Thursday, June 1, 2023

Moon Treaty

Moon Treaty

The United Nations has become a focal point for international cooperation in outer space due to having the power to create international law. On Outer space, the United Nations Treaties and Principles are considered as the Texts of treaties and the United Nations General Assembly has adopted the principles which govern State activities in exploration and use of outer space. The law's extension has been evolutionary, which starts with queries related to legal aspects. Then, it keeps going to the principle formulation of a legal nature and incorporates those principles in general multilateral treaties. The General Assembly adopted the Declaration of legal principles in 1963. This text indicates the genesis of the so-called "Space Law, or Moon Treaty"

The UN remains the witness to the development of five multilateral treaties, and the moon treaty is one of them. It offers many guidelines & provisions outlined in 21 articles. According to the agreement, the Moon, with its natural resources, belongs to mankind's common heritage. It states that people should use the Moon for peaceful purposes & the benefit of the whole international community. Eighteen states are parties to the Moon Treaty, seven of which have ratified the same, whereas the rest acceded. There are four states which have signed but not ratified yet.

What is the Moon Treaty?

Moon Treaty is an agreement Governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. It is actually a multilateral treaty that can turn the jurisdiction of all celestial bodies, even the orbits around such bodies, over to the participant nations. In this way, each activity will conform to international law, including the United Nations Charter.

It was signed in New York, USA, on December 18, 1979. Later, it became effective on July 11, 1984. Languages used are English, French, Russian, Spanish, Arabic, and Chinese. Any state which engages in self-launched human spaceflight has not ratified this (e.g. the United States, Russia, or the predecessor of it, the Soviet Union, or the People's Republic of China) . Eighteen states are the parties to the Treaty as of January 2022.


Once the 1967 Outer Space Treaty was signed, it was followed by the United Nations convened UNISPACE, the United Nations Conference on the Exploration and Peaceful Uses of Outer Space, after a year. It belonged to the first UN-sponsored conferences which wanted to generate an international law framework and offer guidance letting humans learn how to use outer space resources.

The Moon Treaty was made after ten more years of negotiations in 1979 as a law framework to create a regime of detailed processes. According to Article 11.5, an international regime has to govern the exploitation of nature, establishing the accurate processes. Therefore, several UN-sponsored conferences have occurred to define laws or the regime. But there was no consensus. The continuing disagreement depends especially on the "Common Heritage of Mankind" with the rights of each nation to the Moon's natural resources.

Moon Treaty Ratification:

In 1979, it was confirmed. Once the need for five ratifying states was satisfied, this Treaty entered into force after five years for the ratifying parties. As mentioned above, eighteen states are parties to the Treaty as of January 2019. Seven states ratified the agreement, whereas the remaining ones acceded. Four extra states have signed but not ratified yet. The L5 Society and others opposed the signing of the Treaty by the US.

National considerations:

The Subcommittee on Science, Technology, and Space held hearings on the Moon Treaty In the United States on July 29 and 31, 1980. It belonged to the Senate Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transportation.

S. Neil Hosenball was a great supporter of this Treaty. He tried to compare it to mining rights within the US. But he couldn't convince the committee by saying that the US must ratify the agreement. His opposition was Leigh Ratiner, the leader of the L-5 Society. According to Ratiner, the Treaty was opposed to free enterprise & private property rights. So, Leigh gave a potential solution to this Treaty by proposing legal claims to the Moon, such as a system to register such claims, which need to be there.

S. Neil Hosenball is the NASA General Counsel and chief US negotiator for the Moon Treaty. COPUOS held a high-level meeting after eight years of negotiations. This meeting took place to create a consensus on a framework of laws so that outer space can be sustainably developed. But Hosenball decided that the international regime's rules should be delayed until the establishment of the exploitation's feasibility. Therefore, the meeting also failed.

The "national" Treaty allows commercial mining. But experts are having an argument about the new national laws. They ask that the laws are inconsistent with the Moon Treaty and customary international law.

Implementation agreement:

The main topic of discussion around the laws which govern the Moon is dominated by the controversy on the claims and on mining rights for profit. According to the experts, the agreement must allow commercial mining because it allows extraction after the international regulatory regime. So, it can be said that the Treaty is not complete due to the lack of an "implementation agreement" that answers unresolved problems.

