Wednesday, January 19, 2022

Devil Worship-Theistic Satanism

Devil worship is a term referred to the religious Satanism or spiritual Satanism. It consider Devil as a super natural force which is worthy of worship and supplication. The religious Satanism considers Satan as objectively existing supernatural force. The institutions unhold traditional Satanism and its belief. The theistic Satanism practices various types of magic. 

Satan is another name of the Devil. In Christianity, we know him as Lucifer also. This entity is seen in the Abrahamic religions, which seduces people into falsehood. Lucifer is seen as an agent subservient to Yahweh in Judaism. He is seen in Islam and Christianity as a fallen angel. When it comes to the Quran, we know Shaitan as Iblis. It is an entity that is created by fire. He was cast out of Heaven as he didn't bow before Adam.

When it was the Middle Ages, in Christian theology devil played a minimal role. He was used as a comic relief figure in mystery plays. When the early modern period ran, demonic possession and Witchcraft became more prevalent.

Devil Worship:

Besides, Satanism is a combination of ideological and philosophical beliefs based on Satan. Satanism started its journey by establishing the atheistic Church in the United States in 1966.

Previously before the public practice, Satanism existed primarily as an accusation by various Christian groups toward perceived ideological opponents rather than it as a self-identity. Artists and entertainers have used the concept of Satan for symbolic expression.

Theistic Satanism is known as religious Satanism, spiritual Satanism, or traditional Satanism. It is an umbrella term for religious groups that consider Satan to be an objectively existing deity, supernatural entity, or spiritual being which is worthy of worship and supplication whom individuals may contact, convene with, and even praise, rather than just an archetype, a metaphor, or an idea as in LaVeyan Satanism.

Some organizations uphold the belief system and detect these as theistic Satanists. These are mostly too small and affiliated loosely. Sometimes, these may be independent groups and plots and conspiracies that have self-marginalized.

Its characteristic is the use of different types of magic, and it is very prominent. The original theistic Satanist groups are primarily available in the latest ideologies and models. Many groups are not dependent on the Abrahamic religions.

Devil Worship History:

When it was the first half of the 1990s, the network has boosted communication, visibility, etc. Besides, it has spread various beliefs and currents even more among Satanists. As a result, it has created more conflicting and diverse groups. However, Satanism remains a pluralistic, heterogeneous, and decentralized religious movement for always. A few like Religion academics, scholars of New religious movements, and sociologists of religion who focused on Satanism have categorized the currents based on the esoteric/theistic or rationalist/atheistic. They indicate or mean this working practice with a literal Satan as "traditional" Satanism.

Generally, the theistic Satanist believer accepts theological and metaphysical canon that involves one or more gods. He considers them as Satan or a conception of Satan that incorporates adversarial gods from other religions such as Enki.

Theistic Satanism

Although the number of these self-professed theistic Satanists has repeatedly been increasing since the 1990s, most region scholars still consider it a minority group within Satanism.

There are plenty of theistic Satanists who believe that their concepts rely on pieces of all of the diverse conceptions of Satan. According to them, the concepts are based on their inclinations and sources of spiritual guidance. A few of these can prefer to live out the myths and stereotypes. But the thing you should know about Christianity is that it is never the primary reference frame for theistic Satanists.

The region might rely on these factors: Gnosticism, Hermeticism, Neo-Paganism, Left-Hand Path, black magic, ceremonial magic, Crowleyan magick, Western esotericism, and occult traditions. Some Satanists base their faith on Christian ideas about Satan. They are known, Diabolists. However, other Satanists call them "reverse Christians." They could see the concept of Satan as undiluted. Besides, they also worship an interpretation of Satan.

Peter H. Gilmore, who is the recent leader of the atheistic Church of Satan, refers to "Devil-worship" as a Christian heresy.

Historical mentions of Satanism:

The age of accusations: If you see the history of Christianity, you can find that the worship of Satan was an accusation caused frequently since the Middle ages. It is the Albigensians who were accused previously as the first Devil-worshippers. This one was a Gnostic Christian heretical movement that the Roman Catholic Church persecuted. Pope Innocent III convened the Fourth Lateran Council in 1215, and this Council formulated the charge during the Catholic Inquisition. Knights Templar or minority religions or some groups or individuals were culprits also against whom the charge of Devil-worship has been made.

In 1307 trails were made of the Knights Templar. Templars' writings mentioned the old French corruption term Baphomet. The people those who accused Templars falsely portrayed the term as a demon.

This charge of worship was used previously against the people charged in the witch trials in early modern Europe & other witch-hunts and occurred during the era of reformation, Counter-Reformation, and European wars of religion.

We still don't know whether accusations of groups who used to worship Satan during the witch trials accused those who considered themselves Satanists, or those who were suffering from mass hysteria, or against whom the charges were made like the individuals who have a mental illness.

Confessions are not trustful as they used to be obtained under torture. However, Jeffrey Burton Russell, a Professor Emeritus of the California University located at Santa Barbara, has created a huge argument in his book Witchcraft in the Middle Ages. After doing a deep study of the source documents, he concludes that those who were involved in the Poisons were accused of Satanism and Witchcraft.

