Thursday, September 3, 2015

Medieval Bones Discovered Under Road Close to Historic Castle Captured During Rebellion against King John

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Human Bones of Medieval Period Discovered

Human bones presumed to belong to the medieval era have been discovered buried under a road and electrical engineers working for National Grid discovered the bone at the time of the excavation of the road in Hertford, Hertfordshire.

Earlier reports have indicated that the bones had been found in a bin bag and police had considered it as a crime scene at the site, but archaeologists as well as forensic experts on examining the remains have confirmed that they were many hundred years old.

It is believed that the bones comprising of a femur, rib bone, a lower jaw as well as part of the skull could have been an ancient burial site but a black plastic bin bag found with the bones indicate that they could have been shifted there.

Display in the Hertford Museum

The bones which had been excavated in the area opposite the library in Hertford’s Old Cross location will now be displayed in the Hertford Museum. This site is said to be around 350 yards from Hertford Castle and was built by King Edward the Elder in 912 AD and later on captured by Louis, Dauphin of France in 1217 at the time of the Barons rebellion against King John.

It is expected that the archaeologists may be capable of gathering more information with regards to whom they could belong to. Gerry McDonald, Chief Inspector Police from Hertfordshire had stated that `they have been working closely with experts to find the origin of these bones’. Result of this work would help them in confirming the bones date to the medieval period.
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Great Plague of 1665

A pit with bodies, which is found under London’s Liverpool Street station, is believed to be the ultimate resting place of around 30 victims of the Great Plague of 1665. Archaeologist came across this horrible discovery at the time of excavating the Bedlam burial ground at the Crossrail site towards the east of the city.

The mass burial is unlike the other individual graves at the cemetery and could provide some insight on the shattering epidemic which had swept out a fifth of London’s population during the 17th century. The Great Plague had started in 1665 and it is presumed to have been the result of the Yersinia pestis bacterium which is generally transmitted by the bite of an infected rate flea.

 The last main epidemic of the bubonic plague which had taken place in England had killed about 100,000 people and some of them are assumed to be buried in Bedlam cemetery. It is also known as Bethlehem and New Churchyard since it was opened when the others had started to be full.

 The cemetery is now being excavated in order to permit the construction of the new Liverpool Street Station which would be serving the cross-London rail network.

Tuesday, September 1, 2015

Aluminium Wedge of Aiud

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The Aluminium Wedge of Aiud – Mysterious Artefact

In 1974, the Aluminium Wedge of Aiud, is a mysterious artefact of uncertain origin in the shape ofa wedged shaped object which had been found around two kilometres east of Aiud, Romania, on the banks of the Mures River. The object is said to be discovered 35 feet beneath the sand and along with two mastodon bones which is said to be an extinct large tusked mammal species.

The artefact seems to be similar to the head of a hammer and the wedge was apparently taken to the Archaeological Institute Cluj-Napoca for examination. It was found to be 20.2 cm long, 12.5 cm wide and 7 cm high, weighing approx. 2.3 kg having two arms and two cylindrical holes. It was found to be made of an alloy of aluminium covered in a thin layer of oxide.

The alloy of the wedge seemed to be composed of 12 various elements and this artefact is strange due to the aluminium which has not been discovered till 1808 as well as not produced in quantity till 1885. Aluminium essentially needs 1,000 degrees of heat in order to be made and the fact that the wedge found in the same layer of earth as mastodon bone would make it almost 11,000 years old.
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Indication of Aliens’ Visit to Earth

Several people have claimed that the artefact is indication that aliens had visited the Earth. Besides, engineers have reported that the object bear a resemblance to the foot of landing gear, like the technology utilised on spaceships. According to the article it was examined a second time in Lausanne, Switzerland coming up with the same results though no mention has been made regarding which establishment had carried out the second analysis.

 Florin Gheroghita, had the opportunity of examining the report and the analysis performed under the direction of Dr Niederkorn of the institute for the study of metals and non-metallic minerals- ICPMMNM located in Magurele, Romania.

 He stressed that it was composed of an alloy of extremely complex metal and affirms that the ally comprised of 12 different element of which he had been successful in establishing the volumetic percentage of the aluminium – 89%. He also identified the presence of Copper – 6,2%, silicon 2,84%, zinc 1,81%, lead 0,41%, pond, 0,33%, zirconium 0,2%, cadmium 0,11%, nickel 0,0024%, cobalt0,0023%, bismuth 0,0003%, silver – 0,0002% and trace amounts of gallium.