Moon Treaty Objective:

Since the 1967 Outer Space Treaty was signed, technologies have evolved, and it needs a redefinition of the citizens' & governments' rights in use and development of outer space. The initially stated objective of the agreement is to offer the essential legal principles to govern the behavior of states, international organizations, individuals exploring celestial bodies other than Earth, and the administration of the resources.

It proposed that state parties can create an "international regime" which sets up the appropriate procedures (Article 11.5).

Moon Treaty Provisions:

The Moon agreement suggests setting up an "international regime" or "framework of laws" which are applicable to the Moon and other celestial bodies within the Solar System, even the orbits around or other trajectories to or around them.

It lays many provisions, which are outlined in 21 articles. This Treaty declared in Article 1 that humans should use Moon for the advantages to all states and peoples of the international community. Moon Treaty lays many provisions. We have given here a few of these below:

  • Article 3.4 bans any type of military use of weapon testing, nuclear weapons in orbit, or military bases. Military personnel's use in scientific research won't be prohibited. 
  • Article 11.5 gives a framework of laws to set up an international cooperation regime for governing the exploitation of Moon's natural resources. 
  • Article 11.7 says all parties' safe use of natural lunar resources in the benefits derived from the resources. 
  • Article 11 says that the placement of equipment or personnel on or below the surface will be unable to create a right of ownership.
  • Article 6 says that the freedom of scientific research & exploration must be present. 
  • Article 6.2 says that samples received during research should be made available to all nations for research. 
  • According to Article 7.3, if any area draws special attention or interest in scientific research, it will be designated as an international scientific preserve. 
  • Article 5.3 says that it will say the United Nations and the public of any phenomena which could become a big risk for human life or health. 
  • Article 14 says state parties need to ensure that non-governmental entities under their jurisdiction will involve in activities on the Moon only under the authority. 
  • Article 5 says each party must inform the United Nations & the public regarding the activities concerned with the exploration and use of the Moon.


The Moon Treaty 1979 has both some benefits and some drawbacks. Considering them both, making a few major changes before binding this on parties & non-parties with the ratification of major space-faring powers is necessary. In this way, the UN needs to review its current provisions & incorporate the essential changes along with giving an improved clarification of the existing clauses. Once exploitation of the additional territorial resources becomes feasible economically & technically, the agreement's test will be possible as a treaty and a customary law.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. Has India signed the Moon Treaty?

The answer to this question is in the Moon agreement of 1979, which was brought in the United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs (UNOOSA). Yes, India signed the agreement governing the Activities of States on the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies. However, it never ratified this.

Q. What countries signed the Moon Agreement?

The United Nations Office for Outer Space Affairs says that France, Guatemala, India, and Romania have signed the Treaty.

Q. What is the Moon Treaty in India?

The Legal Subcommittee considered as well as elaborated the agreement and elaborated from 1972 to 1979. Then, the General Assembly adopted this in 1979 in resolution 34/68.

Monday, May 15, 2023

Ghost Army - History Mystery

Ghost Army - History Mystery

The Ghost Army, also called 23rd Headquarters Special Troops, was a United States Army tactical deception unit during World War II. This unit consists of 1100 men and its mission was to deceive and mislead Hitler's forces. It was activated on January 20, 1944. Later in May, it arrived in Europe shortly before D-Day. When the war ended, it went back to the United States in July 1945. It carried out over twenty deception campaigns during its tenure, putting on a "travelling road show” and used inflatable tanks, sound trucks, fake radio transmissions, scripts and pretence. Until the misclassification in 1996, they kept their story a secret after the war for over fifty years. Unit members got Congressional Gold Medal in February 2022 for their top-quality distinguished service.

History And Deployment of Ghost Army:

Ralph Ingersoll and Billy Harris, the army planners of the United States, created the Ghost Army. While the unit's leader was Colonel Harry L. Leeder, the British units inspired the unit. It also had been honed the deception technique for Operation Bertram by these units at the end of 1942 during the El Alamein battle.