The term Satanist was a pejorative word for the people who had opinions that had differences from predominant religious or moral beliefs. According to Paul Tuitean, Inquisition was the creator of acts of "reverse Christianity," whereas George Bataille believes that inversions of Christian rituals like Mass might exist before their descriptions.

Grimoire Satanism:

When it was the 1700s, different types of famous "Satanic" literature started to be generated in France. The Grimorium Verum and the Grand Grimoire are the two most noticeable things.

When it was the 19th century, Éliphas Lévi published his books written in the French language. In the year of 1855, he also made his famous drawing of the Baphomet. This drawing has still been used by a few Satanists today. It is the basis of the sigil of Baphomet. The non-theistic Satanist group was the first one who adopted this first. They are known as the Church of Satan.

At last, in 1891, Joris-Karl Huysmans published a Satanic novel that is named Là-bas. It came with a detailed description of a Black Mass.

In recent times, Quotations from Huysmans' Black Mass are still used. The reason is that it remains one of the sources that can purport to describe the words used in a Black Mass.

The Là-bas Satansiam suggests and describes that prayers are said to the Devil, hosts are taken from the Catholic Church, and sexual acts are combined with Roman Catholic altar objects. And rituals to produce a variety of Satanism, which exalts Satan and degrades the God of Christianity by inverting Roman Catholic rituals.

According to George Bataille, the description about Black Mass from Huysman is "indisputably authentic ." In Protestant majority countries, the Mass is not a part of Evangelical Modern Christianity; therefore, not all the theistic Satanists today routinely perform the Black Mass.

Organized Satanism:

There was a small group of the previous verifiable theistic Satanists. The group is known as the Ophite Cultus Satanas, generated in Ohio in 1948. The Ophite Cultus Satanas was inspired by the ancient Ophite sect of Gnosticism and the Horned God of Wicca. This group relied on the leader of the group.

Michael Aquino published a rare text in his book The Church of Satan. This 1970 text is of a Church of Satan Black Mass that is called the Missa Solemnis. On the flip side, Anton LaVey published a separate Church of Satan Black Mass in his book named The Satanic Rituals. This independent Church is known as the Messe Noire.

Friday, October 15, 2021

Upside Down Question Mark- Known to UnKnown

Upside Down Question Mark- Known to UnKnown

People who generally use the English Language know that upside down question marks have no use there. However, the use of punctuation can be seen in the Spanish Language. You can use it when you have any query in Spanish. If you want to use this punctuation, you need to put this in a sentence's beginning. It helps to let you know that it is an interrogative sentence. 

As a result, you can be ready for a question before going to read the sentence. Users can get this symbol in multiple software and in-built keyboard shortcuts. In this article, we have given a few ways that ask you how to use the symbol, where to type in a sentence, etc.

What Does An Upside Down Question Mark Mean?

The inverted question mark or the upside down question mark is the rotated form of the ordinary question mark "?". In Spanish, the interrogative sentence or the clause starts with the inverted question mark to notify the reader that a question follows. Most languages that have a cultural tie with Spanish, such as Galician, Warry, etc., do the same. You can insert it directly with your keyboard. Unicode, HTML, and ISO 8859, and other various standards support it.

When you use punctuation in Spanish, use it at the beginning. People willing to use the sign with exclamation points can use such as ¡¿Qué pasa con usted?!. If you want to use these symbols in a combo, then use like ⸘Qué pasa con usted‽.

You can see uses of inverted punctuations in Spain and Latin American Spanish languages. These symbols indicate the beginning of an interrogative sentence or clause. Usually, you can see the standard symbol printed along the baseline of a sentence.

Who Invented Upside Down Question Mark Idea?

In Spanish, the sign is very essential. The reason is that you can use the syntax of the language as statements, exclamations, etc., for similar wording.

The Real Academia decided to implement the punctuation in the second edition of the Ortografía de la Lengua Castellana in 1754. It is the orthography of the Castilian language. It looks like:

¿Cómo estás? – How are you?

However, changes have come. In the nineteenth century, writers didn't prefer to use these punctuation.

¿Te gusta el té verde? – Do you like green tea?

Te gusta el té verde. – You like green tea.

Here, you can see that both the statement and interrogative sentences are similar in Spanish.

In a few cases, you can see some writers don't use the inverted symbol for a short unambiguous interrogative sentence like Quién viene? (“Who’s coming?”). As per some Catalan-language authorities, these signs should be present both at the opening and closing for clarity.

Why Should You Use Upside Down Question Mark?

The Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy) asked in 1754 that people can use punctuation as a sign. People use the sign to clarify and communicate. You can see the usage of this sign when you use terms like where you are, who you’re speaking with, etc. People prefer to use this universal symbol because of its distinct purposes.

To Indicate a Question Is Imminent:

It lets you know the type of sentence at the beginning. We have given here a few instances where you can see its uses.

¿Cómo estás? (How are you?)

¿Quieres un poco más de agua? (Would you like some more water?)

¿A qué hora cierra la tienda? (What time does the store close?) 

To Take the Place of an Interrogative Word:

Using the sign, you can exchange the wording of interrogative sentences with it.

A few examples of Spanish interrogative words that people usually use are as follows:

¿Cómo? (How?)

¿Cuál? (Which?)

¿Cuándo? (When?)

¿Cuánto? (How much?)

¿Dónde? (Where?)

¿Por qué? (Why?)

