Saturday, December 20, 2014

Micronations: Aerican Empire

The Aerican Empire – No Sovereign Territory

The Aerican Empire a micronation was founded in May 1987 and had no sovereign territory of its own. It has not been recognized by any of the other sovereign state as an existing state. The New York Times, in 2000, described its website as `one of the more imaginative’ micronation sites. The Aerican Empire in short form is referred as Aerica.

The members claimed sovereignty over a large disconnected location which included a square km of land in Australia, Canada – containing the Embassy to Everything Else, a house sized area in Montreal with many other areas on the Earth, with a colony on Mars, and the northern hemisphere of Pluto together with an imaginary planet.

As in the case of several micronations, the members count fluctuated tremendously with the passage of time and in May 2009, its claim exceeded to 400. The Aerican Empire was founded by Eric Lis, the present Emperor as well as a core group of friends. The first ten years of the empire’s history was engaged in wars which included battles with the rival micronations.

It was a parliamentary democracy with the primary elected body, the Senate with seventeen individuals, two representatives from every area of the Empire together with the head of state, the Emperor. The Empire had never printed these documents since it was considered as a waste of money till another government recognized its validity.

Unrecognized By Established States of the World

However, novelty passport together with ID card did exist for download. Its culture grew from the starting principle and attracted several individuals with good sense of humour and keen on science fiction, fantasy as well as games due to which, modern Imperial culture is filled with regards to Star Wars and The Aerican Empire’s official gaming club – AEGIS which is associated with seven univerisites all over the world with sponsors, funded, supporting an annual gaming day on December 29 since 2003.

Moreover AEGIS has also rendered financial support in the creation of many Aerican Empire theme Warhammer 40K armies that have participated in national tournaments. Being a micronation, a nation and or state that is unrecognized by established states of the world, it has at times been one of the most infamous as well as the most the influential site.

Collection of Politically Interconnected Colonies

The Empire is a collection of politically interconnected colonies which have been scattered across the world with each of them consisting of small plot of land. No records are available to indicate the purpose on the creations of the Empire. This Empire does not have any official religion and freedom of religion is guaranteed to any faith. All can follow the religion of their choice within the empire and co-exist in peace.

There are different faiths in the empire and the faith which has grown along with the Empire and the most favoured one of several citizens is Silinism, which is a disorganized religion with the worship of Forsteri, the Great Penguim together with its associated non-religious philosophy, the Path of Forsteri.

 The symbols of the Empire are varied and many which include the national flag together with the imperial seal. Besides this, each colony is represented by its own individual flag.

Friday, December 19, 2014

Kenneth Arnold’s ‘Flying Saucers

Kenneth Arnold – Unidentified Flying Objects

Kenneth A. Arnold is an American aviator and businessman, best known for the first widely reported unidentified flying object which has been sighted in the United States, who had claimed that he had seen around 9 unusual objects flying in a chainon June 24, 1947, near Mount Rainer, Washington.

The Kenneth Arnold UFO sighting took place when a private pilot envisaged a string on nine shiny unidentified flying objects flying at speeds that he estimated being at 1,200 miles an hour. This was the first post War glimpses in the United States which garnered news coverage nationwide and is credited to be the first of the modern era of UFO sightings which included various reported sights for over the next two to three weeks.

Arnold’s description of these objects resulted in the press considering the terms flying saucer and flying disc as popular descriptive terms for UFOs. On the day of June 24, it is said that Arnold had been flying on a business trip, from Chehalis, Washington to Yakima, Washington in a CallAir A-2 and had made a brief detour on learning of a $5,000 reward for the discovery of a U.S. Marine Corps C-46 transport airplane which had crashed near Mount Rainier.

Spotted Bright Flashing Light

The skies were quite clear with a mild wind when a few minutes before 3.00 pm, at around 9,200 feet, in altitude and near Mineral, Washington, he finally gave up his search and headed eastward towards Yakima. It was then that he spotted bright flashing light similar to sunlight reflecting from a mirror and being afraid of being dangerously close to another aircraft, he scanned the skies around but could only see a DC-4 towards his left and behind him around 15 miles away.

After about thirty seconds on seeing the first flash of light, Arnold then saw a series of bright flashes towards his left in the far distance or north of Mount Rainier which was then around 20 to 25 miles. He wondered that it could be the reflections on his airplane’s window though with few more, quick tests like rocking his airplane from side to side, removing his eyeglasses and later rolling down his side window, he ruled it out.

The reflections were from the flying objects which flew in a long chain and for a moment he speculated them to be a flock of geese, though this too was ruled out due to the altitude, bright glint as well as the fast speed. He then considered it to be a new kind of a jet and took a keen interest for more details on the mysterious object.