The Ghost Army was formed completely at Camp Pine, New York (now Fort Drum) before sailing for the UK in May 1944. And, it had its barracks at Camp Forrest, Tennessee. Their location was near Stratford upon Avon in Britain. Troops joined Operation Fortitude.

After fourteen days of D-Day, a few troops went to Normandy. Once they reached there, they simulated a Mulberry harbour at night with lights. Their plan was to draw German artillery from the actual ones. Later, all the members of the unit helped to tie up the German defenders of Brest. So, they stimulated a very large force.

Allied armies moved east. Therefore, the unit also did this and was based in Luxembourg. The unit engaged from this place in deceptions of the Ruhr river crossings, located along the Maginot Line, Hürtgen Forest. At last, they crossed the Rhine with the intention of drawing German soldiers away from the actual sites.


The intention was to give encouragement to the Ghost troops so that they could mislead, deceive, & befuddle the German Army by using their talent. Several soldiers were from advertising agencies, art schools, & other occupations which have encouraged soldiers with creative thinking. The unit's members had been actors, artists, architects, set designers, engineers and lawyers in civilian life.

While the team had only 1,100 soldiers, the contingent used equipment like dummy tanks & artillery, fake aircraft, and giant speakers. With the help of these speakers, they broadcasted artillery & men's sounds so that Germans thought it was a two-division 30,000-man force. This unit comprised 603rd Camouflage Engineers, 406th Combat Engineers to handle security, the 3132 Signal Service Company Special, and the Signal Company Special.

What Are The Tactics Used By The Ghost Army Unit?

Visual deception:

This arm was the 603rd Camouflage Engineers. There were inflatable tanks, cannons, jeeps, trucks, and aeroplanes. After that, they camouflage imperfectly to let the enemy aerial reconnaissance see them. They were able to make dummy airfields, motor pools, artillery batteries, troop bivouacs, and tank formations in some hours.

The unit had several men who were artists by profession. They were recruited from New York and Philadelphia art schools. Ghost Army was like an incubator for young artists, and they were the ones who sketched & painted their route through Europe. Many of them went on so that they could have a major impact on art in the postwar US. A few names of artists who served in the 603rd were Bill Blass, Ellsworth Kelly, wildlife artist Arthur Singer, and Art Kane.

Sonic deception:

It was handled by the 3132 Signal Service Company Special. The team from 3132 was aided by engineers from Bell Labs. Then, it moved to Fort Knox for recording the sounds of armoured & infantry units onto the sound effects records which they brought to Europe. For every deception, they needed to mix sounds with the scenario in that way the enemy could believe. State-of-the-art wire recorders were used to record the program. After that, it was played back using strong amplifiers & speakers. In that case, you need to know that a state-of-the-art wire recorder is a predecessor to the tape recorder. It was possible to hear sounds 15 miles (24 km) away.

Radio deception:

We know this as"Spoof radio" that the Signal Company handled. It was the Special Operators who created traffic nets to impersonate their operators from real units. Every Morse Code operator follows an individual sending style. The operators of the Signal Company copied the style of a departed operator to prevent the enemy from detecting the actual unit.


With the intention of complementing existing techniques, Ghost Army employed theatrical effects to supplement deceptions. It is known collectively as "atmosphere."

The Ghost Army of WWII Congressional Gold Medal Act:

The Ghost Army Legacy Project campaigned for 6.5 years to make the unit famous when Rick Beyer was the leader through four Congressional terms. He was also the producer and director of The Ghost Army 2013 PBS documentary.

On May 18, 2021, the voting was done by the House of Representatives to pass H.R. 707. There were seventy-one co-sponsors in the Senate bill, S. 1404. The 67th Senate co-sponsor was Senator Catherine Cortez-Masto (D-NV).

The Housing and Urban Affairs Committee, the full U.S. The Senate, passed S. 1404, called the Ghost Army Congressional Gold Medal Act, on the evening of December 15, 2021, after a unanimous vote by the Senate Banking for passage. Whereas, the House of Representatives passed S. 1404 on January 19, 2022. The law: S. 1404, the Ghost Army Congressional Gold Medal Act, was signed by President Biden on Tuesday, February 1, 2022. It awarded the unit a Congressional Gold Medal for exceptional service in conducting European deception operations during World War II.