¿Qué? (What?)

¿Quién? (Who?)

In most cases, people use an interrogative word at the beginning. However, sometimes you can convey a message by shortening the sentence except for losing its meaning.

Look at the instances that we have given here.

¿Dónde está el baño? (Where is the bathroom?) → ¿El baño? (The bathroom?)

¿Cuándo llega el tren? (When is the train arriving?) → ¿El tren? (The train?)

¿Pasarías la sal? (Would you pass the salt?) → ¿La sal? (The salt?)

Determine A Place To Raise Speaking Tone:

You can know where you should use the sign in a sentence or phrase. Thus, you get to know whether the sentence is interrogative or a statement. Therefore, you can know if you want to raise the tone of that sentence.

When you raise your speaking tone, it will turn a statement sentence into an interrogative sentence.

Juan va a la florería. (Juan goes to the flower shop. ) → ¿Juan va a la florería? (Is Juan going to the flower shop?)

Hablas inglés. (You speak English.) → ¿Hablas inglés? (Do you speak English?)

El autobús llega muy tarde. (The bus is very late.) → ¿El autobús llega muy tarde? (Is the bus very late?)

 How to Use the Upside down Question Symbol In Different Places:

If you are going to write a question in Spanish, you may have to use two symbols of this type. Put the sign at the beginning and the ending part of the sentence. Look at the instances given over there.

¿Cómo te llamas? (What is your name?)

¿A qué hora llegaron a la fiesta? (What time did you all arrive at the party?)

The sign is not seen generally in casual writing nowadays. Spanish people don't use these when they text, write, or use WhatsApp. However, you can see it in books, movie subtitles, and standard writing.

How to Use Upside Down Question Mark In The Middle Of a Sentence:

Usually, people use the symbol at the beginning of an interrogative sentence. But it doesn't mean that you can't use punctuation in the middle of a sentence.

Sometimes, you may need to place this within the sentence when the actual query is starting. It looks complicated, but it isn't. You can see its uses mostly with tag questions in the middle.

Eres la prima de Pablo, ¿no? (You’re Pablo's cousin, aren’t you?)

Esta camisa es nueva, ¿verdad? (This shirt is new, isn’t it?)

Use your tone of voice for identifying the query if necessary. You should search for the sentence part that resembles a query. After that, you can surround that part with the symbol.

Si bailamos, ¿ellos también van a bailar? (If we dance, will they dance too?)

Vamos a cenar sushi, ¿te parece bien? (We’re going to have sushi for dinner, does that sound good?)

How to Use with Inverted Exclamation Mark:

You can see the Spanish exclamation point with this sign in pairs.

Let's have a look at the examples containing both types of symbols.

¡Buenos días! ¿A dónde vas, Susana? (Good morning! Where are you going, Susana?)

¡Ayuda! ¿A dónde va con mi bolso? (Help! Where is she going with my purse?)

¡Ahora no! ¿Podemos hablar después? (Not now! Can we talk later?).

How to Generate Upside Down Question Mark On Mac:

We have given a few ways here that let you know how to create it on Mac.

Method 1) Turn the Keyboard into the Spanish language:

People who know Spanish or are learning the language can type in Spanish accents. Switching the keyboard to another language is one of the processes you can follow. To do this, follow the steps.

       Your first task is to turn your keyboard to a toggle on the top-right hand of the display. Hence, for changing your keyboard to a toggle, you should install it first. 

       Then, your job is to navigate to the Apple menu. It is available on the top right-hand corner of the Mac. You should choose the System Preferences option from the drop-down list.

       When you are using the System Preferences window, you should search for the option Language & Region. Tap on the option. Next, find Keyboard Preferences for adding the second keyboard. You should check the box to get the small flag. It is available on the top right-hand side of the display.

       You are required to tap on the + sign for adding the keyboard. Then, you should find the Spanish option from the list. Here, two choices are available— Spanish, choose Spanish - ISO. Hit the Add button available on the right-bottom part of the display.

 Type in the sign:

You can get the Question marks available beside the zero. Just do back and forth using the – and the + keys.

Method 2) Tap on a Combination of Keys:

People who don't prefer to switch from one toggle or keyboard to another should try the method. Tap on the combination of keys on the keyboard. To use the process, ensure that the English language is set to default at your keyboard.

       Navigate to a program first to open it. Open a Word program or a Text Edit program.

       Now, your task is to navigate to the keyboard and, after that, look for the option, Shift, and Question Mark buttons. A regular question sign is available on the keyboard.

       You should now tap on these buttons at a time to get it.

 How to generate Upside down Question Mark Symbol:

In Microsoft Word:

In earlier times, people were unable to use the symbol. It is when people started to use Microsoft Word exclusively. You can type the sign-in in Microsoft Word. You should know that it is the most famous Word processor on any PC. First, your task is to tap on the Ctrl+Alt + Shift +/. Users can apply the sequence only in Microsoft Word. If you have any doubt, you can use this in any other text documents. However, don't get worried about the Word versions because you can get this available to all Word releases.

Use Alt Codes:

People who are writers or use Microsoft Word frequently use various types of alt codes. You are unable to add the codes to a single keyboard. It is the reason why producers use these as shortcuts.

