Tuesday, December 27, 2022

Tara: Powerful Feminine Force in Buddhism

Tara: Powerful Feminine Force in Buddhism

Tara, called Jetsun Dölma, is a significant figure in Buddhism. She is mainly revered in Tibetian Buddhism. In Mahayana Buddhism, she appeared as a female bodhisattva. If it comes to talk about Vajrayana Buddhism, she appeard as a female Buddha. We know her as the "mother of liberation," who is the symbol of virtues of success in the field of work & achievements. In addition, people know her as Duōluó Púsà in Chinese Buddhism. However, people in Japan know her as Tara Bosatsu .

Tara, who is Tibetian Sgrol-ma, a Buddhist saviour goddess, is very famous in Nepal, Tibet, and Mongolia. People consider her as bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara's feminine counterpart. People believed that there is a story behind her existence. The story is one day, a tear of Avalokiteshvara has fallen to the ground and has formed a lake. In its water, an opening lotus rose up which revealed the Goddess. She is considered as a compassionate deity who helps the people who are in distress.

Origin as a Buddhist Bodhisattva:

You can find multiple stories that give different explanations of her origin as a bodhisattva. This story tells about a young princess spending her life in another world system. She is Jnanachandra or Yeshe Dawa, meaning of which is the "Moon of Primordial Awareness." She was offering that world system to the Buddha for an era. The system was known as Tonyo Drupa. He gave her instructions related to bodhicitta which is Bodhisattva's compassionate mental state. Later a few monks came to her to give suggestions. They said that she should pray so that she could be reborn as male in her next life to get progress. Then, she told the monks that "weak minded worldlings' ' think that gender is a barrier and women can't progress in life.

However, later, she noticed that only a few were there who wanted her to work for the well-being and prosperity of sentient beings in the form of a female. That's why she decided to be reborn always as a female bodhisattva, but until samsara is no more. Later she starts meditating in a palace for nearly ten million years. Her power of these practices helped to heal the health issues of many people. Then, Tonyo Drupa, told her that she can manifest supreme bodhi in the upcoming world system as the Goddess Tārā.

Symbols and Associations:

Generally, the term Tārā's refers to "star" or "planet," and based on that, this goddess is connected with travel and navigation. The goddess is known as "she who saves" in Tibetan. While there are one hundred and eight names of Holy Tara, she is the 'Leader of the caravans ..... who showeth the way to those who have lost it'. However, she is known by the name Dhruva also. Remember that Dhruva is the Sanskrit name for the North Star. Miranda Shaw who considered motherhood as the central to Tara's conception, gave some titles to her including "loving mother," "supreme mother," "mother of the world," "universal mother" and "mother of all Buddhas."

Mostly she appeared with her blue or night lotus (utpala). These flowers release the fragrance when the moon appears. Therefore, it is considered that Tārā has connections with the moon & light. In addition, she is a forest goddess who appears in the form of Khadiravani , a "dweller in the Khadira forest." Her life is connected to plant life, flowers, acacia (khadira) trees, and the wind. As she is connected with nature and plants, she is known as a healing Deity. In addition, she is known as the deity of nurturing quality and fertility.

People have described her land in Mount Potala as covered with many manifold trees and creepers. While chirping of birds can be heard, the forest allows the people to enjoy the murmur of waterfalls. Different kinds of flower species can be seen growing everywhere.

Tara Emergence as a Buddhist Deity:

In Tibetan Buddhism, this goddess is renowned as the symbol of action and compassion and considered as the female aspect of Avalokiteśvara.

Finally, Avalokiteshvara reached the summit of Marpori, in Lhasa. We know the Marpori summit as the 'Red Hill' also. On Otang, he realized that the lake called the 'Plain of Milk’ looks like the Hell of Ceaseless Torment.

There, the myriad beings faced many challenges like burning, boiling, hunger, thirst, etc., but still, they did not perish, sending forth grievous cries of distress all the while.

Once he viewed this, his eyes filled with tears. Then, one drop of this tear from his right eye fell to the plain. As soon as the tear falls, it becomes the reverend Bhrikuti.

After the declaration of Bhrukuti, the princess got reabsorbed into Avalokiteshvara's right eye. Later, Bhrukuti was reborn as the Nepalese princess Tritsun. When a teardrop fell upon the plain from the left eye, it became Tara. After that, she was reabsorbed into the left eye of Avalokiteshvara.