Representative Kuster and Senators Markey, Portman, Collins, and Blumenthal even appreciated President Biden's leadership. The effort of the Ghost Army of WWII Congressional Gold Medal got support from the American Legion, the National World War II Museum, the American Veterans Center, the National D-Day Memorial Foundation, and so on.


In this article, we have covered everything that you should know about the ghost army which was created by the United States. Still if you have any doubts or queries, do ask us via comments.

Frequently Asked Questions

Q. What is a ghost in the army?

It indicates the army soldiers whose names are seen on military rolls but not in military service. Q. What are the Famous members of the Ghost Army?

The names of the popular members are:

  • Mickey McKane. 
  • Fred Fox. 
  • John Jarvie. 
  • Bill Blass. 
  • Ned Harris.
  • Arthur Singer
  • Jack Masey. 
  • Bill Sayles.

Q. How did the Ghost Army start?

It was created by the U.S. Army in January 1944.

Thursday, April 27, 2023

Chicxulub Crater — History Mystery

Chicxulub Crater — History Mystery

The Chicxulub crater, also called an impact crater, is near the community of Chicxulub and buried underneath the Yucatán Peninsula in Mexico. It's named according to its position. This crater was formed more than 66 million years ago when a big asteroid struck Earth. The diameter of that asteroid was about ten kilometres (six miles). Its diameter is assumed to be 180 kilometres (110 miles), while its depth is 20 kilometres (12 miles). This one is the 2nd biggest impact structure on Earth. It is the only crater whose peak ring is intact; people can access it for scientific research.

The culprit that is behind the end of the dinosaurs is accepted as an extraterrestrial collision of epic proportions. It has left behind the gargantuan crater of Chicxulub in Mexico. However, the evidence behind this theory increased over time.

Antonio Camargo and Glen Penfield were geophysicists by profession. They found the crater. During the late 1970s, they had been finding petroleum in the Yucatán Peninsula. Penfield could not prove that the geological feature was a crater. So, he stopped his search. Later, he contacted Alan R. Hildebrand in 1990 and collected samples, according to which it can be concluded that the feature was impacted. Proof for its impact origin contains shocked quartz, a gravity anomaly, and tektites in these areas.

The impact date coincides with the Cretaceous–Paleogene boundary. We can also call this the K–Pg or K–T boundary. People now accept that the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event was caused due to the result of devastation and climate disruption.

Thick Impact Ejecta Deposit at the K-T Boundary in Haiti:

The event took place in Haiti, on the southern peninsula of the island of Hispaniola. In the year 1990, Alan Hildebrand and David Kring measured the thick deposits of impact melt spherules, capped with a layer of iridium-rich and shocked quartz-bearing sediment. Around 46 centimetres is the impact ejecta deposit's primary thickness adjacent to Beloc, Haiti. In other places, impact ejected materials seem like seafloor bottom currents have been reworked, generating deposits up to 125 centimetres thick. The thickness of impact debris in Haiti was more than it was at other locations known at that time.

Impact Melt Spherules at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) Boundary:

Impact melt is a vital product of an impact cratering event. The melt fraction is ejected from the crater. As soon as the melt is ejected, it will separate into molten droplets. These quench the glass before landing. Due to the glassy beads, a layer of ejecta can be formed on land or a seafloor. The discovery of impact melt spherules means that the source crater was in the region. Besides, you should know about the composition of the impact melt spherules. The reason is that it refers to the impact occurring in a place where continental crust exists, not oceanic crust.

Shocked and Unshocked Quartz at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) Boundary:

One of the most common minerals present in Earth’s continental crust is Quartz. Once the comet hits, a huge shock pressure is produced. Therefore, the pressures can produce shock lamellae or planar deformation features via quartz crystals. It has finished the planes and the crystal structure. No geologic process except that can cause damage. Therefore, it can be concluded that the features are diagnostic proof of an impact event. A shocked quartz crystal was ejected from the Chicxulub impact crater while placed in its sediments in Haiti. The length of a quartz crystal is 0.45 millimetres. D. A. Kring, A. R. Hildebrand, and W.V. Boynton described the crystal.