You can type all unique characters on the PC with the help of the Alt codes. The sign "¿"  is known as a special character. Use Alt code to type the symbol.

       First, your job is to move the cursor to that place where you are willing to type the sign.

       You should check whether you have turned on the Num Lock of your keyboard or not. It indicates that you are capable of using the number pad.

       Tap the Alt button after that on the keyboard and then hold it down.

       When you hold the button, you are required to type 168, 0191, or 6824 on the number pad. All of these can make your job done. So, you are capable of using any of these.

       Now, release the Alt button. When you release the Alt button, you can see 168 appearing. 

 Take help of the US-International Keyboard Layout:

Usually, the physical layout of the keyboard remains the same. Therefore, these are static. What you can do most is to change the logical structure through in-built software. Using this software, you can type any language other than English or other versions. Just type () when you use the keyboard in the US International layout.

With the help of the US-International layout keyboard, you are capable of writing the Spanish question mark. In this case, you should hold the "Alt Gr" button first and then the "In the US-International layout" button.

On Windows Only:

 If you want, you can take the help of a character map to type the symbol. This rule is for Microsoft Windows only.

       First, hit the Start key on the taskbar. Then, your task is to move to the search bar.

       As soon as you go to the search bar, you should write "Character Map." Then, you should choose the app to open. Here, all the computer signs are available on the internet.

       Whether you don't prefer to see all the characters manually, then tap on the tick box. You can see the "Advanced view" option in the box on the bottom-left corner of the app.

       You can see another search box available at the bottom of the app. Hence, you only have to write "inverted question mark." As soon as you type, you can see the sign appearing on any of the boxes above. Now, you can copy it and paste it into any text document.


       To do so, you should tap two times on the sign to copy it. You can hit the Select key also.

       When you have chosen the symbol, tap on the Copy key.

       Next, keep it anywhere you prefer for inserting the sign. To paste this, you have to type Ctrl+V.


It is the process through which you can perform the copying and pasting process through the Character Map dialog.

Use insert Upside down Question Mark Symbol Dialog Box:

If you are looking for all symbols, then use the insert symbol dialog box. Just select any of these you prefer. Then, insert it into the Word document with a few mouse clicks.

Follow the steps if you are willing to insert the symbol in the Word with the help of this insert symbol dialog box.

       First, your task is to keep the insertion pointer at the place you want to insert it.

       Then, you should move to the Insert tab.

       After that, tap on the Insert tab.

       Next, you should tap on the Symbol drop-down option that is available in the Symbols category. Then, choose More Symbols. To do this, you should navigate to the Symbols option and then choose the option More Symbols.

       Now, you can see the Symbol dialog box appearing. Choose the options Latin Supplement that you can see in the Subset drop-down list. When you select this, it will showcase symbols in this category, including that.

       Choose the inverted symbol after seeing it and tap on the Insert key. If you want, you can insert that into your document. But for this, you are required to tap two times.

       Perform copy and paste process.

       At last, you should turn off the dialog. Now, you can insert the sign at the place where you keep the insertion pointer.

 Using these steps of insertion, you can put the sign in the Word document.

Use AutoCorrect:

AutoCorrect feature is also one of these through which you can obtain the symbol. This feature helps to correct spelling mistakes like "thsi"  to "this," etc.

Using it, you can assign your shortcuts to symbols you type daily in your document.  For example, whether you type the sign frequently, assign a shortcode such as UPSIDE?? to this sign. Thus, while you are going to type this text, Word will think about the symbol. Then, it will change the text into a sign automatically.

This tool allows you to assign any code you prefer. Word will insert it when you type this code.

Look at the steps given underneath.

       First, your task is to navigate to the insert tab.

       Perform the 4th and fifth steps of the earlier method. Make sure that you will choose the Latin1 Supplement from the list.

       Now, you are required to choose the sign. Then, your task is to tap on the AutoCorrect key.

       Then, you can see this AutoCorrect dialog box appearing. You can put your preferred shortcode or text to assign to the sign.

       Make sure that the symbol is available in the following field.

       Hit the Add key after that and then tap on the OK button. During the procedure, while you write the text UPSIDE?? in your Word, it will change the text to the symbol.


The tool won't make any changes to the autocorrection if the text is present within any text. For instance, if you type XUPSIDE??, Word won't convert into any symbol. The reason is that the text is joined with another character, X.

How to Make the Upside down Question Mark Symbol on Your Device:

When you create this symbol, it can seem daunting to you. However, it doesn't need any unique equipment or keyboards. If you are using any Spanish language keyboard or having access to one digitally can help you hence. In case it isn't, then use some basic commands. It relies upon the device that you use.

On an iOS Device:

You can generate the symbol easily on the iOS device.

       To do this, first, your task is to pull the keyboard up on the mobile. You can place it under iMessage or another app available on your mobile phone.

       After that, your job is to hit the “.?123” key or “123” key available on the keyboard. It helps to display the numbers and symbols.

       Now, your task is to tap on the "?" symbol and hold it after that. You can see a bubble appearing above the symbol after a brief moment.

       As soon as you can see the bubble appearing in front of the display, you need to slide the finger up to the sign.

       Ensure that you have slid your finger up to the sign. If you take your finger off the keyboard, then the symbol will disappear.

 On an Android Device:

Follow these steps to figure out the method of typing the symbol on your mobile.