Amazing Aspect of the Object – No Tail 

Arnold later identified the source of the flashes which were a series of fast moving objects and described them as silvery and shiny. The most amazing aspect of the object was the absence of a tail that appeared like a pie plate which meant that the object seemed to have a raised top or cupola on them and also closely fits with that of the large UFO photographed at the time of the Battle of Los Angeles.

Though in a 1930 UFO report in Texas, the term saucer was used, it was actually meant to indicate the relative size of the object from arm’s length and Arnold had informed that the objects moved like saucers when skipped across the water.

He indicated how the objects bounced across the atmosphere and not the shape of the object but it was reported by Bill Bequette’s report on AP news wire as `flying saucer’, to describe the object shape, a phrase which was coined.

Monday, December 15, 2014

Bible Manuscripts

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Biblical Manuscript – Handwritten copy of section text of Bible 

A biblical manuscript is a handwritten copy of a section of the text of the Bible and the word Bible is derived from the Greek biblia or book, while manuscript comes from Latin manu or hand and scriptum or written. The original manuscript is known as the `autographs’.

These manuscripts are of different sizes from tiny scrolls comprising of individual verse of the Jewish scriptures to huge polyglot codices of both Hebrew Bible or Tanakh and the New Testament together with extracanonical works.

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It is essential to study the biblical manuscripts since the handwritten copies of books may contain errors and the science of textual criticism tends to reconstruct the original text of the books particularly the ones which could have been published earlier to the invention of the printing press. The oldest Hebrew language manuscript of the Tanakh was the Aleppo and Leningrad codex.

The discovery of the Dead Sea scrolls at Qumran pushed the manuscript history of the Tanakh back a millennium from the previous two complete codices and prior to this discovery, the earliest manuscripts of the Old Testament were of Greek like the Codex Vaticanus and Codex Sinaiticus.From the 800 manuscripts which were found at Qumran, 220 were from the Tanakh.

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Ancient Manuscripts in Hebrew

Sections of the New Testament are preserved in more manuscripts than any other ancient work with over 5,800 complete or fragmented Greek manuscripts, 10,000 Latin manuscripts and 9,300 manuscripts of various other ancient languages comprising of Syriac, Slavic, Gothic, Coptic, Ethiopic and Armenian.

Though there are several ancient Biblical manuscripts, the importance of the Leningrad Codex as well as the Aleppo Codex, codices created by Masoretic scholars is in the comments contained in the text. The ancient biblical manuscripts that are written in Hebrew does not have vowels and even if there is no question with regards to the letters of a given text, there still remains a question as to how a particular word could be pronounced and its meaning. Similarly, the ancient biblical manuscripts like the Dead Sea Scrolls could contain no indication on how the Torah sections and the prophetic reading should be chanted in the synagogue.

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Only Complete Copy of Hebrew Bible – Leningrad Codex

On the other hand codices like the Leningrad Codex and Aleppo Codex have vowel marking in the form of subscripts and superscripts and also contain other markings showing pitch relationships in guiding the cantor in chanting the prescribed Torah.

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Besides this, an important aspect is that they contain massive marginal notations regarding cruxes in the text which are difficult to interpretation. Till they were damaged and lost partially, the Aleppo Codex was considered to be the `crown’ of the ancient biblical manuscripts as well as the version of the Hebrew Bible which eventually became the most authoritative text in Judaism and its loss was a big blow to Jewish scholarship though another complete codex existed in the Leningrad Code.

The only complete copy of the Hebrew Bible from the same period like the Aleppo Code was the Leningrad Codex in St. Petersburg which is similar to the Aleppo Codex in several respects with regards to dates as well as in distinction. The Leningrad Codex like the Aleppo Codex has vowel marking, extensive textual notes and cantillation signs.

Saturday, December 13, 2014

Tesla Death Ray

The Death Ray/Death Beam – Theoretical Particle Beam 

Tesla Death Ray
The death ray or death beam, a theoretical particle beam or electromagnetic weapon during the 1920s till the 1930s, was claimed to have been independently invented by Edwin R. Scott, Graichen, Guglielmo Marcone, Nikola Tesla and Harry Grindell Matthews together with several others.

The National Inventors Council, in 1957 were issuing list of needed military inventions which included a death ray. Based on fiction and inspired by past speculation, research into energy based weapons, gave rise to the contribution of real life weapons in use by modern militaries which was at times called a kind of `death ray’, such as the United States Navy and its `Laser Weapon System’ –LaWS, which were deployed in mid-2014 and these armaments were technically known as - directed energy weapons.

Tesla inherited a deep hatred of war from his father and all through his life he thought of a technological way to put an end to warfare. He was of the opinion that war could be converted into a `mere spectacle of machines’.

