Wednesday, January 28, 2015

Uffington White Horse


Uffington White Horse – Impressive Steep Escarpment 

Internationally renowned Bronze Age Uffington White Horse can be found 1.5 miles south of Uffington village toward the Berkshire downs and is situated facing NW near the top of an impressive steep escarpment beneath the Ridgeway long footpath, Whitehorse hill and the Saxon hill-fort of Uffington castle and above Dragon hill.

The Uffington White Horse can be seen for miles away leaping from the head of a dramatic dry valley in the Ridgeway escarpment where the horse is a part of the unique complex of ancient remains which are found at the White Horse Hill and beyond, spreading towards the high chalk downland. The best view can be seen from the air, though it lacks aerial capabilities and is best seen from about one mile to the North though the view from Dragon hill is also very good.

It is the largest of the horses about 374 feet in length with 110 feet in height and constructed of trenches of 5 to 10 feet in width and 2 to 3 feet in depth which is filled with chalk. This is some few feet above the natural chalk of the hill and the horse is in good condition, maintained by the National Trust.

Oldest Hill Figure in Britain

The edges are defined well, partially consolidated with concrete and the top edge reinforced with polypropylene netting,the chalk white and well compacted together with erosion repairs done whenever necessary. Convenient parking place near Woolstone hill and at the Whitehorse hill is available and this location makes the horse difficult to view from close quarters and can be seen better from most areas of the Vale of the White Horse.

This unique location with its elegant line of white chalk bedrock is presumed to be the oldest hill figure in Britain and the image is presented as a horse which dates back as far as 1000 BC during the late Bronze Age. One would find similar images which have been found depicted on coins belonging to that period and some are of the opinion that the figure could be representing a horse goddess connected with the local Belgae tribe. The goddess is believed to be one form of Epona and worshiped throughout the Celtic world.

Connected to Various Famous Figures 

Traditionally the horse is connected to a number of famous figures, one of which is King Alfred who is said to have constructed it to commemorate his victory in 871 over the Danes. It is also said that the horse had been cut by Hengist, who was the leader of the Anglo Saxon horde during the 5th century AD. Some other folklore state that the figure is a representation of the dragon which was killed by St. George, an event presumed to have taken place near the Dragon Hill.

The horse was maintained every seven years under the jurisdiction of the local Lord who had to fund the event. A festival lasting for over three days consisted of fun and games, traditional cheese rolling together with wrestling and other pastimes and the games were conducted in the enclosed earthen banks of Uffington Castle, an Iron Age hill fort where the White Horse is considered to be galloping when viewed from space. The horse is cleaned by several members of English Heritage, responsible for the site.

Tuesday, January 27, 2015

Kerr Black Hole

Kerr Black Hole – An Uncharged Black Hole

A Kerr black hole is an uncharged black hole, a kind of a black hole which possesses only mass and angular momentum,that tends to rotate around a central axis and is named after Roy Kerr, a New Zealand mathematician who became the first person to solve the field equations. In 1963, Kerr had achieved something which eluded other scientist for around 47 years and he found the solution of Einstein’s general theory of relativity for a situation of this type.

He describes the space outside a rotating star or black hole and his solution has been described as `the most important exact solution to any equation in physics. Kerr black holes could be the most common in nature as the massive stars from which they form, possess rotation though no overall charge, before they collapse at the end of the life. With the principle of conservation of angular momentum, most of the spin is retained by the black hole after the star’s terminal collapse. A Kerr black hole comprises of the distinct regions namely ring singularity, ergosphere, inner and outer event horizons and static limits – the boundary between the ergosphere and the normal space.

Kerr Black Hole - Theoretical

At every event horizon, the roles of space and time tend to change and in the case of a Kerr black hole, space and time swap places twice which are the result of the metrical geometry equations of Kerr. While the singularity is also a temporary one, it can be avoided.

The concept focuses on neutron stars which are massive collapsed stars, the size of Manhattan though with a mass of Earth’s sun and if the dying stars collapse into a rotating ring of neutron stars, the Kerr postulates and their centrifugal force would prevent them from turning into a singularity. Kerr is of the belief that since the black hole does not have singularity; it would be quite safe to enter without any fear of the infinite gravitational force at the centre.

There is a possibility of escaping a black hole though not through the same way one went in. By leaving the black hole one will find either a region of negative space, - the physical explanation of which is unknown or in a different universe. Kerr black holes are purely theoretical and if they tend to exist, they offer adventurous time traveller, a one way trip in the past of the future.