       Pull the keyboard up first on the Android mobile phone. For example, pull the keyboard of your Message app for texts.

       Then, you have to search for the “Sym” button on your keyboard to find symbols. People who come with Samsung Galaxy have to tap the “!1:)” key for accessing symbols.

       Now, hit the “1/2” key on the keyboard. You can see the button available directly above the “ABC” key in the bottom left of the keyboard.

       As soon as you hit the “1/2” key, the button will appear.

 On a PC or Mac:

Insert special characters: Now, you are capable of using the insert tab in both Google Docs and Microsoft Word. Thus, you can find special characters easily. If you want to include the sign, you only have to choose punctuation from the menu of special characters. A lot of filters are available in the special characters menu. It enables you to choose characters common to different languages.

Use a shortcut key: You may feel cumbersome when you insert them individually to write in Spanish long-term. That's why it will be better if you know some shortcut keys. The key you will use relies on the keyboard and operating system.

We have given you some basic ones that will help you to insert the sign.

       For English (US) keyboards with Microsoft Windows, you should hit the Alt+0191 button.

       If you use Microsoft Word, then tap Ctrl+Alt first. After that, your task is to hold when you tap Shift+?

       In the macOS platform, you should tap ⇧ Shift+Alt/⌥ Option+/.

 Switch your keyboard to US-International layout:

If you have a US keyboard, you can switch it to a US International layout. It will help you to convert the right-hand Alt key. As soon as you engage, the right-hand Alt key will call up characters. You can't find these generally on a standard keyboard if you tap them in combination with other keys.

Use Unicode code point entries:

If your software is compatible with the Unicode entries, then use them on any keyboard you prefer. You merely have to tap the Ctrl+⇧ Shift+u button at a time. After that, your job is to write BF for calling up the symbol. Then, you should tap the enter button to ensure.

Fonts & Encodings:

i) You can use these formats— Arial, Times New Roman, Calibri, Verdana, Helvetica, and Courier for this symbol. All of these are compatible with the symbol. Fonts you are using practically will support it also.

ii) This symbol is available in the Unicode character set (U+00BF), the Windows-1252 encoding standard, and the Latin-1 encoded standard. However, it is not mandatory that all encodings come with the symbol. But it is hardly said that you will encounter a website not compatible with the symbol. Like fonts, you don't need to get worried about the encoding sets also.


i) If you want to use the symbol in HTML, then use any of these codes: ¿ or ¿ or &#xbf. These three are completely synonymous.

ii) &iquest is known as a named character entity. The reason is that this "names" the character. The next two are known as numeric character references. These indicate the character with numbers. You should know that #191 and #xbf are the same.

iii) When you use Unicode encoding to serve an HTML document, then you can use it to copy and paste the symbol. UTF-8 is one of the examples that you can use as Unicode encoding.  Make sure that you will save your document in the same encoding where you serve.


We have given here different types of options to type the Upside Down Question Mark symbol in Microsoft Word. You can use these shortcuts for both Mac and Windows.


Frequently Asked Questions:

  • Which languages use this Upside down Question Mark Symbol?

In the eighteenth century, it was the Spanish language that started to use the symbol. It was recommended by the Real Academia Española (Royal Spanish Academy). You can see its uses in Iberian languages like Galician and Catalan.

  • Why are Spanish question marks upside down?

This symbol in Spanish means that you are going to receive a question in written text. In Spanish, the word order of an interrogative sentence won't change like in English.

  • How do you type the symbol on a Chromebook?

You should hit the Shift button along with the Plus keys.

  • What is backward Question Mark?

The backward question mark is called a Percontation Point or Rhetorical Question Mark. The backward question mark is the mirrored image of the question tag.  

It is used in Persian, Arabic, and Urdu scripts. These scripts are written on the page from right to left. Therefore to fall in style with the writing, the backward question mark is used.

Though Hebrew and Yiddish are also written on a page from right to left, they are not using the backward or mirrored question mark.

The backward question mark was briefly used in English to end a rhetorical question. It was proposed and used by Henry Denham in the 16th century, but it went out of use within a short duration of time.



Sunday, September 19, 2021

Ancient Measurement an Abstract

Ancient Measurement an Abstract

Queen Elizabeth-I introduce the British Imperial System in the sixteenth century. But, the French introduced the pendulum-derived metric system about seventy years later. The length of the new yard (meter) was 993.7 millimeters. A yard of exactly 993.7 millimeters was found Fifty-five years later while studying measurements of ancient Sumerian standards. So, many people ask whether the Sumerians used these with the help of a pendulum or not? In this article, you can learn the details of ancient measurements. 

 Ancient Measurement an Abstract

About History:

Jean Picard, the Frenchman, introduced a system to measure in 1671 where a pendulum set up the new French yard standard known as the meter. The pendulum was at 45 degrees north latitude with a beat (half period) of one second. Then, this measurement would be subdivided into 100 centimeters and 1,000 millimeters. The measurement Litre was set up according to the volume of a 10-centimeter cube. We can consider it as the volume of 1,000 cubic centimeters, or 1/1000 cubic meters.

