Thursday, July 31, 2014

Coprolites – Indicate Former Presence of Organism

Coprolites are the preservation or fossilization of the matter of intestine and the excrement of organisms or it could be termed as fossilized faeces and are rare since they decay easily and if located, they are found among sea organisms.

Since they are fossilized faeces, coprolite indicate the former presence of organisms in the vicinity they are found but it does not indicate the exact organism present though in most cases, there are exception as in the case of the shark who have distinctive character of spiral valves in their intestines.

The shark coprolite has grooves which are made by spiral valves and when the organism indicate these distinctive characters, it tends to be possible in classifying the organism with coprolite though it becomes a bit hard to link faeces with certain organism. Its name is derived from a Greek word `kopros’ which means dung and `lithos’ which means stone.

It was first described by William Buckland, the geologist, in 1829 before which they were known as fossil fir cones and bezoar stones. These provided valuable information in paleontology since they gave evidence to the predation and diet of extinct organism and Coprolites vary in size from a few millimetres to over 60 centimetres.

Recognition – Structural Pattern

Recognition of coprolites is supported by their structural patterns like in the case of spiral or annular marking, as in undigested food fragments, by their content and by associated fossil matter and smallest coprolites are difficult to classify from inorganic pellets or from eggs.

Mostly the coprolites contents are of calcium phosphate together with small quantities of organic matter and on analysing them, it indicates the diet of the animal from which it came from.

Coprolites have been found in deposits varying in age from the Cambrian era to recent times and are also found all over the world and some of them tend to be useful as index fossils like the Favreina during the Jurassic period of Haute Savoie in France.

Coprolites are very important in understanding the diet of the organism and also an indicator of the ecosystem surrounding the organism. On researching on the coprolites and its contents, it conveys where the organism lived, like in the case of Ichthyosaurs, extinct, aquatic fish like reptiles.

Mary Anning’s Observation & William Buckland Belief

Coprolite with the internal skeletons of two hundred belemnites – a conical fossil shell of an extinct cephalopod, together with fish scales and bones were discovered in the Ichthyosaur which indicated that they lived among fish and cephalopods.

Coprolite are very valuable than their paleontologic value and there are many who treasure them as gifts. Mary Anning, the fossil hunter noticed that bezoar stones were found mostly in the abdominal region of ichthyosaur skeletons in the Lias formation at Lyme Regis and noted that if these stones were broken open, they would contain fossilized fish bones and scales and at times bones from small ichthyosaurs.

These observations of Anning led William Buckland, to believe that the stones were fossilized faeces and called them Coprolites. He also presumed that the spiral marking on the fossils showed that ichthyosaurs with spiral ridges in their intestines were same to those of modern shark with some of these coprolites were black with ink which were swallowed belemnites.

Monday, July 28, 2014

Hulbjerg Jættestue Of Neolithic Period

Hulbjerg Jættestue
Hulbjerg passage grave is located in southern Langeland. Travel from Rudkobing to the end of the island on 305 highway and 2.5 km before Bagenkop, where highway 305 leads to the west and at this point one will find Gulstavvej which tends to continue southwards.

On taking this lane after approximately 1.5 km turn towards the west, on the right onto Sogardsvej where the site is around 1 km along this lane towards the north side of the road.

The site is a few meters away from the road.The Hulbjerg passage is hidden by a round barrow towards the southern tip of the island of Langeland and originated from the earlyNeolithic period which was known as the Funnel Beaker Culture.

In 1960 the grave was excavated by archaeologist, one of Europe’s leading experts in late Stone Age burials, Hakon Berg of the Langeland Museum anddiscovered the remains of 40 individuals who had been buried during different periods of the Neolithic Age. Majority of them were children and adults from the ancient period of Funnelbeaker Culture which was predominated around 4,800-6,000 years ago.

One of Funnel Beaker Culture Site

Hulbjerg Jættestue
Hulbjerg is one of the Funnel Beaker Culture sites which were lucky to survive, for when Petersen of the National Museum surveyed the site in 1874; there were seven passage graves and dolmen within a square kilometre of the site.

By the end of the nineteenth century, all the passage graves were levelled though the efforts of Hakon Berge of Langelands Museum saved Hulbjerg towards posterity.

Hulbjerg Jættestue
He got engaged in excavations and then a major renovation programme in 1960 – 1961 took place where the entire chamber became filled with earth and the task became difficult for a couple of years.

The site was 21 meters in diameter with a height of 2.5 meters with an impressive chamber which was approximately 6 meters long and 2 meters wide leading along a passage.

 The walls of the chamber comprised of 13 large uprights, tightly constructed fine wall of hewn stone tiles while on the exterior, the chamber was sealed with clay layered with crushed flint. The ceiling consisted of five large slabs of rock while the floor had small flat stones which were covered in burnt flint.