The goddess Tārā appears in various forms. In Tibet, Green Tārā appeared as the Nepalese Princess named Bhrikuti. White Tārā appeared as the Chinese princess Kongjo (Princess Wencheng).

As a Saviouress:

The Statue of this deity, in Nepal, is20.25" tall and consists of gilt copper inset full of precious stones. While this goddess has several characteristics of the feminine principle, we know her as the Mother of Mercy and Compassion.

This goddess gives birth to compassion, warmth, and relief. She has the same sympathy as a mother for all her kids. The form Green Tārā protects all beings from unfortunate circumstances. On the other hand, White Tārā represents maternal compassion. She can heal the health issues of all beings, especially those who are wounded physically or mentally.

The form of Red Tārā lets us learn discriminating awareness about any incident and how to convert raw wishes into love & compassion. If it comes to talk about Blue Tārā (Ekajati), remember that this form is a protector in the Nyingma lineage. This form expresses a formidable, female energy that can be invoked for destroying dharmic obstacles. You should know that each form is linked to any color and energy. Every form includes feminine attributes.

Forms of Tara:

There are several forms of Tārā. We know Green Tārā as śyāmatārā. This form indicates peacefulness and enlightened activity. It is the central aspect of Tārā from which all forms emanate. We know the Green form as Khadiravaṇi-Tārā, also known as Tārā of the acacia forest. She came to Nagarjuna in South India's Khadiravani forest to protect all beings from eight fears. Mārīcī and Ekajaṭā, her two attendants, give her accompany.

Sarvajnamitra says that this goddess has a universal form also, and we call it visva-rupa. This form encompasses living beings. There are other forms of Tārā also including:-

White Tārā (Sitatārā): 

We call the form The Wish-fulfilling Wheel, or Cintachakra, whom we know as the deity of healing and compassion. In this form, we can see that her two arms are seated on a white lotus, whereas the eyes are on hands and feet. The third eye is on the forehead, due to which she is called "Seven eyed."


She appears in a red-colored form where she holds a bell and vajra, bow and arrow, wheel, conch, sword, and noose in her eight arms. We know her as "Tārā Swift and Heroic" also.

Kurukullā (Rigjema): 

It is a form of red color and fierceness that can magnetize good things.

Black Tārā (Ugra Tārā): 

She is famous for power.

Yellow Tārā or Golden colored Tārā: 

These have connections with wealth and prosperity. Yellow Cintamani Tārā is considered a "Wish-Granting Gem Tara" because she is holding a wish-granting jewel. Besides, there is another form "Vajra Tārā" with eight arms. The other form, golden "Rajasri Tārā" , holds a blue lotus.

Blue Tārā (Ekajati): 

In this form, she has a lot of heads and hands, referring to a connection with the transmutation of anger. A few authors said that this form has similarities to Ugra Tārā and Ekajati.

Cintāmaṇi Tārā: 

At the Highest Yoga Tantra level in the Gelug School of Tibetan Buddhism, this form of Tārā is worshipped. This form is portrayed in green color.

Sarasvati (Yangchenma): 

This form is renowned for arts, knowledge, and wisdom.

Bhṛkuṭītārā (Tronyer Chendze): 

She is known as "Tārā with a Frown." This form is renowned for protecting from the spirits.

Uṣṇīṣavijaya Tārā: 

This form is called White Tārā or "Victorious Uṣṇīṣa." Hence, she has three faces and 12 hands in this form. Remember that this form symbolizes long life.

Golden Prasanna Tārā: 

In this form, she wore a necklace of bloody heads. Besides, in his 16 hands, she holds many weapons and Tantric attributes.

Yeshe Tsogyal: 

She is known as "Wisdom Lake Queen" in this form.

Rigjay Lhamo: 

We know her as "Goddess Who Brings Forth Awareness."

Sitatapatra Tārā: 

She protects against supernatural danger.


The Tibetian branch of Vajrayana Buddhism worships this meditation deity, Tara, for developing inner quality. Moreover, this deity is worshipped for understanding inner, outer, and secret teachings like compassion known as Karunā, loving-kindness known as mettā, and emptiness known as shunyata. You can understand the depth of the term Tārā by realizing various aspects of the same quality. The reason for this is we often consider bodhisattvas as the personifications of Buddhist methods.