Weight Standard:

The weight standard was set up according to the weight of one liter of water at the temperature of maximum water density of near about degrees Celsius. The Sumerians set up the exact size of standard length known as Step and Standard volume as Sila about 5000 years before. The weight of mina equals the weight of half-Sila of water at room temperature. But it was 5000 years old already while the French developed the metric system. The Sumerian rules transferred a standard of length to one of volume and weight. However, it was merely for the time until Queen Elizabeth I changed it in the sixteenth century.

However, the standards existing till today are merely the volume or weight. We are fortunate that ancient standards of volume came from the cube of a linear dimension directly. The weight standard came from the weight of a standard volume of water at room temperature. You can also see weight standards available in different grains, but you can always see a standard setup using water. You need to know that thousands of ancient weights are still available in museums throughout the world. However, fortunately, we have got a list of seventy-four weights that got the certification of "standards of the land." Dr. Marvin Adell Powell Jr. was the one who gave certification to these 74 weights if available during his doctoral thesis at the University of Minnesota (1971).

Historical Metrology:

After that, we have added in our study that these are certified by A.E.Berriman O.BE. in Historical Metrology (1953). Sir Arthur J. Evans reported weight in an article named “Minoan Weights And mediums of currency (1953) from Crete, Mycenae, and Cyprus,” in the Corolla Numismatica and Oxford University Press published that. Whether the Sumerians want to set up the length of a pendulum as a social standard, they need to establish the right and reproducible intervals of time.

As they were skilled enough in astronomy, they didn't face any issues while setting up time intervals. It is essential to know that the time interval depends on the motion of the Moon, Sun, Stars, and Venus also. The full moon takes a little over 121 seconds to travel one diameter in the night sky at apogee. It is useful to set up the lunar standard of Lagash. They had a mathematics sexagesimal system that had divided a circle into 360 parts. We know that each division has a degree. For the Sun, the time it needs to travel one degree in the sky is 240 seconds or 4 minutes.

Sumerian Measure:

Discovered that the Sumerians in Lagash had found that compared to the length 1/360 of a degree on the Earth's polar circumference, the length of their cable of 360 yards was a little longer. Within three attempts, they got success in managing the length of their cable of 360 steps that is similar to 1/360 of a degree on the polar circumference. This wire length is capable of setting up the length of 1,000 new geodetic feet. People from West to East, i.e., Britain to China and Japan, — these concepts got spread throughout the Ancient World.

The Foot of the Lunar Standard of Lagash became the Anglo Saxon foot and Furlong, 1/660 furlong, the British Imperial (U.S.) respectively. The length of the third Geodetic Standard of Lagash is useful for measuring the great pyramid at Giza. The pound of this Geodetic Standard of Lagash became the British Imperial (U.S.) pound. People who don't believe in this can check by calculating the size of a 64-pound cube of water and multiplying one side's length by 1000 x 360 x 360. You got the result as the polar circumference of the Earth.

The Standards of an ancient Egypt Circa 3000 B.C.E.:

Here, you get to know some extra knowledge about standards from Egypt and the Minoan civilization in Crete. These let you know about the special standard of length, volume, and weight relying on the Earth's polar circumference.

They created a case that the people used the new standard so that they could set up the perimeter of the Great Pyramid of Giza at 30 Arc seconds. After 2000 years, people used this to set up the Parthenon's width in one arc second.

The Egyptians established their new standards and understood that compared to the Sun, a star could deliver a much higher level of precision. They realized while they measured an interval of time of a star and compared it with the Sun. It depends on the length of a Foot of approximately 300 mm. They established the Foot using a pendulum. It beat 366 times when it consumed the Earth in rotating through one 366th of a celestial day. People used the pendulum length for making a cable of 366 times twice the length of this pendulum.

The Egyptian Foot length has become 1/1000 of these Cable lengths. The arrival time of the Stars is at a similar position in the sky, about 4 minutes before every day for the orbital motion of the Earth. It is the reason why the Sumerians divided the day into four-minute intervals. We knew it as a Gesh. The Starfield is rotating 366 times in a year; therefore, this specific number is very essential to an astronomer. The new cable length is about 300 meters, whereas the Djser (Foot) is about 300 mm. All sixteen measurement standards of Egyptians were divided into Egyptian Djerba or digits 18.75 mm. People used this digit for establishing their Reman, Cubit, and Royal Cubit.

The Minoan Foots:

To the Minoans, Venus was one of the essential goddesses in (2700-1100) B.C.E. It is necessary to know that Venus's planet is closer to the Sun than Earth. This planet orbits the Sun in 244 days. The motion of Venus deducted a few apparent motions when Venus was seen on the opposite side of the Earth. The apparent motion was caused due to spinning Earth, lengthening the time for 1/366 Venus day to 236.504 seconds. As a result, it divided the celestial solar day into 366.25 parts.

The resulting cable's length was 303.6 meters, whereas the foot length was 303.6 mm. Now, the North Star elevation changes one arc-minute for each Foot when the observer moves in a north-south direction. However, the Minoan Foot can't deliver the correct amount when predicting latitude than the Egyptian Foot. 303.6 mm is the Minoan standard of length Foot, whereas 27,984 cm³ is the Minoan standard of volume. According to the Minoan standard of weight, it is 27,901 grams. You can compare it with the weight of 1 Amphora of rainwater at 20°C.