Chicxulub Impact Breccia:

As per the discovery of shocked quartz, shocked feldspar, and impact melts in the Yucatán-6 exploration borehole from the interior of the Chicxulub structure, it was proved that the impact crater generated at the Cretaceous-Tertiary (K-T) boundary. There is a melted rock sample under the polymictic breccia. In this regard, you should know that the sample of melt rook was found deep from the ground, around 1.3 kilometres. David A. Kring, Alan R. Hildebrand, and William V. Boynton were the founders at the 1991 Lunar and Planetary Science Conference.

Chicxulub Gravity Map and Boreholes

You can see its subsurface structure in a gravity map of the northwestern margin of the Yucatán Peninsula, where the crater is outlined by a black Circle. Its diameter is around 180 kilometres. The crater was more than enough to ensure that it had an impact source. Near the Haciende Yaxcopoil (Yax-1) in 2001-2002, a scientific borehole was drilled.

Radar Tomography Map of Chicxulub

Shuttle Radar Tomography Mission made the shaded relief map on Space Shuttle Endeavor in 2000. There exists a deep semicircular trough of 3-5 meter in depth, and you can call this a darker green arcing line. The Chicxulub-1, Sacapuc-1, Yucatán-6, and Yaxcopoil-1 boreholes exist within the crater's rim. The dotted line outlines its ~170 to 180 km central area. Several investigators find it as the rim of the crater.

Chicxulub Zone of Cenotes:

It was discovered in the mid-20th Century and found on topographic maps of the Yucatán Peninsula. Until this crater was found, we did not know the cause of the ring. Groundwater that flows north encounters the buried rim of the crater. The direction of water flow changes around the crater & flows (visibly) into the Gulf of Mexico, whereas the crater rim overlaid the northern coastline of the peninsula. A chain of cenotes surrounds the crater like a blue pearl necklace. Jake Bailey and David Kring crafted a version of this diagram. LPI was recently modified for its collection of classroom illustrations.


On Earth, it is the only well-preserved peak ring crater connected to the K-Pg mass extinction of several plant and animal species. Geologists drilled an 83-millimetre borehole in 1990 into the peak ring of Chicxulub crater as part of the International Ocean Discovery Program and International Continental Scientific Drilling Program (IODP-ICDP) Expedition 364.

Sunday, April 16, 2023

Titivillus: History Mystery


Titivillus was a demon who used to work on behalf of Belphegor, Lucifer or Satan for introducing errors into scribes' work. Johannes Galensis, also known as John of Wales, mentioned the name of Titivillus first in Tractatus de Penitentia, c. 1285. 


Caesarius of Heisterbach gets the attribution. Besides, to describe Titivillus, it was said that gathering idle chat during church service and any skipped as well as mispronounced well words of service for taking to Hell to be counted against the offenders. The term "patron demon of scribes" has been used to describe him because the Titivillus demon offers a simple excuse for the errors. These will later creep into manuscripts because these are copied.

Marc Drogin wrote an institution manual named Medieval Calligraphy: Its History and Technique (1980). In this manual, he noted that each edition of The Oxford English Dictionary had been coming with a wrong page reference of everything, like a footnote on the earliest mention of Titivillus for the past half-century

As physical comedy's subversive figure, Titivillus has got a border role in late medieval English pageants like the ludicium which finished the Towneley Cycle. When it comes to the Medieval English play Mankind, he has an antagonistic role. Titivillus gave his introduction in a 15th English devotional treatise named Myroure of Oure Ladye, where he said (I.xx.54): "I am a poure dyuel, and my name ys Tytyvyllus ... I muste eche day ... brynge my master a thousande pokes full of faylynges, and of neglygences in syllables and wordes."


The appearance of his demonic form is like a humanoid creature which is covered in donkey ears, greenish-blue fur, owl-like eyes, and a serpent for a tail. Besides, Titivillus comes with a long and bloody tongue with greenish poison.

which caused scribes and preachers to fumble with their words. There exists a pair of green feathered wings protruding from the lower back.