There is a text named Praises to the Twenty-One Taras, which is a vital text in Tibetan Buddhism. Tantra is one of the essential texts that describes All the Functions of Tara, Mother of All the Tathagatas. For both Hindus and Buddhists, the primary Tārā mantra is the same, which is: oṃ tāre tuttāre ture svāhā. Buddhists & Tibetans follow the Tibetan traditions and pronounce them as oṃ tāre tu tāre ture soha. If it comes to talk about the the literal translation, the answer will be O Swift One, So Be It!"

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. What is Tara the goddess of?

In Buddhism, people worship the Goddess Tara as the goddess of compassion and protection. In Hinduism, the goddess appears in a primordial female energy form and we know her as shakti. The root of the word tara is the Sanskrit word "Tar" which indicates "protection." But in other languages, the term means "star."

Q. Why is Tara important for Buddhists?

She is a saviour deity liberating souls from suffering.

Q. Is Tara a Buddhist?

She is a Buddhist goddess and saviour, Tibetan Sgrol-ma, who has many forms. She is mainly renowned in Nepal, Tibet, and Mongolia.

Saturday, December 10, 2022

Lycurgus Cup - History Mystery

The question that may come to your mind is if the old Romans were ahead of their period or not. Hence, the famous Lycurgus Cup in the British Museum proves that Romans were highly advanced and talented in science, mainly in the Nanotechnology field.

What makes the 1,600-year-old glass goblet unique is that its color changes from green to red, but it depends on the direction of its illumination. If the light source is on the front, it will appear green. But when the light source is at the rear side, it will change to red. We know this incident as Dichroic behavior.

It is believed that the Roman craftsman had a deep knowledge of the science they used to make the artwork. The Romans were the first who accidentally discover the colorful potential of nanoparticles. But we must accept that they have made the world's best instance of the phenomenon.

You should know that the Lycurgus Cup is a 4th-century artifact to design in which dichroic glass is used. Depending on the passing through of light, it shows a different color. Remember that this one is the only Roman glass object design in which this kind of glass is used. People described it as the "most spectacular glass" of that time.

What is the Lycurgus Cup?

The glass chalice is known as the Lycurgus Cup. Behind its name and design is a myth involving King Lycurgus of Thrace (Balkan Peninsula).

In this regard, you need to know one thing: Lycurgus was a violent-tempered man who was behind the attack on the god of wine, Dionysius, and Ambrosia, a female follower of Dionysius.

Mother Earth called Ambrosia, and later she transformed Ambrosia into a vine. After that, she had coiled herself about the king. This coiling scene was captured on the Cup.

The change of green color to red indicates the red blood of Ambrosia. Besides, it can represent the red wine of Dionysius, the god of wine. On the flip side, the green refers to the ultimate triumph of Ambrosia. The vase indicates that Mother Earth saved the girl from Lycurgus and his evil behavior.

This cage cup comes with an outer cage and an inner glass. First, the artist cast a thick blank glass. Then, he had cut and grounded it. The process will continue until the figures are in high relief. Next, the artist needs to ground up gold & silver into nanograins to create the changing colors on the artifact. These grains should be finer than even sand. After that, he needs to fuse these proportionally into the glass to produce subatomic effects. Scientists still haven't found out how it was accomplished.

The Roman chalice, which is 1600 years old and now placed at the British Museum, is the key to the new technology which can be used to diagnose several human diseases.

What does Lycurgus Cup mean?

We call this cup "dichroic glass." "Dichroic" refers to "two colors" in Greek. The Romans are experts in the art of creating one color on a goblet while a specific light and different color will be seen in a different light but in the same goblet.

People believe it can change colors when you pour different substances into it. Thus, the artifact can detect temperatures. So naturally, nano technicians are excited after seeing these chances of old technology.

Like other medical and advanced technologies, Lycurgus Cup nanotechnology has both good and bad sides. However, when it comes to discussing its drawback, it is suspected that it can lead to abortion and euthanasia. Whereas this technology can be used to cure diseases. Besides, to recognize microbes and clean up water sources, it can be used. These are the benefits of this technology.