You should know that the Sumerians divided the Amphora by any of these— by 60 or by halves yielding volumes of ⅛ and 1/64 of an amphora. 437.25 cubic cm is the standard pint volume of 1/64 Amphora. We know the weight of a pound as 436.00 gm as its standard value. It equals the weight of one Pint of rainwater at 20 °C. Besides, 373.2 gm is the standard weight of a Troy pound. It is equal to the 1/60 Amphora of wheat at 0.8 kg/liter.

Immortalized Minoan Foot in the Magna Carta:

It set up the length of an ancient English foot. This ancient Foot is useful for developing standards of volume for the Gallon, the Bushel, and the London Quarter. People in 1215 documented this in the Magna Carta. The Winchester Bushel was one Minoan Cubic Foot's volume. As per the accurate measurements, the weight of one Minoan Pint of rainwater developed the English Mercantile Pound and Scottish Pound. According to them, the Troy Pound was set up by 1/60 of a bushel Amphora's weight of wheat at 0.8 kg/liter.

Besides, as per the study, the length of Japanese Shaku is 303.0 mm, which is quite similar to the Minoan Foot while you discuss the difference in latitude. Similarly, Minoans, the Japanese, were a maritime nation. The Ri of 12960 Shaku is the largest linear standard of Ancient Japan. Its length is 1/10,000, the polar circumference of the Earth.

The Minoan Foot's detail calculation: the cable of 366 pendulum length is similar to the 1000 Minoan Feet. Applying these corrections for the real pendulum's length and time will result in the following Foot, Sila, and Mina. You also get results from other corresponding measured values from trustable sources.

The Minoan Foot in Early England:

The Minoan Cubic Foot is set up as an English Bushel, and its division is established into Gallon, Pint, and Cubic Finger. This cubic finger set up the Minoan Gold Standard. On 15th June 1215, the Magna Carta of King John guaranteed the English values.

Mina of Grain of the Minoan Cubic Foot:

According to our study, we have set up the weight of a Minoan Cubic Foot of water and measured values. Surprisingly, the Troy Pound belonged to Minoan origin.

Details of the exceptional Octopus Talent of Bagdad as well as the Polar Circumference of the Earth:

It was 1901 when people found this Octopus Talent in Knossos, Crete. Sir Arthur Evans was the one who discovered it. According to him, it seemed like it belonged to Babylonian origin. This 29,000 gram Talent Weight is going to celebrate the Great Pyramid building's 1000th anniversary at Giza. According to a fast calculation, we learned that filling an amphora with 29,000 gm of water at 20 °C, it can have a volume of 29,086 ml or the volume of a 307.54 mm cube. But it is within 0.45 mm of the geodetic Foot at Lagash latitude.

If you do a normal search to modify one of the Sumerian pendulums, it can match with the length capable of producing results quickly.

Pendulum 3 could beat 360 times in 240 seconds and made the 318.56 mm Zhou Market Foot in China and the Fuss in Bern, Austria.


The peoples can reproduce a few Ancient Systems of Measure after understanding them correctly. In this article, you can see a lot of findings that were not expected. Moreover, according to us, the procedure used for recreating measurement standards from the distant past is also one of the vital contributions to the history of metrology. These contributions are also very essential to the history of Science. The grasp of mathematics and physics, which ancient people wrote, was also demonstrated.

Wednesday, September 1, 2021

Book of Shadows- Elixir of Knowledge

Book of Shadows

Bricket Wood Coven

The Book of Shadows, had initially been presented by Gerald Gardner in 1950s, to those whom he had introduced into the craft through his Bricket Wood coven. According to him it was a private recipe book of enchantments which was useful to the owner. They could copy from his own book, and add or delete the contents according to their choice.

He was of the opinion that the preparation of witches maintaining this book was ancient, which was practiced by them in ancient times. Gardner claims that after the death of the person, the book would be burnt down. This was carried out to ensure that no one would know that the person was a witch. However no mention has been made by Gerald Garner of anything as a `Book of Shadows’, in his 1949 novel with regards to mediaeval witchcraft – High Magic’s Aid.

According to Doreen Valiente, High Priestess, this was because Gardner had not been aware of the idea at that point of time and had invented it only after he had written the novel. Doreen Valiente was of the opinion that the term `Book of Shadows’, was found by Gardner from a 1949 edition – Volume 1, Number 3 of a magazine which was called The Occult Observer. She claimed that in this edition, it had been an advertisement for his novel, High Magic’s Aid. This was opposite an article known as `The Book of Shadows’, written by palmist Mir Bashir.

Book of shadows- Ancient Sanskrit Prediction

The said article related to an apparently ancient Sanskrit prediction manual, which elaborated on how to prophesy instances based on the length of the shadow of a person. Valiente speculated that Gardner had adopted this term for his magic spell textbook.

She appreciated the name of the book, from whichever source Gardner may have found it. Later on, a leather bound manuscript which had been handwritten by Gardner, titled `Ye Bok of Ye Art Magical’, had been located from his papers after his death in the Museum.

 This was found by Aidan Kelly which was later on acquired by Richard and Tamarra James of the Wiccan Church of Canada. This seemed to be the first draft of the Book of Shadows of Gardner featuring sections related to the ceremonials of the Ordo temple Orientis.