Deepened Understanding of Astrophysics & Gravitational Theory

Though a tremendously advanced civilization could develop a means of calibrating a method of time travel, it is not possible to tell where or when a wild Kerr black hole could leave you.His achievement of identifying an exact solution for the rotating case, was something several people were speculating about and was a revolution in astrophysics and brought in a decade which could be known as `the Golden Age of Black Hole Physics’ when General Relativity saw Renaissance. The Kerr solution has pivoted in deepening our understanding of astrophysics as well as gravitational theory and over the years since its discovery, several new effects emerged in the Kerr solution - a rotating objects drags space with it which would be impossible in Newton’s theory.

Nevada is the Place to Be

Nevada is booming. In the last few decades, it has become one of the most popular states to move to. It’s easy to understand why too. There is an endless amount of entertainment nearby. Whether people live in or near Reno or Las Vegas, there is much to do and see. For instance, Las Vegas has a ton of shows to see. People can go play games, get in some pampering, go swimming, dine and much more in Vegas. Reno offers the same sort of entertainment. Housing is affordable. New and beautiful neighborhoods are springing up. People are continuing to move to Nevada. There is plenty of room still available.

This is what makes it an exciting time to get a Nevada real estate license. Becoming a real estate agent has many benefits. For starters, the hours are flexible. A realtor can decide how much or how little they want to work. Real estate can be very profitable. Realtors should put aside a certain amount of money for themselves in the event they’re not able to help people to buy or sell properties. However, considering that Nevada is an excellent place for people to buy right now, the profits should come in steadily.

Working for oneself presents so many wonderful possibilities. People who get into real estate and other forms of work can make life as they see fit. People who have to work a nine-to-five miss out on a lot. For instance, they miss out on school plays, being home to see off their children or being home when they get back, sitting at the table reading a newspaper to have the morning coffee and many other things. Being constrained by time is not fun. Working a standard nine-to-five forces people to battle morning and afternoon commutes because they have to be at work by a certain time. However, working for oneself saves all this hassle. It allows people to stay home when they’re ill as well.

Getting a real estate license is not difficult. It requires some schooling and it requires that people pass an exam. Once people understand the ins and outs of real estate, they will be able to pass the exam to get their license. Getting into the groove of assisting clients will become like second nature. It’s a wonderful field for people to get into and Nevada is one of the perfect places to practice real estate.

Monday, January 26, 2015

Rosetta Stone

Rosetta Stone Inscribed with Decree in Three Scripts 

The Rosetta stone is written in three scripts since at the time of writing, there were three scripts being used in Egypt. It is a granodiorite stele which is inscribed with a decree that was issued in 196 BC at Memphis, Egypt on behalf of King Ptolemy V. Presently the Rosetta Stone is 112.3 cm high at its highest point, 75,7 cm wide and 28.4 cm thick weighing approximately around 760 kg. The decree appearing in three scripts has the upper text in Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphs, while the middle is Demotic script and the lowest in Ancient Greek. Since it presents the same text in all three scripts, it gives the key to the modern understanding of Egyptian hieroglyphs. The first script being hieroglyphic, was the script being used in Egypt when it was written while demotic was the common script of Egypt, The third being Greek was the language of the rulers of Egypt during that time. The text was written in three scripts to enable the priest, government officials as well as the rulers of Egypt to read and understand the contents.

Discovered in Small Village – Rosetta - Rashid

The Rosetta stone was found by French soldiers in 1799, who had been rebuilding a fort in Egypt which was in a small village in the Delta known as Rosetta – Rashid and was so called since it was found in the town of Rosetta. The text on Rosetta stone was written by a group of priest in Egypt in honour of the Egyptian pharaoh which lists all the things that the pharaoh had done for the good of the priests as well as for the people of Egypt. Several people had contributed on deciphering hieroglyphs over hundreds of years but the structure of the script was a difficult task to work out. Study of the decree was in progress, as the first full translation of the Greek text appeared in 1803. Thereafter twenty years later, on studying the Rosetta stone together with other examples of ancient Egyptian writing, it was Jean-Francois Champollion who deciphered hieroglyphs in 1822 in Paris.

The Stone a Focus of Rivalry among Nations

Champollion was capable of reading both Greek and Coptic and could figure out what the seven demotic signs in Coptic meant. By observing how these signs were used in Coptic he could work out what they stood for and thus he began tracing these demotic signs back to hieroglyphic signs. On working out what some of the hieroglyphs meant, he managed to make educated conclusions about what the other hieroglyphs meant. Since its rediscovery, the stone was the focus of rivalry among the nations which included its transfer from French to British possession during the Napoleonic Wars. The Rosetta Stone is on display in the British Museum since 1802 with only one break. When the Museum was in danger of heavy bombing in London towards the end of the First World War, in 1917, it was moved to safety with other portable important objects. The Rosetta Stone then spent the next two years on the Postal Tube Railway station, some 50 feet below the ground at Holborn.