Romans used excellent techniques to make their wonders last for years. But once Rome died, the Dark Ages began. As a result, we saw that cement and indoor toilets were no more because these went away for more than 1,400 years. In addition, the Cup lets us know that humans can experience more than what they could have imagined.

If you see the Cup in reflected light, like in a flash photograph, the glass will appear green in color. But if you view it in transmitted light, the glass will look red.

Basically, this Cup is a rare example of a Roman cage cup or diatretum. To design the Cup, artists need to work hard as they need to cut the glass efficiently. Whereas they need to leave a decorative "cage" at the surface level.

In most cases, we can see cage cups come with a geometric abstract designed cage. Whereas the figure on this artifact displays the killing incident where Lycurgus attempted to kill Ambrosia. Later, she got transformed into a vine which has twined around the angry king and killed him. Whereas Dionysus, with two followers, were seen taunting the king.

The glass offers the dichroic effect because it is made up of nanoparticles of gold and silver in a small ratio. Although the process was not cleared. However, it is suspected that it was discovered due to accidental "contamination" with a little bit of ground gold and silver dust.

Although the glass-makers were confused about whether gold was involved in making it or not, as the quantity of gold was very little, it is suspected that they may have come from a tiny proportion of gold in silver added (most of the Roman silver ornaments contains little proportions of gold), or from traces of gold or gold leaf left accidentally in the workshop, as residue on tools, or from other work.

History of the Lycurgus Cup:

It was probably made in Alexandria or Rome around 290-325 AD. The size of this artifact is 6 1/2" x 5," and we are telling the measurement after judging it in the best condition. People probably never buried this because they kept it like a treasure. The Cup was placed in a noble Roman's villa first. After that, people placed it in a church and the elite's collections. Besides, according to a few people, it was recovered from a sarcophagus. Some people believe that the Cup was stolen from the church during the French Revolution. However, none of us know its original history.

The Science Behind the Chalice:

In French writings in 1845, we can find its mention. But we do not know why the item changed colors. The gold Nanoparticles on a microscopic level were behind the reason for the color change.

Hence, remember that the puzzle behind the incident of color Changing was not solved by scientists for decades. However, It was the 1950s when the British Museum acquired this Cup, but they were not capable of solving the mystery until 1990.

Then, researchers used broken fragments to examine these under an electron microscope. According to them, the Roman artisans were the pioneers of nanotechnology. As per their statement, Nano-particles of gold is the reason behind the color changing of the Cup.

As per the researchers, the particles are as small as 50 nm in diameter. It is less than one-thousandth of the size of a grain of table salt. Ian Freestone, the archaeologist at University College London, says that the existence of the exact mix of valuable metals indicates the amazing work of the Romans.

As soon as light hits, electrons of the metal flecks try to reflect the frequencies into human eyes. However, the color-changing process depends on the observer's position in relation to the light.

Was the Lycurgus Cup a Poison Detector?

According to the ruling class, glassware and goblets were created on Murano island in the Venice lagoon. These will be shattered if you pour poison into them.

Gang Logan Liu is a renowned engineer at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. He focused on discovering the process of using this nanotechnology to diagnose and treat diseases. And he said that when it comes to beautiful art, Romans know how to use nanoparticles very well. But, he added that we all want to make it a part of scientific applications. For example, he said that if you fill a nano-treated vessel with different liquids, the vibrating electrons can change the glass color, but it is based on the liquid type used.

Were there Other Dichroic Cups in the Ancient World?

Yes, there could be other Dichroic Cups, and the ruling class was expected to be conscious of these. It is suspected that they were the owners of the cups. Besides, they gave these as gifts and used them to drink on special occasions. But there are only a few Roman dichroic glass objects. However, less than ten dichroic glass objects are found.

Privileged Romans purchased these objects to enjoy the rarity of the products of changing color.

The bottom line:

From Vopiscus' life of the third-century pretender Saturninus, a letter that is claimed to be written by emperor Hadrian (117–138), we have come to know a few facts regarding this. First, these texts represent similar drinking vessels like the Lycurgus Cup. The second text lets us think about the artifact from the drinker's perspective.