This was formulated by the occultist Aleister Crowley. Access to these ceremonials was gained by Gardner in 1946 when he had acquired a contract from Cowley providing him approval to execute the OTO ceremonials.

Book of shadows Considered as Evidence

It had been considered as evidence by some of the folks, that Gardner had invented this notion of a textbook of spells probably between 1946 and 1949, when he had completed his High Magic’s Aid novel. Later he had named it Ye Bok of Ye Art Magical. Towards 1949, he had again renamed it to the Book of Shadows and started utilising it with his Bricket Wood Coven. Doreen Valiente merged with Gardner’s Bricket Wood Coven in 1953 and soon became its High Priestess.

She investigated how much of the material of his Book of Shadows had been taken from prehistoric sources as claimed by Gardner originally. However it was not taken from prehistoric sources but from the occultist Aleister Crowley from Aradia or the books of the Witches, from the Key of Solomon as well as from the ceremonials of Freemasonry.

She challenged Gardner regarding this who had acknowledged that the text he had obtained had been incomplete from the New Forest coven. He admitted that he had to fill in much by utilising numerous sources. He stated to Valiente saying that if she could do better, then she should go ahead.

Book of shadows- Accepted Challenge

Valiente on her part found that she was capable of doing it and stated that ‘I accepted the challenge and set out to rewrite the Book of Shadows, cutting out the Crowleyanity as much as I could and trying to bring it back to what I felt was, if not so elaborate as Crowley’s phraseology, at least our own and in our own words’.

Valiente rephrased most of it, cutting out numerous sections which had come from Crowley, (since she feared his negative reputation). However she maintained the parts which had been initiated from Aradia or the books of the Witches, since she sensed they were normal witchcraft practice. She rewrote radically sections like the Charge of the Goddess as well as various poems like The Witches Rune. Moreover she also assisted in creating poem comprising of the Wiccan Rede in it.

Valiente also observed in one ceremonials that a chant was based on a poem, ‘A Tree Song’, from Puck of Pook’s Hill by Rudyard Kipling. This she had enjoyed as a child. The said chant stated that, ‘This version of the ritual, written by both Gardner and Valiente, but containing sections adopted from various sources, such as Aleister Crowley, Aradia, or the Gospel of the Witches and even Rudyard Kipling, went on to become the traditional text for Gardnerian Wicca’.

Wednesday, August 25, 2021

Phantom Time Hypothesis

Phantom Time Hypothesis – A Revisionist History & Conspiracy Theory

Phantom time hypothesis is a revisionist history and conspiracy theory developed in the years 1980 and 1990 by Heribert Illig, German historian and publisher which states that European history from 614 to 911 is a forgery by the Roman Catholic Church.

The theory was suggested by him in 1991 which was expanded by the other theorists. The theory proposes that the period of history that of Europe during the Early Middle Ages which is also known as the Dark Age was either dated wrongly or it did not take place at all and that there has been a systematic way to cover up the fact. Illig’s belief was that this was achieved by way of alteration, forgery and misrepresentation of documentary as well as physical evidence.

The original claim behind the theory was that when the Gregorian calendar was introduced in 1582, there was difference between it and the old Julian calendar had a defect wherein the Julian year was roughly 11 minutes too long and the new calendar was created to correct the discrepancy, making up for 10 days which had gradually slipped through the years between 1 – 1582 AD. According to Illig, the Julian calendar should have showed a discrepancy of 13 days rather than 10 days over the span of time and it was his conclusion that roughly, three centuries could have been added to the calendar which had never existed.

Carolingian & Luminous figure of Charlemagne

Phantom time hypothesis
He was keen to run with the notion of the slackcalendar and gather more evidence. The only period to trace through was the most obscure one, the Dark Ages. Architectural historians and byzantinists were the ones who were responsible in giving us the period from C 600 -900 from which nothing is known about urban or cultural development.

This has given rise to debates regarding this issue. The Carolingian and the luminous figure of Charlemagne herehad reigned from 768 to 814 and Illig focuses on the polymath qualities of Charlemagne which is recorded in several texts making him an architect, astronomer, philologist, educator, folklorist, lawmaker and much more.

According to Illig, the conclusion was simple and far too much to be ascribed to one person. Illig also claimed that archaeological discoveries which are reliably dated to the era of 7th-10th centuries were scarce and debated that Romanesque architecture could not have come as late as five centuries after the downfall of the Roman Empire which took place in the 5th century AD.

Byzantine Empire – Extensive Government Reform

Phantom time hypothesis
His conclusion was that the Holy Roman Emperor Otto III conspired with Pope Sylvester II to invent the entire Carolingian dynasty which included Charlemagne. His purpose was to support Otto’s royal claims while at the same time to prolong the Christian traditions and claim superiority over the emerging Islam. However no attempts were documented to synchronize this theory with alternative calendars like the Chinese calendar or the Islamic calendar.

Dr Hans-Ulrich Niemitz , fellow historian colleague of Illig and Phantom Time Hypothesis believer stated in a 1995 research document, various examples of evidence which according to him proved that 614 to 917 AD never occurred and the Chapel of Aachen probably built in 800 AD had architecture which were identical to chapels which were constructed over 200 years thereafter. The Byzantine Empire at that time went through extensive government reform though no historical evidence exists with regards to the assumed reform of this period.