Saturday, January 24, 2015

The Oak Island Money Pit

Oak Island – Location of the Money Pit

Oak Island is considered as the location of the Money Pit which is a site of over 200 years of treasure hunting. It is a 57 hectare island situated in Lunenburg County on the south shore of Nova Scotia, Canada and the island is one of the 360 small islands along Mahone Bay which rises to a maximum of around 11 metres above sea level.

To a casual observer, it seems like several others in this area of the province, where rocks and sand skirt the perimeter of this land while native forest together with brush; cover most of its interior. At first sight, this island conceals any evidence of historical importance though appearance could be deceiving, and inspite of the natural scenery and the serene setting of Oak Island, this island have an intriguing story, which is mysterious as well as tragic.

Oak Island Money Pit
Placed at 200 meters from the shore and connected to the mainland by a modern causeway, this is a privately owned island. Several excavations gave rise to layers of apparently man made artifice which laid buried deep as 32 meters though ended in collapsed excavations and flooding. Some debate that there is no treasure and that the pit could be a natural phenomenon, probably a sinkhole.

Unfolding of the Money Pit - 1795

The story of Oak Island’s Money Pit began unfolding in the summer of 1795 when Daniel McGinnis, a teenager observed strange lights on an island offshore from his parent’s house and on investigating the island for the source of the light; he noticed a peculiar circular depression of about 13 feet in diameter on the island’s forest floor.

McGinnis observed that several oak trees surrounding the depression had been removed. Besides he also observed that a block and tackle hung from a severed tree limb exactly over the shallow hole and though some of the researcher refutes the presence of the tackle and the block, he was convinced of what he observed that day that the scene became worth exploring. McGinnis decided to leave the island to seek the help of two friends, John Smith and Anthony Vaughan and the next day the three of them started their mission of excavating the mysterious site.

Together with his colleagues, McGinnis excavated the depression and discovered a layer of flagstone, few feet below and on the pit walls were visible marking from a pick. As they dug further, they discovered layers of logs every 10 feet and finally abandoned the excavation at 30 feet.

Eight Years Later – Excavation by Onslow Company 

Eight years thereafter as per the original articles and memories of Vaughan, another company investigated and it came to be known as the `Money Pit’. The company – `Onslow Company’, sailed 300 nautical miles from central Nova Scotia near Truro to Oak Island with their focus on obtaining what was believed to be a secret treasure. They carried on the excavation down to around 90 feet and noticed layers of logs or marks at every ten feet with layers of charcoal, putty as well as coconut fibres at 40, 50 and 60 feet. One earlier written account relates that they had recovered a large stone at 80 -90 feet with the inscription of symbols where several attempts were made by researcher to decipher the symbols.

One seems to translate it as `forty feet below, two million pounds lie buried’. These symbols are considered to be currently associated with the `forty feet down’, translation which is seen in several books that appeared in True Tales of Buried Treasure written in 1951, by Edward Rowe Snow an explorer and historian. He states that he had been given this set of symbols by Reverend A.T. Kempton of Cambridge, Massachusetts. Besides this no more information regarding his involvement in the Oak Island tale is related. Subsequently the pit was flooded up to a level of 33 feet and the excavation was abandoned for 45 years since bailing did not reduce the level of the water.

The Truro Company Re-excavation 

The Truro Company was then formed in 1849 which re-excavated the shaft back down to 86 feet level but it got flooded again. They then drilled into the ground below the bottom of the shaft and according to a 19th century account, the pod auger or drill, passed through a spruce platform at 98 feet of 30 m, a 12 inch of 300 mmhead space, 22 inches -560 mm of what was described as metal in pieces, 8 inches of 200 mm oak, another 22 inches of metal – 560 mm, 4 inches of 100 mm oak, with another layer of spruce and lastly a clay 7 feet – 2.1 m, without striking anything else.

Description is made available by the `Maritime Museum of the Atlantic’, - `Golden Age of Piracy’ on what occurred between 1690 and 1730. During that time, Nova Scotia only had a few European settlements and with over 200 nautical miles that separated the remote bays of the current day Nova Scotia from the commercial centre of colonial Boston, pirates would frequent these areas near Oak Island. Due to the unpopulated wilderness of the region it became an abundance of natural resources to restock and repair vessels and its isolation provided an appropriate location to harbour their vast misbegotten treasure. There is also a related incident of a notorious pirate, the infamous Captain William Kidd, who had admitted of burying unspecified wealth of treasure in that area before he was captured in 1699.