According to a drinker, it was full of dark red wine while the outer part was green. Once the drinker lifts the glass and peers into it, the light source will be passed from the rear side. Then, it will look like the grapes have turned red. It is an artifact from Roman royalty, and people have been caring for it for the last 1600 years until modern scientists solved the puzzle.

Romans might know how to create nanoparticles and use them to make the beautiful artifact. However, according to modern scientists, nanotechnology is helpful in chemistry, biology, physics, materials science, and engineering.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. How does the Lycurgus Cup work?

This old glass artifact displays dichroism because it can look green if you reflect white light. Whereas the color turns into red if you transmit white light through it. Remember that the peculiar dichroic effect is seen due to silver & gold nanoparticles that are available in the glass.

Q. Where was the Lycurgus Cup found?

It is suspected that the manufacturing location of this Cup was Rome, and the time was the fourth century AD. Currently, this one is housed in the British Museum, London.

Q. How did they make the Lycurgus Cup?

Researchers could not put liquid into this artifact, due to which small wells were imprinted onto a plastic plate by them. In addition, they have used sprays of gold or silver nanoparticles on wells.

Monday, November 28, 2022

Rhodopis — History Mystery

Rhodopis — History Mystery

Rhodopis is one of the old Greek tales which was revolved around a Greek slave girl. This slave girl married the king of Egypt. In Greek, the term Rhodopis is known as Ῥοδῶπις Rhodôpis. Strabo, a Greek historian, recorded the Rhodopis Cinderella story first in the late first century BC or early first century AD (64 or 63 BC – c. 24 AD) in his Geographica (book 17, 33). People know it as the first variant of the "Cinderella" tale. If you want to find the origin of this fairy tale, then return to the 6th-century BC hetaera Rhodopis. Now, let's know about Rhodopis in detail, what are its sources, how the girl became the queen, and so on.

What is the Plot?

Geographica (book 17, 33) was the book where Strabo wrote the tale between c. 7 BC and c. 24 AD. According to the story of Rhodopis, an eagle came to snatch sandals from her maid when she was bathing. Then, the eagle took it away to Memphis. After a while, the eagle flung it into the king's lap when he was administering justice. The king was surprised at the beautiful shape of the sandal and the strangeness of the incident. After watching the sandal, he sent men in all directions to find the woman to whom the sandal belonged. Later, those men found her in the city of Naucratis. Then, they brought her up to Memphis, and she became the king's wife.

Who is Rhodopis?

Rhodopis is known as the oldest Cinderella story, or you can say this is the first Cinderella story. This story is loosely based on a real person. The time was around the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD when the tale appeared in Aelian's Varia Historia. Generally, people know this tale as Rhodopis Egyptian Cinderella during the 19th century.

Sources for Rhodopis Story:

We know that Strabo, a Greek geographer, first recorded the tale. But, later, Roman orator Aelian reported a similar tale in Miscellaneous History. It was written in Greek and quite identical to the story Strabo told. But in Aelian's story, the Pharaoh's name was Psammetichus. According to Aelian's account, the Rhodopis story remained famous throughout antiquity.

In this regard, you should know that the arrival of Herodotus was about 500 years before Strabo. Nevertheless, in his History, he recorded a renowned legend about courtesans named Rhodopis.

He claimed that Rhodipis, who was the slave of a landman of Samos, came from Thrace. Samos was the fellow slave of the story-teller Aesop. It was the time of Pharaoh Amasis when she was taken to Egypt. Freed there for a large sum by Charaxus (Χάραξος) of Mytilene, brother of Sappho, the lyric poet.


Herodotus said that she was a slave of Aesop. After that, we learned about the secret love affair between Aesop and her. Basically, they belonged to the Iadmon of Samos. A Samian named Xanthes made her his property and took her to Naucratis during the reign of Amasis II. After that, she met Charaxus, who was Sappho's brother. He went to Naucratis as a merchant.

After a while, Charaxus found himself in love with the woman. So, he decided to offer a lot of money as ransom for her slavery. Therefore, the money that she earned from her profession would belong to only her. In a poem, Sappho accused Rhodopis of robbing Charaxus of his property. Besides, her brother got ridiculed in a poem written by Sappho because he got entangled with Rhodopis.

