Thursday, August 25, 2016

Edinburgh’s Underground City


A Colossal Though Basically Faulty Act of Engineering/Design

The Edinburgh Vaults or South Bridge Vault is said to be a chain of chambers which had been formed in the nineteen arches of the South Bridge in Edinburgh, Scotland, completed in 1788. The vaults had been utilised to house taverns, cobblers together with other tradesmen for about 30 years and as storage space for illicit material apparently the bodies of people who had been killed by serial killers, Burke and Hare for the purpose of medical experiments. Edinburgh’s South Bridge is a colossal though basically faulty act of engineering and design of the 18th century.

The city tends to link seven major hill where only two of these high points can be seen in the city centre presently namely Castle Hill over which is the Edinburgh Castle and Calton Hill warmly referred by the locals as Edinburgh’s disgrace. The unusual hills of this ancient city have now been masked by five bridges which tend to span the ensuing valleys and impeccably assimilate their swelling silhouettes in the landscape. A fascinating aspect of these five bridges, which was the second to be developed after the North Bridge, is the famous South Bridge of Edinburgh, a modern highway, built to link the High Street of the Old Town with the University buildings towards the south side of the city.

Bridge Comprises of 19 Stone Arches

The three closes namely Marlin’s Wynd, Peebles Wynd and Niddry’s Wynd had been demolished in the area of Cowgate in the city in order to make space for this scheme. These closes controlled an area which was said to be one of Edinburgh’s most run down and poorest quarter.

The crowded, winding streets had been knocked to the ground while the stone were then recycled. The building work had begun in 1785 and the bridge comprised of 19 stone arches which spanned a crevasse of over a 1000 feet long. Towards its highest point it stood 31 feet above the ground having a foundation that penetrated the bed rock of Edinburgh as far down as 22 feet.

But towards the turn of the 18th century, Edinburgh seemed to be a fearful as well as a superstitious location for real and also for imagined harm. The fright of what the unearthly as well as the supernatural could impose was aggravated by their inherent mistrust of the invading English that seemed to be a long held belief resulting in the construction of the defensive Flodden Wall after the disastrous Battle in 1513.

Locals Compelled to Live on Top of One Another

The man-made barrier surrounding the outskirts of the city together with the natural geography of Edinburgh, compelled the locals to live practically on top of one another and in some instances in houses of 14 storeys high instead of expanding outwards as in the case of several developing cities.

This form of atmosphere of claustrophobia, fear together with mistrust gave rise to a feeling of anxiety among the inhabitants. With the completion of the South Bridge in 1788, it was believed to be an suitable as well as fitting honour that the eldest resident of the Bridge, a well-known as well as respectable wife of the Judge should be the leading person to cross this fine architectural construction.

But sad to say, some days before the grand inaugural, the lady in question had passed away. As promised, the city fathers felt obliged to honour the original agreement and hence the first `body’ to cross the South Bridge was crossed in the coffin.

Tuesday, August 23, 2016

The Hidden Mountain Tribe in Papua Where Villagers Mummified Their Ancestors with Smoke for Hundreds of Years

smoking mummification
ADEK BERRY via Getty Images

Preserved Remains of Ancestor – Village of Wogi, Women – West Papua

Unusual images of a tribe chief with the impeccably preserved remains of one of the ancestors have appeared in a remote Indonesian village. Eli Mabel, Dani tribe chief has been visualized holding the remains of Agat Mamete Mabel in the village of Wogi, Wamena in West Papua which is an island in the midst of Papua New Guinea. The ancient Dani tribes in half of the island of New Guinea, Indonesia had been cut off from the outside world till around the 20th century and their homeland had been in the Baliem Valley which was isolated by steep rugged valley together with dense highland forest.

 The native tribe which tends to inhabit the remote area of the Papuan central highlands would preserve their ancestors by smoking their bodies that kept them in an almost perfect condition for hundreds of years. Part of the mummification procedure comprised of smoking the mummy for almost 30 days.

 The smoking mummification is not practiced any longer though the people of the Dani tribe continue to still preserve several of the mummies as a symbol of their highest respect of their ancestors. The Dani tribe in recent years had drawn tourist from across the world with some villages even displaying their original customs as well as holding mock wars.

Tribe Discovered by American Zoologist/Philanthropist - 1938

They tend to hold mock battles with the neighbouring tribes namely the Lani and Yali people, every August, to celebrate the fertility as well as the welfare of the province of Papua and also to uphold the ancient traditions. The tribes of Baliem Valley, the Dani, Lani and Yali had been discovered by accident by Richard Archbold, an American zoologist and philanthropist, in 1938 while he was on a zoological voyage to New Guinea and had spotted the Dani people from his aircraft.

