Wednesday, April 1, 2015

Bioluminescent


Bioluminescent
Bioluminescence – Emission of Light by Living Organisms

Bioluminescence is the outcome of emission of light by living organism and is a form of chemiluminescene. Bioluminescence means light produced through chemical reaction in an organism where some of them use it to attract mates while other to attract its prey and still others have no apparent purpose.

Bioluminescent art comprises of naturally glowing bacteria which create intricate formation which are visible only when the lights are out. Several; organisms tend to create their own lights which include fireflies, fungi, algae and jellyfish. It occurs extensively in marine vertebrates and invertebrates besides fungi and fireflies and in some animals the light is created by symbiotic organism like Vibrio bacteria.

The main chemical reaction which occurs in bioluminescence contains light emitting pigment luciferin as well as the enzyme luciferase which is assisted by other proteins known as aequorin in some of the species. The enzyme causes the oxidation of luciferin ions and in certain species the kind of luciferin needs cofactors like calcium or magnesium ions and at times energy carrying molecule adenosine triphosphate – ATP

Bioluminescent
Strong Flash of Bioluminescence – Scare off Looming Killer

The fireflies produce their light with the help of a chemical reaction in their glowing abdomens, a process which is known as bioluminescence. Seascapes too glow and glitter due to the light producing abilities of several marine organisms. While some fishes seem to dangle a lighted lure before their mouth in order to attract prey, some other squid shoot out bioluminescent liquid to confuse their killers.

Bioluminescent
Often a strong flash of bioluminescence is used by the animals to scare off a looming killer and the bright signal could distract or startle the killer causing confusion on the whereabouts of its target and this tactic could be useful in deep sea for small copepods to larger vampire squid. Besides, worms as well as tiny crustaceans use bioluminescence in order to attract their mates.

Humans tend to see bioluminescence activated through physical disturbance like waves or moving boat hull which could get the animal to portray their light though most of the time, animals light up in response to an attack or to attract a mate. Bioluminescent organisms live in water column, from the surface to the seabed, near the coast to the open ocean. Bioluminescent is often common in deep sea since the deep sea is vast and bioluminescence could be the most common type of communication on the planet.

Bioluminescent
Light Travels in Wavelengths – Determines Colour of Light

Light tends to travel in different shapes in waves known as wavelengths and this determines the colour of light and when the waves hit our eyes, it gets translated into colours by our brain based on their wavelength. This is known as the visible light spectrum and we see the colours on this spectrum as they travel from the air above land.

Since light travels underwater differently and longer wavelengths cannot travel far, most of the bioluminescence that is produced in the water is in the form of blue green light. This occurs since these colours are of short wavelengths of light which travel through shallow as well as deep water and light travelling from the sun of longer wavelength like red light does not reach the deep sea.

 For animals that tend to bioluminescence, it could communicate or protect itself from being hurt or eaten by other animals. For humans the beautiful colours with light which are created through bioluminescence could be works of art.

Monday, March 30, 2015

Colloidal Gold


Colloidal_Gold
Credit: Aura Canada
Colloidal Gold - Small Microscopic Gold Particles in Liquid

Colloidal gold comprises of small microscopic gold particles suspended in distilled water or any other liquid which is either an intense red colour for particles less than 100nm or blue/purple in the case of larger particles. A colloid is suspension of fine particles in a fluid state.

Another name of colloidal gold is nanogold and due to the unique optical, electronic and molecular recognition assets of gold nanoparticles or crystals, they are the subject of extensive research with application in a variety of areas which include electron, electronics, nanotechnology, microscopy and materials science.

The properties as well as the applications of colloidal gold nanoparticles depend strongly on their shape and size, for instance, the rod-like particles have transvers as well as longitudinal absorption peak and anisotropy of the shape affecting their self-assembly. The benefit of consumption of gold was known to the people of ancient times and they were of the belief that with regular intake of gold it rejuvenates the health condition.
Gold was used to heal skin problems by the ancient Roman people and adequate evidence to support their claim has been found in various research studies carried out. As a consequence, a colloidal gold benefit is widely known and is being utilised as an alternative medicinal use in treating several ailments.

Safe – Internally & Externally

Advantage lies in the fact that the colloidal gold is safe and can be used both internally as well as externally and the tiny gold particles from the colloid enter through the cell membranes with ease and works effectively in providing relief from several health issues some of which are – it brings down the joint pain and the inflammation due to arthritis and works well in cases of rheumatoid arthritis where there is swelling in the joints causing stiffness affecting the joint mobility.

With regular consumption, the pain tends to ease out and normal movement of the joints in restored within a short span of time. For external use, colloidal gold cream is also made available which can be used for joint pain relief. Colloidal gold tends to act as a natural stimulant for the cells of the body and improves the transmission of electrical signals between the nerve cells in the brain thereby increases the mental alertness, improving the concentration of the person.

It has also been found that when taken regularly for a month as supplement, the IQ level of the individual improves a great deal and has proved to be advantageous for those facing problems with concentrations and memory loss, since colloidal gold has the capabilities of increasing mental alertness and restores healthy functioning of the brain.