After liberation: Rhodopis lived at Naucratis once she was liberated from slavery. Later, she donated 1/10 of her income to Delphi's temple. The tithe was converted into big iron spits for cooking oxen. After that, she sent these to Delphi. To this day, you can find these lying in a heap, in front of the shrine and behind the altar that Chians set up. Moreover, Ten iron spits were dedicated in her name. It was Herodotus who saw the spits.

Tales and legends:

After four hundred years, Herodotus, according to the statement of Strabo, Rhodopis, was called "Doricha" by Sappho. Then, after two hundred years of Strabo, Athenaeus said that two different women had been confused by Herodotus.

Strabo and Diodorus Siculus mentioned a variant of the tale where they told that people who loved Rhodopis built the pyramid to be her tomb. Although the story's origin is false, Georg Zoega and Christian Charles Josias Bunsen explained it very well. In inconsequence of the name Rhodopis, she was confounded with Niticris, who was the queen of Egypt. However, she had been the heroine of many Egyptian legends.

The Rhodopis name meaning is "rosy cheeks," and accordingly, this one was a professional pseudonym. But we are not sure whether her actual name was "Doricha" or not. According to the Hellenistic biographical tradition linked with Posidippus, Doricha and Rodopis were the same person.


Strabo and Aelian relate to another Rhodopis story. In this tale, she was the queen of Egypt. But how did she become queen? What is the reason? We had told before that the king got her one of the sandals, and then he sent men to discover her. As soon as they found her, she was brought to the place. Then, the king made her queen of Egypt. It is all about Rhodopis' story, famous as the first Cinderella story. However, due to thematic similarities and Herodotus's used epithet, it is said that Rhodopis has a link with Helen of Troy.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. Is Rhodopis a real person?

It was based on a real story which was revolved around a Greek slave girl. She married the Pharaoh (the king of Egypt).

Q. What did Rhodopis look like?

She had golden, curly, and coarse hair. Her eyes were green and bright. At the same time, she had a fair skin tone.

Q. What is the story of Rhodopis?

Greece was her birthplace. But pirates kidnapped her and brought her to Egypt. Later, she was sold as an enslaved person. An older man who was kind by heart was her master. He used to spend his time sleeping under a tree. As she was different, other servant girls mocked her.

Monday, November 21, 2022

Göbekli Tepe — History Mystery

Göbekli Tepe

Göbekli Tepe is called Girê Mirazan. In Kurdish, people know it as Xirabreşkê. It is a Neolithic archaeological site located in Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia area. The site's existence is expected between c. 9500 and 8000 BCE. Here, you will get to see several big structures of circular shape. Whereas giant stone pillars are designed to support these structures.

It is the oldest megalith in the world. You can see the pillars with anthropomorphic details, clothing, and reliefs of wild animals. Thus, archaeologists can get several rare insights from these pillars. In addition, here you can see many tiny buildings in the 15 m (50 ft)-high, 8 ha (20-acre). Besides, there are quarries, stone-cut cisterns from the Neolithic, and many more.

People used the site first at the dawn of the Neolithic period. In Southwest Asia, this period marks as the time when the old human settled permanently in the world. According to the Prehistorians, Neolithic Revolution has connections to agriculture's advent. However, they disagree that humans started living there due to farming or vice versa. In this article, you will learn about Göbekli Tepe, like how old it is, who built Göbekli Tepe, etc. You will also get to know why Göbekli Tepe was buried.

What is Göbekli Tepe?

Göbekli Tepe is a monumental complex. It was made on the top position of the rocky mountain. There were no known water sources. Besides, we don't have any exact proof of agricultural cultivation.

What did Klaus Schmidt Say about Göbekli Tepe?

To describe it, Klaus Schmidt, a German archaeologist and the site's original excavator, mentioned the term "world's first temple." He said that this one was a sanctuary that some nomadic hunter-gatherers used. According to him, there were very few or no permanent inhabitants. But there were a few archaeologists who disagreed with the interpretation. So, they challenged it and said that a lack of agriculture and the population in a residential area is far from conclusion.

A survey in 1963 mentioned that Schmidt detected the site's importance first. He directed excavations from 1995 until he died in 2014. However, work has been running since then under the auspices of Istanbul University, Şanlıurfa Museum, and the German Archaeological Institute. In addition, this site was designated in 2018 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Its imprest value was recognized as "one of the first manifestations of human-made monumental architecture." However, less than the site's 5% had been excavated as of 2021.