The men in the Dani tribe seemed to wear typical clothing comprising of face paint, feathers, animal bones and complicated penis sheaths known as Koteka while the women would wear skirts which were made from woven orchid fibres and decorated with straw and woven bags that were worn from the head known as noken.The Dani tribe is also said to be notorious in following the custom that if someone tends to die in the village like the mummified tribe leader then each of his female relative would have a section of their finger cut off.

Support as a Probable Tourist Opportunity

The performance at the 27th Baliem Valley Festival took place from August 8 to 19 that featured mock battles of highland tribes of Dani, Yali and the Lani. The performances at the festival symbolised the high spirit and the power which had been practiced by the tribes for many generations. Keeping up the traditions as well as the customs was important to the tribes’ way of living. Mummification seems to have disappeared after the missionaries had discouraged the practice in the 1950s.

The different generations in Papua New Guinea tend to reflect various attitudes to the practice and the spirit world. While the grandparents tend to believe in the tradition, middle-aged people seem to be uncertain regarding the spirit world and the practice of mummification. However, it tends to support as a probable tourist opportunity.

Friday, August 19, 2016

Scientists ‘Confirm’ Life after Death Exists with Ground-Breaking Study


New Study – People Experience Awareness – 3 Minutes After Death

According to some experts, consciousness tends to continue even when the heart of a person seems to stop. Death is said to be an unavoidable significance of life, though scientists are of the belief that they could have discovered some insight at the end of the tunnel. In a study of over 2,000 people, the British scientists have confirmed that thought continues after death and at the same time revealed substantial evidence of an out-of-the-body experience for a patient who had been declared dead by doctors.

The scientists believe that the brain tends to cease all activity, 30 seconds after the heart seems to stop pumping blood in the body and awareness tends to stop at that very time. However, research from the University of Southampton, suggest something else. According to the new study, people continue to experience awareness for around three minutes after death.

Head researcher, Dr Sam Parnia had commented that `contrary to perception, death is not a definite moment but a possibly reversible process which occurs after any severe illness or accident, causing the heart, lungs and brain to stop functioning. If attempts are made to reverse this procedure, it is considered as `cardiac arrest’. However if these attempts are not successful it is known as `death’

Experience Not of Awareness but Fear

From the 2,060 patients that had been interviewed from Austria, America and the UK for the study, who had lived after cardiac arrests, 40% stated that they were able to remember some form of awareness after being confirmed clinically dead.

Dr. Parnia had clarified the implication stating that `this suggests more people may have mental activity at first but then lose their memories after recovery, either owing to the effects of brain injury or sedative drugs on memory recall. Only 2% of the patients had described their experience of being stable with the feeling of an out-of-body experience, which is the consciousness one tends to feel almost totally aware of the surroundings after death.

About half of the respondents of the study stated that their experience was not one of awareness but fear. Probably the most substantial discovery of the study was that a 57 year old man was of the belief of being the first confirmed out-of-the-body experience in a patient.

Hallucination/Illusion – Occur Before Heart Stops/Restarted

On suffering from a cardiac arrest, the patient had revealed that he was able to recall what had taken place around him with strange precision after momentarily dying.Dr Parnia had commented that this is momentous since it is frequently presumed that the experiences with regards to death are possible hallucination or illusion which tends to occur before the heart stops or after the heart has been successfully restarted.

However it is not an experience matching with `real events when the heart is not beating. In this stage, the consciousness and the awareness seem to take place during the three minute span when there is no heartbeat.

This is paradoxical since the brain typically stops functioning within 20-30 seconds when the heart stops and does not resume again till the heart is revived. Moreover, in this case the detailed recollection of visual awareness was steady with verified events.

Thursday, August 18, 2016

The Emerald Tablet

The Emerald Tablet

Emerald Tablet – Inscribed with Secrets of the Universe

The Emerald Tablet is considered to be a tablet of green stone or emerald which has been inscribed with the secrets of the universe. The foundation of the original Emerald Tablet is not known and so it has been encircled by legends.

One of the most common legend states that the tablet had been found in a caved tomb beneath the statue of Hermes in Tyana which was grasped in the hands of the body of Hermes Trismegistus, while another legend suggest that it was the third son of Adam and Eve, according to Seth who had originally written it. Still others are of the belief that the Emerald Tablet had once been held within the Ark of the Covenant and still others claim that the original source of the Emerald Tablet is the fabled city of Atlantis.

Though numerous assertions have been provided with regards to the origin of the Emerald Tablet, so far there is no confirmable evidence which has been supportive of them. The oldest documentable source of the text of the Emerald Tablet is the Kitab sirr al-haliqi, – Book of the Secret of Creation and the Art of Nature, which had been a composite of the earlier works.