When he turns into a human, he looks like an old man with a receding hairline and a pot belly. Besides, he puts on a three pieces suit and has greenish-blue eyes. He also has salt-and-pepper hair.

In popular culture:

The devil who makes the role-playing game Dungeons & Dragons famous since 1977 is named Titivillus. Michael Ayrton wrote the book Titivillus or The Verbiage Collector, where he was the main topic.


Wright said that he belongs to some of the most caring parental figures he had in his life. He is very kind and protective towards him. He taught him about manners, etiquette, and other necessary things which are important to infernal politics, like information-gathering or assassination. But he admitted that their relationship could be vast if he were not the offspring of Belphegor, who is his master.

Source of the name:

Jacques de Vitry mentioned the topic of gathering liturgical errors in a sack in Sermones vulgares (tenth sermon, on Numbers 18:5). It mentions a demon which listens to the choir that sings psalms and gathers syncopated or omitted syllables in a sack. Johannes Galensis named the demon "Titivillus", whose task is gathering fragments of words and putting them in his bag daily about a thousand times. The Latin term "collect" is colligere, whereas for "fragments", it is fragmenta. These Latin terms are derived from John 6:12. Hence, the disciples must collect the broken pieces as they are told.


If it comes to talk about Titivillus, Vernet mentions The City of God (Book IV, Chapter 8) in a passage where Augustine mentions Tutilina, a goddess watching over grain after being gathered & stored. He mentions the goddess's name when he gives examples of Roman deities who are responsible for every step in the agricultural process. It is necessary to imagine a series of copyists' errors for arrival at "Titivillus" and other variants like Tutivillus, Tytivillum, Tintillus, Tantillus, Tintinillus, Titivitilarius, Titivilitarius.

Sunday, March 12, 2023



Druids who worked as judges, teachers & priests were the members of the learned class among the ancient Celts. We get the old druid records from the 3rd century BCE. Their name is expected to come from a Celtic word that indicates "knower of the oak tree." We don't have too much about the druids because they kept no record of themselves.

Julius Caesar is the major information source about the Druids. According to him, two men groups were there in Gaul, held in honor, including the Druids and the noblemen (equites). He also said that Druids were in charge of public and private sacrifices. Therefore, several young men went to them to get instructions. Not only they judged every public and private quarrel, but also they decreed penalties. If any person did not abide by the decree, he was barred from sacrifice. People consider this the gravest of punishments.

Previously, druids made one person chief among them. After his death, they appointed another person. Sometimes, a few Druids had equal merits. In such cases, Druids voted. They assembled once every year at a sacred place in the territory of the Carnutes, the center of all Gaul. When all of them used to assemble, the legal disputes were submitted to their judgment.

As per the record of Caesar, they abstained from warfare & they did not pay any tribute. Several people participated in the order voluntarily after being attracted by the privileges. Druids studied old verse, natural philosophy, astronomy, and the lore of the gods. Some ancient druids invested about 20 years in their training. According to them, the soul is immortal; when a person dies, the soul will pass from one person to another.

Druids in Mythology:

In Irish folklore, they lead a prominent role, serving Lords and kings as top-ranking priest-counselors because they had mystical abilities. Being Cathbad is the best example of these. In this regard, you should know that the presence of the chief druid in the court of King Conchobar mac Nessa of Ulster, Cathbad, is seen in many stories, and these mostly describe his ability to foretell the future.

If you read the tale of Deirdre of the Sorrows – the foremost tragic heroine of the Ulster Cycle – you will get to know that before the court of Conchobar, the druid predicted that Deirdre would grow up to be very beautiful. Moreover, you will get to know that the druid predicted that not only kings but also lords would go to war over her. They added only because of her much blood will be shed. Along with this, Druid said that the three greatest warriors of Ulster would be exiled due to her. The king ignored the prophecy, and it came true.

Amergin Glúingel was the greatest of the mythological druids. He was a bard and judge for the Milesians in the Mythological Cycle. The main intention of the Milesians was to overrun the Tuatha Dé Danann and win the area of Ireland. But once they came there, a magical storm was made by the druids of the Tuatha Dé Danann to prevent their ships from making landfall. 