Purpose of Artefact/Lack of Data

Most of the scientists are of the belief that the wedge was made here on earth and the purpose was not identified and not much information has been found with regards to the subject. Lack of data could probably be explained by the restrictions that were imposed on archaeology and history by the communist rule during that time.

Other specialists claim that the object could be 20,000 years old since it was found in layer with the mastodon bone and this particular case lived in the later part of the Pleistocene. Some other researchers presume that this piece of metal could have been a part of a flying object which could have fallen into the river and that it had an extra-terrestrial origin. The aluminium wedge of Aiud still remains a mystery.

Wednesday, August 26, 2015

Ringing Rocks

Ringing_Rocks

Ringing Rocks – Peculiar Ringing Properties

Ringing Rocks Park is a 128 acre park which is nestled in the woods in Upper Black Eddy wherein located in the park, one will come across field of boulders of around 7 to 8 acres in size that have an unusual property. The area is lacking of any vegetation but for some lichens that tend to grow on the rocks.

In such an area within the boundaries of Pennsylvania’s forested Bucks County seems to be an unusual place, which is a property of rocks that makes the location so strange. Stones usually do not ring but when these particular stones seem to be struck lightly with a hammer or another rock, they tend to vibrate making a sound as if they are metal and hollow and ring with a familiar sound like that of a metal pipe being struck.

Moreover,this park also tends to have Bucks’ Country biggest waterfall. Besides the peculiar ringing properties of the stones, there seems to be other mysterious adjoining the park which is that most of the boulder fields are the outcome of an avalanche from a mountainside collapse, where the boulder field is towards the top of the hill and not the bottom. This could mean that it did not result from a rock slide.

Boulders with High Content of Aluminium & Iron

There seems to be no evidence to indicate that these could be dropped there by a glacier but glaciers do not come this far to the south.

How the boulder field got there seem to be a mystery.The boulders seem to be made of substance known as diabase, which is of the same type of rock that makes up most of the earth’s crust thatis mostly volcanic basalt. This one is the largest diabase boulder fields in the Eastern United States where the boulders have a high content of aluminium and iron.

 They are presumed to have been broken apart at the time of the Pleistocene Epoch around 12,000 years back. Another amazing fact is while all the rocks tend to be made of the same material, mostly of iron and hard minerals, only one-third of them seem to produce the ringing sound when they were hit. Rocks which ring are called `live’ rocks and those which do not tend to ring are called `dead’ rocks.

Developed through years of Freeze-Thaw Cycles

The boulders were developed through several years of freeze-thaw cycles which broke the diabase into single pieces, a process which is known as `frost-wedging’. The rocks could then have been collected in one area as the water soaked soil provided lubrication for the stones to move downhill to their present location which is a process known as solifluction.

The same could have occurred prior to the ice age when overlying moist soil trickled over the frozen permafrost below taking the boulders with it.Others have more imaginary explanations like radioactivity, meteorites, comets or some strange magnetic fields could be responsible while still others have suggested supernatural possibilities and the area has been researched by those interested in the supernatural.

 Dr J.J. Ott had gathered adequate rocks in June 1890, with different pitches in order to play some tunes accompanied by the Pleasant Valley Band which took place at Stony Garden at the time of the Buckwampun meeting. It was probably the first ever rock concert that took place.

Saturday, August 22, 2015

A Warp Drive

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Warp Drive – Hypothetical FTL

Warp Drive is a hypothetical faster than light FTL, an impulsion system which helps one to travel several times faster than light on manipulating the fabric of time as well as space It is something which enabled the Starship Enterprise to courageously go where no man has ever gone before.

A spacecraft equipped with warp drive could travel at apparent speeds which can be greater than that of light by several orders of magnitude. When compared to other hypothetical FTL technologies like jump drive or hyper drive, warp drive does not seem toallow instant travel between two points but comprises of a measurable passage of time.

Spacecraft at warp velocity tend to interact with objects in normal space. A NASA research team, in 2012 had revealed that they are operating on a Star Trek style warp drive. They in fact have several ideas already as to how they would eventually be capable of making warp drives to function.

The most projecting possibility presently depends on a 1994 theory by Miguel Alcubierre wherein the idea is based on `expanding’ the fabric of space beyond the ship and retracting the space ahead that would make the ship move forward as if it were riding a huge conveyor belt.

Several Images of Interstellar Travel

Since sound barrier had been broken, many have turned their focus on how to break the light speed barrier. However, Warp Drive or any other term with regards to faster-than-light travel seems to stay at a level of assumption. Majority of scientific knowledge determines that it is impossible while considering Einstein’s Theory of Relativity and there are some reliable concepts in scientific literature though it is too early to know if they are practical.