`Balinas’ of Pseudo-Apollonius of Tyana

This had been an Arabic work which had been written in the 8th century A.D., attributing to a `Balinas’ of Pseudo-Apollonius of Tyana. It was Balinas who had provided us with the story of the Emerald Tablet that had been revealed in the caved tomb.

 Established on this Arabic work, some are of the belief that the emerald Tablet had been an Arabic work that had been written between the 6th and 8th centuries AD instead of a piece of work from ancient times, according to several others.

 Though Balinas state that originally, the Emerald Tablet had been written in Greek, the original document which he possessed does not exist anymore, possibly if it ever existed at all. However, the text became very popular and has been translated by many over the centuries.

For example the early version seemed to be in the work known as the Kitab Ustuqus al-Uss al-Thani – Second Book of the Elements of the Foundation, which is credited to Jabir ibn Hayyan. It would take many more centuries before the text could be accessible to the Europeans. The Emerald Tablet had been translated into Latin by Hugo von Santalla in the 12th century.

Significant Text in Medieval/Renaissance Alchemy

The Emerald Tablet was an extremely significant text in Medieval and Renaissance alchemy and is still till date. It could have become one of the pillars of Western alchemy. Besides translations of the Emerald Tablet, various interpretations have been written with regards to its contents.

 A translation for instances, by Isaac Newton had been found among his alchemical papers which is presently held in King’s College Library in Cambridge University. Notable researchers of the Emerald Tablet comprise of Roger Bacon, John Dee, Albertus Magnus and Aleister Crowley. The reading of the Emerald Text is not a straightforward stuff since it a section of obscure text.

 For instance, one version suggests that the text defines seven stages of alchemical transformation, namely calcination, dissolution, separation, conjunction, fermentation, distillation and coagulation. Nonetheless, in spite of the different clarifications that are available, it is said that none of their authors have claimed to possess knowledge to the complete truth. Moreover, the readers have been motivated to read the text and attempt to understand and discover the hidden truth by themselves.

Wednesday, August 17, 2016

Roanoke Colony

Roanoke Colony

Roanoke Colony – Oldest Unexplained Mysteries of America

The heritages of one of the oldest unexplained mysteries of America is said to be traced to August 1587 wherein a team of around 115 English immigrants had come to Roanoke Islands which is off the coast of the present day North Carolina. Later in the year, it had been planned that the governor of the new Colony, John White would sail back to England to collect a fresh stock of supplies.

However, as he arrived, a major naval war took place between England and Spain and Queen Elizabeth I called on every existing ship to oppose the great Spanish Armada. White eventually returned to Roanoke in August, 1590 where he had left his wife and daughter, his infant granddaughter – the first English child born in the Americas, Virginia Dare, together with the other three immigrants three years ago.

On his return, he found no trace of the colony or its inhabitants with only a few clues as to what could have occurred apart from only a word `Croatoan’ which had been carved onto a wooden post. Investigations into the fate of the `Lost Colony’ of Roanoke had continued for centuries, though no satisfactory results came up.

`Croatoan’ – Home to Native American Tribe

The name `Croatoan’ had been given to the island south of Roanoke which had been a home to a Native American tribe of the same name and possibly the colonist then had been killed or even abducted by the Native Americans.

 Other theories state that they could have attempted to navigate back to England on their way and may have been lost at sea or they could have met with a bloody end at the hands of the Spaniards who had trooped up from Florida or they could have moved further inland and may have been immersed into a friendly tribe.

Towards 2007, attempts were made in gathering and analysing DNA from the local families to figure out if they had been related to the Roanoke immigrants, local Native American tribes or both. In spite of the mystery, it tends to be one thing to be grateful for which is the lessons learned at Roanoke that could have assisted the next group of English immigrants.

These would have found their own colony seventeen years thereafter just a short distance at Jamestown towards the north.

Notion Regarding Deserts Varies

The immigrants that had arrived in 1587 had vanished in 1590 with only two clues, one of which was the words `Croatoan’ that had been carved on the fort’s gatepost and `Cro’ which had been etched into a tree. Notions regarding the desertion tend to range from an overwhelming disease to a violent rampage by local Native American tribes.

 Earlier digs provided some information and artifacts from the original colonists though very little on what could have happened to them. Due to advances in technologies together with a cover-up on a map, the researchers have been making progress in identifying what could have occurred to the lost colony of Roanoke Island.

The lost colonists are said to be the third group of English arrivals on Roanoke Island, in North Carolina, that had settled near the present day town of Manteo. In 1584, the first group had arrived who came to explore and map the land for the future groups. The second group had arrived in 1585 and had been charged with a military and a scientific mission. However, the trip of the second group had not been peaceful.