In this way, Amergin called upon the spirit of Ireland itself. It chanted a strong incantation which will be called The Song of Amergin. After the landfall, they aided & divided the land between his royal brothers in the conquest of Ireland to get the title Chief Ollam of Ireland. The names of other mythological druids are Tadg mac Nuadat of the Fenian Cycle and Mug Ruith.

About Female Druids:

Irish Druids Mythology—

In Irish mythology, you will find the mention of several female druids who share prominent cultural and religious roles with male druids. The Irish give several names to the female druids like bandruí ("woman-druid"), which we discovered in the Táin Bó Cúailnge story. Bodhmall that we found in Fenian Cycle is one of Fionn mac Cumhaill's childhood caretakers. Besides, Tlachtga is the daughter of the druid Mug Ruith. As per the Irish tradition, Ruith is related to the Hill of Ward, the site of prominent festivals held during the middle ages in Tlachtga's honor.

Biróg has played a major role in an Irish folktale where an attempt is made by the Fomorian warrior Balor to thwart a prophecy foretelling that his grandson will kill him by imprisoning his only daughter Eithne in the tower of Tory Island to keep her away from the contact of any man. Hence, you should know that Biróg is another bandruí of the Tuatha Dé Danann.

Bé Chuille is the daughter of the woodland goddess Flidais, and she was also known as a sorceress instead of a bandruí. Her presence was seen in a tale from the Metrical Dindshenchas. In that tale, she joins three other Tuatha Dé so that they can defeat the Greek witch Carman. 

Whereas another bandrúi Relbeo, a Nemedian druid appears in The Book of Invasions. And we got to know that she is the daughter of the King of Greece and mother of Fergus Lethderg and Alma One-Tooth. Dornoll, a bandrúi in Scotland, trained heroes in warfare (Laegaire and Conall). In this regard, you should know that she was Domnall Mildemail's daughter.

The Gallizenae:

Classical authors said that the Gallizenae were virgin priestesses of the Île de Sein off Pointe du Raz, Finistère, western Brittany. Artemidorus Ephesius, who is a Greek geographer, mentioned their existence first. Later, the Greek historian Strabo wrote that men were not allowed to enter the island, but the women came to the mainland so that they could meet their husbands. Who Were The Druids?

Their presence is seen in many mystical tales of Prehistoric Britain. A Druid named Figol was threatened to bring fire to rage on his enemies and to prevent the men and their horses from going to the toilet. As a result, their bodies got filled with urine. However, as per our knowledge of the modern world, we know that it is not possible. However, several druids are riddled with mysticism, and magic. They remain basically concerned with the natural world and its powers. They considered oak trees sacred.

We still don't know the source of the term ‘Druid’ but most people think that ‘doire’ is its origin. This one is an Irish-Gaelic word for oak tree which represents ‘wisdom’. However, there are different mysteries regarding the history of Druids. We can compare their practices with those of priests today because they are capable of connecting people with gods. However, the roles of them varied and acted as teachers, scientists, judges and philosophers. 

What makes them special is their power. They were capable of banishing people from society if someone broke the sacred laws, came between two opposing armies and prevented warfare. In addition, they didn't need to pay any taxes in battle. People during that time considered Druid women equal to men in different respects. In this regard, you should know that it is quite uncommon for an old community. Women were able to participate in wars and divorce their husbands.

Julius Caesar was the writer of one of the oldest accounts of Druids in 59-51 BC. These were written in Gaul, where we can see the division of prestigious men into Druids or nobles. From the Roman writers, the historians have gained most of the knowledge regarding Druids. 

In this regard, you must know that they were polytheistic. Besides, they had sacred figures and female gods, rather like the Romans & Greeks. But remember that the less civilised society of druids gave a sense of superiority to others. It can render a few of their accounts uncertain historically because they could be tainted with exaggerated instances of Druidic practices. Although there was a record of the Druidic human sacrifice, we don't have any specific proof to support this.

