Tuesday, December 10, 2013
Everyone loves a good battle scene in a movie. Whether its William Wallace charging the battlefield with his army of war-painted Scotsmen or the 300 Spartans holding back Xerxes’ army at Thermopylae. We remember the inspiring lines, the epic music, even some of the weapons—how could anyone forget William Wallace’s six-foot long sword? But when we’re engrossed in these magnificent scenes, mouths full of popcorn, we often forget how impressive these ancient weapons were. Without welding, these ancient warriors would have been forced to charge into battle armed only with sticks and stones. But because of the transformative power of welding, these warriors were armed to the hilt with some of the most impressive weapons in history.
Without the luxury of plastic welders that we have today, these ancient civilizations had to be resourceful and innovative in creating welding techniques. The first recorded use of welding occurred around 3000 BC in Egypt—maybe not surprising considering this is the same ancient civilization that built the Great Pyramids. The Egyptians used forge-welding to create bronze and iron weaponry that replaced wooden throwing sticks and stone-tipped arrows.
Welding as we know it today was not invented until the 1800s, but this ancient technique of pressure or solid-state welding allowed metals to be heated in a charcoal fire and then shaped and molded with repeated hammer blows. Solid-state welding doesn’t heat metals to the melting temperature, but the pressure of the hammering does allow two different metals to be joined and create a compound weld that is stronger than either individual metal.
The strength of these metal weapons gave the ancient Egyptians an enormous military advantage over armies that lacked welding technology. Wood doesn’t fare well against iron on the battlefield, and this was extremely influential in Egypt’s ability to conquer surrounding regions and grow as an empire.
Some of the major weapons utilized by the ancient Egyptians were the Khopesh and the battle axe. The Khopesh, also known as the Sickle Sword, was a crescent shaped sword featuring a thick blade with a hook on one end. The hook allowed Egyptian warriors to grab enemy shields to make them vulnerable for stabbing or slashing. This brutal but powerful weapon is the one most often associated with ancient Egyptian armies. Battle axes could be used for hacking or throwing and featured curved blades attached to long handles. These weapons were effective in breaking through shields in hand-to-hand combat. Bronze and iron spears and arrowheads also gave the Egyptians a competitive advantage over their ancient counterparts. Combine these powerful weapons with the speed of chariots, and you have an army that couldn’t be stopped on the battlefield.
However, the Egyptians weren’t the only ancient civilization that employed welding techniques to craft metal weaponry, jewelry, and utensils. The Sumerians, Persians, Greeks, and even the ancient Irish, utilized forge-welding to create intricate gold and silver boxes, goblets, bowls, and royal finery. Ancient welding techniques can be found depicted in wall paintings in Thebes, and archaeologists have discovered artifacts in ancient tombs and pyramids that provide evidence of welding and soldering. So next time you watch an epic battle scene, take a moment to admire the innovation of these ancient civilizations that literally shaped history by forging and welding metals.
Ella Gray is a happy home maker who's home renovation has brought her down some crazy learning paths. In the process she has developed a special love for welding and the history thereof. Please feel free to contact her at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Monday, December 9, 2013
There are very few arguments that seek to dispute the benefits of a good education. These benefits include a higher quality of life thanks to better jobs, careers and subsequently higher salaries. Generally, these benefits are multiplied as the level of education increases. For example, statistics show that high school graduates receive higher salaries and better paying jobs than non-graduates. The same is true for a first degree graduate versus a high school graduate and so on. It should come as no surprise therefore, that more and more persons are pursuing tertiary education programs at the graduate (Master's) level and beyond.
Why Pursue An MBA
A very popular graduate program is that of the MBA (Masters in Business Administration), MBA Toronto program. An MBA is one of the most diverse graduate programs available. Graduate students undertake an MBA course for a myriad of reasons and with varying goal and objectives in mind. As such, there are many specializations and program variations available to candidates. In some cases, candidates can go as far as to tailor an MBA program to suit their needs.
As the saying goes, knowledge is power and some of the other benefits from pursing an MBA reinforce this. In addition to monetary and subsequent lifestyle benefits to be ha d from pursuing an MBA, other benefits include cultivating developed managerial skills, business expertise and an administrative competitive advantage. Developing said skill sets will lead to a more open market for the individual who has them. MBA graduates often have great entrepreneurial skills and go on to have successful careers running their own businesses.
The General Structure Of An MBA
A Laurier MBA Program is often broken down into two distinct years of study. Year one consists of students pursuing basic core courses that are often common to all MB programs. After successfully completing year one, students are then able to specialize in various disciplines for their second year in the program. Students may now specialize in Finance, Executive MBAs, and the like. While business professionals are those usually opting to pursue MBAs, almost anyone with a first degree and or requisite experience or requirements can pursue this study option.
Flexibility: Choosing the Right MBA Program For You
Both part-time and full-time MBA options are available. Many times, programs are designed with the working adult in mind and as such, persons do not have to quit their day jobs to pursue a full-time program. In fact, pursuing an MBA online is a very popular option and many credible schools offer such an option to their students. It is important that candidates ensure that they consider their needs and the requirements of their prospective MBA programs carefully. It is important to choose a reputable program however as this will give weight to you MBA qualifications upon the successful completion of your program. Simply, do some research so as to ensure that the program you are considering in one of the reputable ones in your locale and beyond. This can be done easily online, as well at your local library or University if there is one.
Article written by Barry Perkinson
Wednesday, December 4, 2013
Photius had excluded not only `and the Son’, but also `through the Son’, relating to the procession of the Holy Spirit and `through the Son’, was applicable to the temporal mission of the Holy Spirit. According to him, the eternal procession of the Holy Spirit is `from the Father alone’. The Orthodox theologians believe that the phrase was only a reaffirmation of traditional teaching while on the other hand; Sergei Bulgakoy declared that Photius’s doctrine represented a novelty for the Eastern Church. Pontius has been recognized as a saint by the Eastern Orthodox Church and his criticism has made reconciliation between the East and the West a difficult task and the two churches are still in disagreement over the issue of Filioque controversy. Scripture reading in John 14:26 tells us that `the Counselor, the Holy Spirit, whom the Father will send in my name’ and in John 15:26 `When the Counselor comes, whom I will send to you from the Father, the Spirit of truth who goes out from the Father, He will testify about me’, indicates that the Spirit is sent out by the Father and the Son.
The Holy Spirit is God, sent by God as Jesus Christ’s representative here on earth when He ascended into Heaven after His Resurrection from his death on the Cross. Presently many Eastern Orthodox bishops are overlooking their old prejudices and are acknowledging that there is no need for separation on the issue of the filioque controversy. Bishop Kallistos Ware who had opposed the filioque doctrine remarks that the filioque controversy which separated the two churches for many centuries is a mere technical issue with a solution.
According to him the problem was more in the area of semantics and different emphases than in any basic doctrine differences. Towards 1014, the German King Henry II who came to Rome to be crowned Emperor was amazed at the different custom present there and requested Pope Benedict VIII who owned King Henry his restoration to the papal throne after the seizure of Antipope Gregory VI, had the Creed with the addition of the Filioque which was sung during Mass in Rome for the first time and in other places the filioque was incorporated in the Creed later. The Filioque clause since then has been included in the Creed throughout the Latin Rite but not where Greek liturgy is used though it was never adopted by Eastern Catholic churches.