Skull Showing Traces of Dentistry Skill

Hulbjerg Jættestue
The entire site was circular with the main mound of the tomb standing on a lower mount giving an impression of a two tier effect. The discoveries included a number of skeletons, amber beads, pots and flint tools.

The bones and skulls when discovered were all sorted out in separate piles where one of the skulls showed traces of the world’s earliest dentistry skill of the ancient period.

It was discovered that a flint drill had been used to drill down and puncture a painful abscess in the root canal treatment and this skull has been placed on display at the Langeland Museum.

The burial chamber, besides the skeletal remains also had sharpened flint axes and chisels, flint daggers, decorated ceramics, amber beads and transverse arrowheads.

 It is presumed that the Stone Age people may have visited their dead and could have involved them in their rituals.

Saturday, July 26, 2014

Klerksdorp Spheres – Inexplicable Out of Space Artefacts

Klerksdorp Spheres
Spheres have been found in the mines of South Africa and have been the cause of curiosity for several researchers for many years.

The Klerksdorp spheres are small objects which are spherical to disc shape and have been collected by miners and others from three billion year old pyrophyllite deposits that have been mined by Wonderstone Ltd; near Ottosdal, in South Africa.

These spheres have been considered as inexplicable out of place artefacts which could only have been created by intelligent beings.

Klerksdorp Spheres
Geologists who have researched on these objects are of the opinion that the objects are not manufactured but are rather the outcome of natural processes. The Klerksdorp spheres range in diameter from 0.5 to 10 cm.

As indicated by geologist Paul V. Heinrich they vary widely in shape from either approximate or flattened spheres to well created discs which are inter-grown.With the help of petrographic and x-ray diffraction analyses of the specimens of the objects, Heinrich discovered that they consisted either of hematite or wollastonite mixed with small amounts of hematite and goethite.

From observations done by Cairncross and Nel together with others, it indicated that most of the Klerksdorp spheres that were found in unaltered pyrophyllite comprised of pyrite.

Well Defined Radical Structure

Klerksdorp Spheres
The colour ranged from dark reddish brown, red to dusky red from the specimens that were studied by Heinrich but the colour of objects composed of pyrite is unknown. The specimens of these objects were cut open by Heinrich which portrayed a well-defined radial structure terminating on either the centre or centres of a Klerksdorp sphere and some of them showed well defined and parallel latitudinal ridges or grooves.

Specimens which also consistedof inter-grown flattened sphered, portrayed such grooves. Some of these spheres are elliptical in shape having rough ridges surrounding its centre though some tend to be so balanced in shape and proportion that the grooves around them seems straight and hand carved which makes it unlikely that they were naturally formed.


Klerksdorp Spheres
The Klerksdorp Museum, in 2002, had posted a letter from John Hund of Pietersburg of South Africa on its website claiming that the spheres were tested at the California Space Institute and scientist had concluded that its balance was so fine, it exceeded the limit of their measuring technology and it was within one hundred thousandth of an inch from absolute perfection.

However the claim that was made in the letter was not verified according to Heinrich and the same was later removed. Heinrich did not discover any perfect balance and shape in the South African spheres that he studied. In Utah, identical spheres were also found which were about two million years old and were known as Moqui marbles or Moqui balls.

They had a sandy interior with a hard, circular exterior made up of iron oxide and Heinrich’s research on one of the Klerksdorp spheres indicated it to be made of hematite which is a mineral form of iron oxide. He also found another sphere which consisted of the mineral wollastonite together with hematite and goethite, a kind of hydrated iron oxide.

Aether vibrations

Aether – Zero Energy Field

Aether vibrations
In recent times, there seems to be various theorists providing us with several alternative physics theories in order to view matter, energy and the nature of the universe and consciousness. New theories have been making attempts to bring together many of the inconsistencies; current theories are difficult to explain.

A common denominator of the new theories is the postulate on the existence of Aether which is also known as Zero Energy Field, Akashic Field, Source Field and several other names and the universe we live in is built on unified unseen foundation of conscious energy - `zero point energy or `aether’.

Till the 20th century, Western scientific tradition considered that this energy force did exist though the existence of this aether was proven by the Michaelson-Morley (M-M) experiment to be false and most of the scientists believed it to be true. Various reasons seem to indicate that the M-M experiment seems flawed with many researches mentioned, have detailed explanations on how it had been interpreted.

Nature had Four Elements & Aether

Aether vibrations
Aether science is the remaining model of the universe which fits with the evidence that is available now. Current theories like Sequential Physics, Non-equilibrium Thermodynamics, Sub-quantum Kinetics, General System Theory, Harmonic Universe Theory, Reciprocal System Theory, working with these concepts and any number of Unified Field Theories agree that physical reality comes from these hidden energy substance creating all we see and know through vibration.