Several writers of science fiction have given many images of interstellar travel; though travelling at the speed of light is presently only imaginary. Meanwhile, science has been making headway and while NASA is not trailing interstellar flight, scientists have continued to advance ion propulsion for missions to deep space and beyond it, utilising solar electric power. This method of propulsion seems to be the fastest and the most efficient as of date.

System Depends on Electromagnetic Drive/EMDrive

NASA is said to have been silently testing an innovative new method of space travel which would someday enable humans to travel at speeds much faster than light. Researchers are of the belief that the new drive would be carrying passengers together with their equipment to the moon in as little as four hours.

A trip to Alpha Centauri which would take tens of thousands of years would now be reached in just 100 years. The system depends on electromagnetic drive or EMDrive that converts electrical energy into thrust without the use of any rocket fuel.

Over the years of scientific theory, several strange theories which have become reality have come up. To know more on the theories of interstellar flight, one could visit the Tau Zero Foundation. A former NASA Glenn physicist, Marc Millis, had founded the organization to consider revolutionary advancements in propulsion. Warp drive which enables humans to go around other galaxies may now no longer be purely in the dominion of science fiction.

Wednesday, August 19, 2015

Gambler’s Fallacy

Dice

Maladaptive Decisions – Random Incidents – Gambler’s Fallacy - GF

Humans often tend to make maladaptive decisions with regards to random incidents, one of which is the gambler’s fallacy – Gambler’s Fallacy, which is a certainty that incidence of a particular random event is probably after a series of the same incident. The Gambler’s Fallacy is observed to prejudice individuals’ conclusion as well as decisions in several situations like gambling, stock investment, lottery play and several other tasks.

 A characteristic pattern of the decisions directed by the Gambler’s Fallacy  is that people seem to be more probable in predicting the break of a line when it tends to get longer. Traditionally the GF is considered as an experimental bias regarded by the law of small numbers – 5,6, which could be a section of a random sequence that could reflect the general distribution.

Though the experimental bias hypothesis recommends that the Gambler’s Fallacy  is supported by fast, emotional as well as instinctive system, it can be overcome by planned reasoning, emerging evidence mostly from neuroscience studies which indicates that Gambler’s Fallacy  could be the outcome of imbalanced cognitive as well as emotional decision making appliances.However from the data received from a huge sample of college students, it was found that individuals’ utilization of the Gambler’s Fallacy  strategy seemed to be positively correlated with their general intelligence as well as decision-making functions.

Working Memory & Conflict Resolution

These could be working memory and conflict resolution though adversely correlated with their affective decisions making potentials, measured by the Iowa Gambling Task. Results have provided fresh awareness in the mechanisms underlying the Gambler’s Fallacy  which enhances the important role of affective mechanisms in adaptive decision making function.

The hypothesis has been formulated that the Gambler’s Fallacy  is connected with weak function in the effective decision making method and strong functions in the reasoning structure supported by the lateral prefrontal cortex – LPFC.

With regards to decision making, the LPFC has an important role in constructing and detecting patterns as well as updating decision making policies as per the context which are two element processes essential in implementing the GF strategy. The Gambler’s Fallacy  decisions for instance, more risk taking conduct after losses rather than wins, was connected with left prefrontal cortex activity.

Brain Responses to Left LPFC

Recent research utilised a mixture of functional magnetic resonance imaging – MRI and trancranial direct current stimulation –tDCS technologies in an effort to establish underlying relationship between activities in the prefrontal cortex as well as the use of the Gambler’s Fallacy  strategy.

The outcome indicated that the brain responses in the left lateral prefrontal cortex to the current result preceded the use of the GF approach followed by 10 seconds thereafter. Moreover, the anodal tDCS over the left LPFC that improved the LPFC function increased the use of the GF approach. While on the other hand, the GF could also be increased further by a weak affective decision making mechanism.

Individuals with impaired affective decision making owing to lesions in the mesial OFC/ventromedial prefrontal cortex as well as the amygdala displayed behavioural patterns which gather the Gambler’s Fallacy. For instance, in the case of the Iowa gambling task – IGT, which stimulates daily life decision making and healthy participants slowly tend to shift to advantageous decks by creating predictive somatic responses to disadvantageous decks while patients with focal brain damages in the ventromedial PFC tend to keep choosing the disadvantageous decks after experiencing severe losses.