He informed reporters at a press conference in 1931 that he was on the way of discovering a new source of energy and when asked to explain the nature of the power, he informed that `the idea first came up as a tremendous shock and at that point of time he could only state that it would come from an entirely new and unsuspected source’.

Death Beam/Teleforce – Invented in 1930

Nikola Tesla is said to have invented in the 1930s, a `death beam’, which was called teleforce. He explained that `this invention does not contemplate the use of the so-called `death rays’ and the rays are not applicable since they cannot be produced in required quantities which tends to diminish quickly in intensity with distance.

All energy of New York City transformed into rays projecting twenty miles could not kill a human being since according to the well-known law of physics; it could disperse to an extent so as to be ineffectual. The apparatus projects particles which could be comparatively large or of microscopic dimensions with provision to convey to a small area at great distance trillions of times additional energy was possible with rays of any type.

Thus thousands of horsepower can be transmitted by stream which could be thinner than hair so that nothing can resist’.He proposed that a nation could destroy any object approaching within 200 miles and could provide a wall of power to make any country whether big or small, impregnable against armies, airplanes or any other means of attack.

Particle Accelerator 

The mechanism of Tesla’s death ray is not comprehended well and was apparently a kind of particle accelerator. According to Tesla it was an outgrowth of his magnifying transformer with its focus on energy output in a thin beam was so concentrated, that it could not scatter even over large distances.

Tesla promoted this device purely as a defensive weapon with intentions to knock down incoming attacks, making it the greatest grandfather of the Strategic Defence Initiative. Though the concept of a death ray was never put into action, it somehow fuelled science fiction stories which lead to the science fiction concept of the hand held ray gun that are used by fictional heroes like Flash Gordon. Other similar weapons are also found in George Lucas’ science fiction saga like `Star Wars’.

Tuesday, December 9, 2014

Micronations: Principality of Hutt River

Principality of Hutt River
Image Credit: Cabinetmagazine
Principality of Hutt River – Oldest & Influential Micronation

The Principality of Hutt River which was formerly known as Hutt River Province is Australia’s oldest and the most influential micronation which is located on a huge farming area, many hundred kilometres towards the north area of Perth. It is situated within Western Australia which is around 75 sq. km in size comprising of approx. 18,500 acres of flat or undulating farmland which is well covered in areas with a wealth of shrubs together with beautiful windflowers.

 Its economy depends on agriculture comprising of export of wildflowers together with tourism. It was founded by a farmer, Leonard George Casley on April 21, 1970, who considers himself now as Prince Leonard when he along with his associates proclaimed their secession from the state of Western Australia.

The Principality of Hutt River – PHR is an Independent Sovereign State which seceded from Australia and is compared in size to Hong Kong though the Principality is much larger in physical size than several other countries like the San Marion, Monaco, Nauru and Vatican to mention a few.

Hereditary/Constitutional/Democratic Monarchy

The Principality, a hereditary, constitutional as well as a democratic monarchy, has HRH Prince Leonard as the Sovereign and the Head of State where a Government is exercised under the Sovereignty of the Prince by a Minister of State, HRH Crown Prince – Prince Ian, is assisted by a Government having many Ministers, Vice Ministers as well as State Secretaries, that are essential in leading the country.

Prince Leonard is a supporter of Arts as well as Conservation and has named several parts of the Principality with names like Lake Beginning, Lake Serenity, Mount Secession and Wild Boar Gorge. Nain, the main town site has been developed with buildings, with provision to basic facilities for tourist visiting the Province annually, together with modest Government and Reception buildings and basic support for campers with small ablutions block, camper’s kitchen and small caravan parking place accompanied with Power.

Other facilities include Administration building with Government Office and Post Office, Tea Rooms/Function Centre, swimming pool, Inter-Denominational Chapel together with a small arcade housing the Memorabilia Dept. and Historical Society displays.

Good Active & Widespread Diplomatic Representation

Besides this a new Reception Office also functions with recent extension to the Tea Rooms/Function Centre to cater for additional space including a beautiful and comfortable outdoor undercover location. For the 2010 40th anniversary celebration weekend, a new camping as well as caravan park area was developed, creating an ability to cater to larger scale visits during the special events without much cramping for all to enjoy the peace and serenity offered by the visit in the Principality.

The local resident population is quite small and a good number of Overseas Citizenships are issued to people from other countries.Though it has no standing army, a number of the citizens were awarded military commissions and honorary guardsmen attend to the Prince on formal occasions.

Inspite of being entirely landlocked, it possesses a navy, a naval commission have been provided on supporters of the Province. The Principality had a good active and widespread diplomatic representation with most of the developed countries.