Soothing Effect on Tensed Nerves 

Besides this, it also has a soothing effect on tensed nerves and when colloidal gold is consumed, people tend to experience calmness which provides relief from any mental stress. Colloidal gold for depression as well as anxiety have provided amazing results.

Its solution is also used in the form of ointment to treat several skin conditions which include eczema, skin rash, fungal infection, skin burns, wounds etc. Moreover it is also used as an ingredient in anti-aging skin care products which regenerates the cells restoring it to their normal elastic properties thereby improves the skin condition. According to Natural News reports, the research has shown IQ is boosted with colloidal gold.

It improves dysfunction like mental fog and forgetfulness, insomnia and inability to relax, chills and or night sweats, glandular issue and dysfunctions, hot flashes, which include those from hormonal imbalances, obesity, digestive disorders, alcohol and drug addictions, arthritis and any other joint inflammations, depression, seasonal effective disorder and chronic, irregular heart rhythms, cancer and lower libido and or sexual dysfunction.

Non-Toxic in Nature – No Side Effects

When taken by people suffering from life threatening condition, it has been found to prolong their life span since it energizes the body cells and makes them healthy. Other uses comprise of treating certain types of cancer like prostate cancer and ovarian cancer in alternative therapies wherein in these condition a tiny amount of gold is injected in the person’s body to control growth of cancerous cells.

Colloidal gold is non-toxic in nature and does not have any side effects though excessive intake could result in gold poisoning which could be harmful for health.Colloidal gold health benefit is its positive influence on the body, most important biological functions and it is known to rejuvenate the glands affecting the bodies’ warmth mechanism in a positive manner.

It stimulates the nerves which results in decreasing the nervous pressure. Regular consumption of colloidal gold has resulted in increased longevity and is a great rejuvenator of mind and body. The best option of taking advantage of gold’s health provision is through tasteless and non-toxic colloidal gold and can be taken by consuming orally, nebulizing into the lungs or sublingually. Most of those who have used colloidal gold as tonic have reported an improvement in their health with increased mental clarity as well as focus.

Saturday, March 28, 2015

Patomskiy Crater


Patomskiy_Crater
Patomskiy Crater – Discovered by Vadim Kolpakov, 1949

Patomskiy crater was discovered by Vadim Kolpakov in 1949 and is one of the most scientific mysterious ever discovered. The site is in Irkutsk, Siberia with a huge convex cone having a funnel shaped recess with rounded hill in the middle that looks like an eagle’s nest with an egg nestled in it.

It resembles a lunar crater by size and appearance and at first sight it seems like an artificial mound of waste rock which has been formed usually by underground mining of coal or some other mineral. Its height is 40 meters and when viewed from above it seems to be a perfectly round top of volcano though volcanoes did not appear in these regions during the few millions of year. The crater has a semi-circular dome at its centre with a diameter of 12 meters.

 For many years, scientists have been overwhelmed by the origin of the Patomskiy crater which has been named after a nearby river and the theories of its existence has varied from a nuclear blast to a secret gulag mine and a meteorite strike. Scientists have various presumptions like the trail of a large meteorite fall, the consequence of deep gas discovery or that the crater has volcanic origin.

Presence of High Water at Site 

The presence of high water at the site have been found from the samples taken by astronomers and geologists bringing in new theory that it is cryovolcano that erupts water, methane and ammonia compounds, which rose from the release of ice under the rock, both in liquid as well as in the gaseous state.

The first cryovolvano was discovered on Titan ice moon of Saturn. As per the UK MailOnline, it is presumed that the site could have been created by a meteorite strike though no evidence is available to support the theory. Vadim, responsible in the discovery of the crater, tried though failed to arrange a scientific trip to examine the site.

However, numerous expeditions have taken place since then and samples collected in 2013. According to UK MailOnline, it was reported that `last year, half a ton of sample was taken from the site and removed by helicopter and the samples led scientists to discard ideas of a uranium ore explosion since the background radiation at the site was low with no uranium found in the nearby area’.

Options of Two Main Theories – Volcano/Meteorite

This left them to the presumptions of two main theories, one of a volcano and the other of a meteorite. However according to UK MailOnline report, it was stated that the site had no indication of any meteoritic material and the area was not thought to be a volcanic area.

There were no volcanoes within thousands of kilometres of the Patomskiy crater and more over it seemed to be quite new. UK MailOnline had reported that `scientists presumed that the crater were only 100 to 500 years old and could have been the cause of the Tunguska meteorite that had fallen in the Krasnoyarsk region in 1908. However the crater was never discovered.

It is believed that the meteorite was seen just 70 km away from the `eagle’s nest, the distance of which is around 10 to 15 seconds of flight’.