It was one of the most startling archaeological discoveries. This old town is in southeastern Turkey and is six miles from Urfa. There were huge carved stones about 11,000 years old. It can let you know how old Göbekli Tepe is.

In this regard, you should know that prehistoric people crafted and organized these. However, these people had not invented metal tools. We also got evidence of the existence of megaliths. Stonehenge was predated by some 6,000 years to these people. We know the place as Gobekli Tepe. According to Schmidt, this site is the world's oldest temple.

Brief synthesis: 

This site is situated in Upper Mesopotamia. In this regard, you should know that this region witnessed many ancient farming communities' emergence.

Groups of hunter-gatherers built the Monumental structures. We describe these structures as monumental communal buildings. These hunter-gatherers erected the enclosures in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period, i.e., 10th-9th millennia BC. Moreover, architects have found a link between monuments, social events, and other rituals. In addition, you can see there are some limestone T-shaped pillars where a few are up to 5.50 meters tall.

A few pillars come with low reliefs of clothing items like belts and loincloths. Moreover, here you can see wild animals' high and low reliefs. Now, let's know about some criteria for this site. We have given here the criteria which will let you know some information about it.

Criterion (i):

It was the most significant transition in human history when the communities lived. Basically, the megalithic structure of Göbekli Tepe was manufactured by them.

Criterion (ii):

This site is one of the humans' first manifestations of monumental architecture. Besides, it testifies to some unique building techniques. In this case, the T-shaped limestone pillars' integration is one of the examples. It met the architectural functions. People can find the imagery at contemporaneous sites in the Upper Mesopotamian area. In this way, the site has testified to a near social network in the core region of Neolithisation.

Criterion (iii):

This site is an excellent instance of a monumental ensemble of monumental megalithic structures. You can see the pillars carved from the nearby limestone plateau. They are the witnesses who saw the existence of specialized craftsmen. In addition, they saw that hierarchical forms were emerging in human society.


The site has almost all the elements required to express its Universal Value. Moreover, it can ensure that the features & procedures are represented completely. Hence, you should know that the property's physical fabric is in good condition.


In 2013, a management plan was drawn up, which was later revised in 2016. Finally, in 2017, it got finalized.

In 2016, an Advisory Board was set up. Its job is to test the management plan. Besides, it helped to submit all suggestions to make decisions and execute the plan. Also, in that year, a Coordination and Audit Board was established. Its function was to test the draft master plan and approve it also.

Frequently asked questions:

Q. Who built Göbekli Tepe, and for what purpose?

It was made around 11,000 to 12,000 years ago. People believe that hunter-gatherers built it for animal domestication or farming.

Q. Is Göbekli Tepe the oldest civilization?

It is expected that this one is the oldest civilization of humans, and it is about 12,000 years old.

Q. Why was Göbekli Tepe abandoned?

According to Klaus Schmidt's opinion, people later used the area for farming (previously used for hunting). That's why it was abandoned.

Friday, November 18, 2022

Some Simple Tips, by Following them can Reduce the Accidents on Roads

Some Simple Tips, by Following them can Reduce the Accidents on Roads

Anybody can get into an automobile accident, regardless of how carefully you were driving. A catastrophe can occur with the mere momentary distraction of other driver on the road or you while operating the vehicle. Fortunately, there are a number of things a motorist can do to reduce their risk of being involved in a crash, stay safe while driving, prevent expensive vehicle damage, and prevent expensive insurance premium increases due to a claim. We've compiled some of the best defensive driving tactics you may use to lessen the likelihood of a collision as you drive.

Think about Updating your Vehicle

Consider switching to a safer kind of car if you have the resources to do so. Because they lack all of the current safety systems, older cars are typically more likely to be involved in collisions than newer ones. Simple features like cruise control could stop you from inadvertently exceeding the posted speed limit on the highway, and parking sensors can be especially helpful to ensure that you don't hit anything in your blind spots when you're reversing into a parking place. Additionally, purchasing a newer, safer type of vehicle may result in lower auto insurance costs.

Buy a Dash Camera

While simply having a dashboard camera installed in your car won't reduce your risk of getting into an accident, being extra cautious while driving may be encouraged by the knowledge that it is being constantly recorded.

