to have been originated with carpenters who utilised the width of their thumbs rather than rulers as a means of measurement for things, cementing its modern use though not precise, but reliable and convenient standards.

The rule of thumb as a unit of measure tends to appear also in Dutch where the word for thumb – duim also means inch and the use of a single word for inch and thumb seems to be common in many Indo European languages. Some examples are: in French: puce inch/thumb, Spanish: pulgada inch, pulgar thumb, Italian: pollice inch/thumb, Portuguese: polegada inch, polegar thumb: Swedish: tum inch, tumme thumb, Sanskrit: angulam inch, anguli finger etc.

Origin derived from Measurement 

Another possibility on the originof the phrase is derived from measurement especially in agricultural fields where the plant is in need of a precise depth to plant the seed properly and whether planted from seed or replanted, the depth was at times estimated with the use of the thumb, which was the rule of the thumb for measurement.

 As per Gary Martin, he states that `the origin of the phrase remain unknown and it is likely that it refers to one of the numerous ways that thumbs have been used to estimate things, judging the alignment of distance of an object by holding the thumb in one’s eye-line, the temperature of brew, measurement of an inch from the joint to the nail to the tip or across the thumb etc.’

He further adds that the phrase joins the whole nine yards as one that probably derives from some form of measurement but which is unlikely ever to be definitively pinned down’.

Financial Rule of Thumb

Yet another version on the phrase `rule of thumb’, is that the coarseness of flour ground, produced by grist mills in Old England, would be assessed when rubbed between the thumb and forefinger by the miller.

The rule of thumb typically developed out of practice and experience instead of the scientific theory or research and investors may find it familiar with a number of financial rules of thumb which may be intended, enabling them to learn, remember whereby they can apply financial guideline inclusive of those that address procedures and methods enabling them to save and invest which would be helpful for retirement.

Though the rule of thumb could be appropriate for a wide audience, it may not be applicable universally to all individuals and unique set of circumstances.

Saturday, July 5, 2014

The Whole Nine Yards – A Colloquial American Phrase

Nine
The phrase `The whole nine yards’, is a colloquial American phrase which means `everything, the whole lot’, or `all the way’, when used as an adjective. The origin of the phrase is unknown but it has been described as the most prominent etymological riddle of our time. The earliest example ever known with regards to this phrase is from The Mitchell Commercial newspaper in 1907 in a small town of Mitchell, southern Indiana where the expression of the whole six yards is related and used around the same time in Kentucky and South Carolina.

These phrases are variation on the whole ball of wax recorded in the 1880s and were part of a family of expression, where odd sounding item like enchilada, shebang, shooting match or hog was substituted for ball of wax. The number nine option may be related to the expression `to the nines’ – to perfection. Introduction of the phrase to a national audience was done by Elaine Shepard in the Vietnam War navel – The Doom Pussy in 1967 and the use of the phrase become very popular in the 1980s and 1990s. Interest in the phrase’s etymology is attributed to William Safire, New York Time language columnist, who wrote elaborately on this phrase.

Phrase Added to Oxford English Dictionary

Nine Yard Ammuniation
In 1982, William Safire checked with listeners for information on Larry King’s radio show with regards to the origin of the phrase and ended up writing around nine columns pertaining to the subject which is largely responsible for the interest of the content in it. Towards 1986, the phrase was then added to the Oxford English Dictionary together with the earliest citation given as 1970. Various key discoveries for further antedating thephrase had been undertaken by Bonnie Taylor Blake who was a neuroscience researcher at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He was an amateur member of the American Dialect society, which was an association of professional and amateur linguists and whose mailing list served as forum for word and phrase discoveries. Taylor Blake in 2012 discovered the 1956 and 1957 uses in Kentucky Happy Hunting Ground and later that same year, she together with Fred R. Shapira found the whole six yards examples during the period 1921 – 1921and received good publicity. Towards 2013, Taylor Blake then posted her discovery of the Mitchell Commercial uses from the period of 1907 – 1914.

The Phrase – A Synonym for Stuff

Nine Yards Saree
The phrase cropped up in several contexts since there were many things which could be measured in square, linear, or cubic yards besides yard-arms, steelyards and much more to account for. The early phrase does not infact refer to yards of any specific material but just to a nonspecific measure i.e. yards. The most likely explanation inspite of the inventive theories though frustrating is that the yards in the phrase is not a reference to any particular object but it is merely a synonym for `stuff’. With advancement of the digitisation of text and newspaper, we could find some means of finding earlier example in print that would throw some insight to what the `yards’ probably meant.

Whole Nine Yards – Give it your all – Various Theories 

The phrase `Whole Nine Yards’ means giving it you’re all, to some, while others refer as `try your best’. According to lexicographer Jonathon Green in his examination slang, states that it is unclear from where the whole nine yards come from. On the basis of most suggestions, he states that it involves standard of measurement, from the dimension of a nun’s habit to the capacity of a cement truck and the length of an ammunition belt to that of a hangman’s rope but the few when checked did run to nine yards. The whole nine yards phrase is derived from American airmen during the World War Two in the Pacific where at that time, the ammunitions belts which were loaded into the wings of the fighter aircraft seemed to be nine yards in length and at times a returning pilot while conveying the intensity of the battle to his ground crew and fellow pilots was heard saying `I gave him the whole nine yards’. But according to Nigel from London, he thinks that this phrase came from an earlier machine gun. He believed that it came from the length of the ammunition belt of a Vickers machine gun and when the gun was tested before World War I, the term which was used was `to give them the whole nine yards’.

Nine Yard ammuniation
Nick Mercer’s belief from England considers it as another type of weapon wherein he states that he had often heard it being referred to the length of 50mm ammunition loaded in each cannon on American planes in World War II and when the enemy aviator pursued relentlessly, they would get `the whole nine yards; of a belt of ammunition. While in American football, if a team would be in possession of the football and gain one yard on their first down, they were urged to gain nine more yard in the next three plays in order to receive another first down enabling them to be in possession of the ball in their drive in gaining a goal. Hence when one yard was gained on the first down, their fans would urge the team on a second down with the phrase `get the whole nine yards’. The expression was used in American culture - He got the whole nine yards.


According to M Desai, Sutton, Surrey, he considers that the phrase could be from India, where women wore sari that was nine yards long. The use of the nine yard sari was very popular during the reign of the Raj but has slowly died down and the saris seen presently are five yards long. Nine yard long saris are now only found in remote areas of the country which are worn by elderly women. Steve’s version was that when something was done without paying heed to the expenses, it was compared to a woman using the whole bolt of fabric in making a dress which was associated with the American and Canadian West, where during the early days frugality was the norm.