Wednesday, March 25, 2015

Leonardo Da Vinci’s Flying Machine


flyingmachine model
Leonard da Vinci – Flying Machine 

Leonardo da Vinci was a genius and besides being a remarkable artist, he was also an inspired inventor, who was the first European interested in a practical solution to flight and designed several mechanical devices which comprised of parachutes. He studied the flight of birds and their structure. His design for the invention is an indication that he was inspired by the flight of winged birds which he intended to imitate and in his notes he had made a mention of bats, kites and birds as sources with regards to his inspiration.

Probably the bat seems to be his foremost inspiration as the two wings of the device feature pointed, ends associated with the winged creature. His flying machine had a wingspan which was over 33 feet and the frame made of pine covered in raw silk for a light though sturdy membrane. In 1485, he came up with detailed plans for a human powered orhithopter or a wing flapping device for flying. He sketched out his ideas on notepads and most of which have been preserved since his death in 1519.

Inspiration of Invention – Winged Bird 

Though the image he presented was a powerful one and showed that some of his ideas were revolutionary, there does not seem to be any evidence of his attempt to build a device. From his various journal entries on human as well as avian flight, it indicated that he longed to soar like a bird in the sky and his designs which was called `flying machine’ and sketched in his notebooks, modelled on the anatomy of bats and birds that featured a pair of huge wings and were connected to a wooden frame the interior of which an intrepid pilot could lie face down and to power the wings, the pilot had to move the wings up and down by turning a crank moving in a series of rods and pulleys with his hands and legs enabling the wings of the machine to flap. The inspiration of nature in the invention is obvious in the way the wings were designed to twist as they flapped.

flying machine
Incorrect Conclusions – Major Flaw

Leonard eventually did not built the device and even if he would had done so, it would not have been a success since it did not have an engine and it was not known how it would have taken off the ground. Moreover even if he was successful in flying off high it would be unlikely that he would have landed back to Earth safely.

Leonard himself might have realized that once it was flown up in the air, the person would never have created enough power to get the device off the ground. Most of his investigation into flight has some major flaw since he assumed that man had adequate co-ordination and muscle power to imitate bird flight. He was also mistaken to think that birds flew by beating their wings downwards and backwards though the fact is wing feathers provide thrust on the down stroke while the inner wing provides the lift. Based on these incorrect conclusions, Leonardo experimented with his ideas endlessly with little chance of success.

Monday, March 23, 2015

Ever-Burning Lamps


Ever_Burning_Lamps
The Ever Burning Lamps – Wind/Rain Unable to Put it Off

The Ever Burning Lamps have been documented by writers from several parts of the world at different point of time and in the ancient world, writer Plutarch had made a mention in his work - `De Defectu Oraculorum’ about a lamp which burned over the door of Jupiter’s temple, Ammon in Egypt. According to him the priest of the temple claimed that the lamp stood in the open area and no wind or rain could put it out. There are also similar accounts of the same for the altar of the Temple of Apollo Carneus at Cyrene as well as the great Temple of Aderbain in Armenia.

In ancient times before electricity was introduced, oil lamps were used to illuminate the night and the dark areas where a never ending supply of oil was essential in order to keep the lamp glowing though mysteriously there are incidents of lamps which burned without the need of oil. The miracle of lamps with a day’s worth of oil burning for eight days is celebrated by the Jewish festival of Hanukkah with various stories coming from different areas of the world like Asia, South America, North America, Greece, Italy, Great Britain and France.

Liquid in the Lamp/Unable to Identify 

These ever burning lamps were discovered when a tomb or other enclosed place had been opened and the lamp was found burning though the enclosure had been sealed for several years. Several writers have reported about such lamps for instance in 140 CE a tomb of Pallas, the son of a local Italian king was opened and a lamp had been found burning near the corpse.

Out of fear, the people had made attempts to blow off the lamp but found out that neither water nor blowing off the lamp could extinguish the flame. The lamp was only blown off when the liquid in the base of the lamp which did not seem to be regular oil and unable to identify, had to be completely removed from the basin of the lamp. One will find various other chronicles of similar phenomena elsewhere. During the time of emperor Justinian, some soldiers came upon a lamp and according to its inscription, were lit almost 550 years ago and they could not figure it out how this could take place.

Mechanics of the Lamps -Unsolved Mystery

Ever_Burning_Lamps
Another incident relates that in England, after the separation from the Roman Catholic Church, Kind Henry VIII, established the Church of England and demanded that the Catholic churches together with the communities be incorporated or destroyed in his new church. In a particular incident, the tomb of a wealthy man was opened, who had died around the year 300 CE and it was found to have the lamp which continued to burn. In France, in 1600, a written chronicle of a solider from Switzerland had discovered a long hidden tomb where a single burning lamp was found in it.

He removed the lamp, though it continued to burn without any fuel for several months till it was accidentally broken and the flame extinguished. One of the most mysterious figures of the history of these baffling lamps is a 13th century rabbi, Jechiele where written reports of the time indicate that there was a lamp outside his house which kept burning continuously without any supply of oil in it. When the rabbi was questioned on the working of the lamp, he refrained from disclosing the mechanics of the lamp and thus the history of the lamps continues to remain a mystery.