Greeks scientists and philosophers were of the belief that nature had four elements namely earth, fire, water and air and the atoms were believed to be the main blocks of these elements of the universe. It was Aristotle who had added the fifth element aether and presumed that planets and the stars were made of this aether.

Consciousness Relates to Aether Vibration 

Aether vibrations
In 350 BC, Plato, the Greek philosopher described the five elements, indicating that matter was created from the five Platonic solids which he had described in his book `Timaeus’ where he equated the tetrahedron with the fire element, the cube with the earth, water with icosahedron, air with octahedron and the aether with dodecahedron, the material of the stars and planets.

With this we get to know that that there are a large number of elements in nature than what was known in Greek antiquity though it is a known fact that Platonic solids have an important role to play in the chemistry as the internal organization structure of molecule of several materials like the Platonic solids which are seen in the organization of molecule of natural crystals.

Einstein had stated that space without aether is unthinkable since in space, not only would there be no propagation of light but no space time intervals in the physical sense as well. In new physics, matter is created each moment as a standing wave – a vortex in the vacuum and the condensed centre of the vortex creates the illusion of a particle.

All matter created, absorbs torsion waves which can be static or dynamic and if dynamic, the waves tend to move at superluminal speed, a billion times faster than the speed of light. As per the studies of Kozyrev, thoughts as well as feelings generate torsion waves and consciousness relates to Aether vibration.

The torsion waves could be the basis of several observations in remote viewing telepathy and psycho kinesis.

Wednesday, July 23, 2014

Gobekli Tepe-Navel Of the World

GobekliTepe – An Archaeological Site of Circular and Oval Structures

Gobekli Tepe
Gobekli Tepe, an archaeological site, is at the top of a mountain ridge in South-eastern Anatolia Region of Turkey, which is approximately 6 km northwest of Sanhurga. It is a series of circular as well as oval shaped structures set in the slopes of hill called Gobekli Tepe Ziyaret where `Ziyaret’ means `visit’, though this has been left out of the name.

The height of the tell is 15 m and around 300 m in diameter and is around 760 m above sea level. This had been excavated under the direction of Klaus Schmidt since 1996 by a German archaeological team.

Gobekli Tepe
The tell comprises of two phases of ritual use which dates back to the 10th-8th millennium BC and at the time of the first phase, circles of huge T shaped stone pillars were constructed.

Over 200 pillars in around 20 circles, through geophysical surveyswere presently known.

Each of the pillars has a height of around 6 m weighing up to 20 tons and is fitted into sockets which have been hewn out of the bedrock.

In the second phase, Pre-pottery Neolithic B- PPNB, the first being Pre-pottery Neolithic A –PPNA, the erected pillar are small in size and stand in rectangular rooms having floors of polished lime and this site was abandoned after the PPNB era.

The purpose of these structure is yet unknown though an understanding shared by Klaus Schmidt, the excavator was that they were early Neolithic sanctuaries.

Navel Of the World

Gobekli Tepe
Some translate Gobekli Tepe as `Navel of the World’, where Gobek means `navel or belly’, while Tepe mean `hill’ and the corrected translation of the site could be `bulged out hill’.

Sensational media did make attempts to link Gobekli Tepe to the biblical – Garden of Eden and though Gobekli Tepe seems to be old, it does not seem to be unique nor was it a garden.

The site was first recorded in a survey by Istanbul University as well as the University of Chicago in the year 1963 which was identified as a possible Neolithic by American archaeologist, Peter Benedict who assumed that the Neolithic layers were covered by Byzantine and Islamic cemeteries.

The survey also noted various flints and large limestone slabs, where the upper parts of the T shaped pillars were considered to be grave markers.

The hill since long has been used for agricultural purpose where the locals who inhabited the site had moved rocks placing them in clearance piles thereby eliminating archaeological evidence that were at the site.

Klaus Schmidt- German Excavator, Explored & Reviewed the Site

Gobekli Tepe
It was Schmidt, of the German Archaeological Institute who had been working at Nevali Cori previously, was on the lookout for another site to explore and reviewed the archaeological literature on the surrounding area and found the Chicago researcher’s briefing of Gobekli Tepe.

He then decided to look into it and explore the site. Using his knowledge of comparable objects at Nevali Cori he recognized that the rocks and slabs were sections of T shaped pillars.

He began excavating the following year, in collaboration with Sanhurfa Museum and soon discovered massive T shaped pillars some of which had been subjected to attempts at smashing by farmers who considered them to be ordinary large rocks.