Subsections were available within the Druid class where all are color-coded robes. Arch-druid is the oldest druid who would wear gold robes. Generally, the ordinary ones used to wear white and work as priests. While the sacrificers wore red, the blue bards were artistic. The new recruits did lesser tasks to druidism. These were held in lesser esteem, where they wore brown or black.

Remember that all aspects were structured & ordered from the Druid class's hierarchy to their life pattern which followed nature’s cycles. Druids also noticed lunar, solar & seasonal cycles and based on that, they worshipped right major holy days. 

They used to celebrate New Year on Samhain which we call Halloween (31st October). This day is full of mysticism and spirituality when the last harvest would occur. The reason is that the living and deceased could reveal to each other. Yule is referred to the winter solstice when these ancient people would sit on mounds of earth like the NewGrange in Ireland waiting for sunrise at the night when they will be reborn.

Hence, you should know that Ostara indicated the spring equinox whereas Beltane as a fertility festival occurred on 30th April. The summer solstice was Litha. They believed that the ‘holy king’ took over from the ‘oak king’ of Yule at this time. The first harvest was Lughnasa on 2nd August while the autumnal equinox was Mabon. After that, the cycle of holy days used to repeat itself along with reflecting the nature cycles, planets, etc., because of the belief of Druids in reincarnation. According to them, sins committed in an earlier life might be possible to make up for in the next.

The worship place was known as the ‘Temples of the Druids.’ These were secluded areas such as clearings in woods, forests, and stone circles. Stonehenge in Britain is the most renowned stone circle which is an old megalithic monument of about 2500 BC. 

People mostly think about druids that they might congregate around Stonehenge and cast magical incantations. This spot is still a worship place today for pagans and other neo-druids. However, a disagreement is there about if the ancient Druids built Stonehenge. Although we don't know when Druids came to Britain, they are expected to arrive after Stonehenge was built.

What Do You Mean by Druidry?

It is a community-based belief and value system which depends on the animistic worldview. According to druidry, all nature is intelligent, while other living creatures are human's ancestors. Animistic beliefs can be found in all the world's religions. According to several anthropologists, it is the world religion occurring naturally as well as the spiritual root of most religious belief systems.

You should know that the Animistic cultures depend on oral storytelling and traditional knowledge in the local landscape. It lets them pass down knowledge and culture for many years, continuously mystifying Western academics.

Once the writing was invented, knowledge became more abstract after people wrote it down in books. People got several books and scriptures from folklore and traditional tales of animistic cultures. Ancient scribes wrote them down under the direction of powerful kings & Emperors, along with their patriarchal priesthoods.

Digital displays and computers meditate on the human experience increasingly for people who look at the display ten hours daily on average. It can be tried to develop a connection with the "felt presence," and it is a powerful way of unplugging, resetting & reconnecting with the nature force.

Modern Druidry and the Environment:

Nowadays, Druids remain engaged in raising awareness regarding not only pollution, fracking, unchecked mining, but also in harmful industrial farming and rewilding forests. Moreover, they keep themselves engaged in establishing more nature reserves for protecting the biodiversity of the land.

The critical foundation of Druidry is the natural balance maintenance and respect for natural law. In this regard, it is necessary to know that the old Druids were priests, magicians, doctors, lawmakers, as well as nature-based philosophers.


Time was cylindrical for druids, indicating what goes around literally comes around. Moreover, they believed that if anyone performs such actions that go against natural law, it will lead to grave and long-term consequences for future generations. It is the reason the major focus of druids is on leaving a better world for future generations instead of consuming all natural resources quickly & harvesting the world to increase profit.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. What do the Druids believe?

Druids believed that oak trees are sacred and they remain concerned with the natural world. We can describe Druidism as a shamanic religion because it depended on the combination of holistic medicines & the spirit world to treat illnesses.

Q. What country are Druids from?

The Druids' oldest detailed and earliest accounts dated back to the first century B.C. They had set up a special role within the old communities of Britain, Ireland, and France.

Q. Do Druids still exist?

They don't proselytize though we can see the existence of modern Druidry across the globe. According to the reports, 74% of world Druids work actively to keep the spiritual practice private.