Additionally, a dash cam can be very helpful if you are the victim of a hit-and-run because there's a potential that it will record the licence plate number of the other car for you if you don't have the time to do so yourself. Dashcam film can be extremely helpful in proving fault and outlining what happened if you need to file an insurance claim or present your case to a car accident attorney.

Drive Slowly into Traffic

Whenever you are entering traffic from a junction, do so slowly and cautiously. Because cars frequently pull out without properly inspecting, junctions are frequently the site of the most collisions. Stop, take a glance around, and pay attention, keeping an eye out for any blind spots in your rearview mirrors, behind windshield pillars, and close by street signs. When turning right, make sure to check both directions at least twice before starting to move. Also, start moving slowly so you have time to stop if a car suddenly emerges in your blind spot.

Utilize the Hands-Free Features

The items in your car can easily cause you to become preoccupied, whether it's your phone ringing in the cup holder or changing the radio station to a different song. Use hands-free functions wherever they are available to help you maintain your hands on the wheel and your eyes on the road. When you want to change the music, answer a call, or turn the radio off, you can do so without having to look at anything thanks to the voice-activated entertainment systems found in some cars. If you frequently use your audio while driving, you might want to consider updating it to one with voice-activated controls even if you aren't in a position to change your car.

Keep your Engine in Good Working Condition

Make sure you avoid accidents by doing routine engine maintenance to prevent abrupt vehicle stalls or leaving your car broken down in the middle of the road. A good time to have your car serviced is in the fall to ensure that it is ready for the incoming winter weather and icy roads. You should take your automobile to an auto technician at least once a year for maintenance.

Maintain correct tyre inflation and regular oil changes. You may purchase a convenient tyre pressure gauge to keep in your car and use it frequently to check if your tyres are losing air. Even though the weather has been dry recently, you never know when you might need to wash your windshield while driving. For example, dirt splashed on your windshield by a passing vehicle can seriously hinder your vision of the road ahead, which is a surefire way to cause an accident.

Don't Tailgate

It can be tempting to narrow the distance between you and the car in front of you to exert pressure on a driver who is moving too slowly, but it's safer for everyone if you wait, avoid tailgating, and maintain a three-second buffer. When it is safe and permitted, only pass them.

When Backing out, look Behind you

It can be simple to fall into the habit of only utilising your rearview mirror when reversing your car or backing out of a parking space, but since parking lot collisions are among of the most frequent incidents, it's always preferable to spin around and get a clearer perspective. As you back out, keep an eye out for any cars that might be leaving neighboring parking spaces or passing, as well as for any people crossing the parking lot on foot.

Don't Rush Things; take your Time

Last but not least, it's a good idea to schedule your travel in advance. If you have an appointment or need to be someplace by a certain time, schedule extra time to arrive so that you don't have to rush. Speeding is one of the biggest causes of accidents, so try to resist the urge to do so even when you're in a rush. It will be lot less stressful if you know you have plenty of time if you get stopped in a traffic jam or behind a slow-moving car. While some automobile accidents cannot be prevented, there are several things a motorist can do to lessen their chance of an accident and increase road safety.

Can you go for a Personal Injury Lawsuit without a Lawyer?

Personal Injury Lawsuit

A person experiences significant bodily and emotional stress as a result of an accident. It drastically alters a person's life, especially if the injuries were severe or left a lasting mark. The physical trauma a person experiences may also have an impact on their psychological reactions. It is crucial to get compensation for negative events that occurred but were not your responsibility. The process of seeking compensation is official and legally binding. Serving the guilty party is one way to demand restitution. Legal action is predicated on the notion that the harm you experienced was the result of someone else's carelessness.

You are fully entitled to make a personal injury claim in the event that something similar occurs. We'll cover crucial queries about submitting a personal injury claim in this article. The most crucial query, regarding a person filing it without the assistance of an attorney, will also receive an answer.

Can you Perform it on your own?

Legally, every citizen has the right to bring a claim against another party for negligence that caused substantial harm. If you choose, you are also allowed to speak for yourself. If you intend to file a claim without the aid of an attorney, you will be responsible for the paperwork, documentation, and hearing and will have to deal with the legalese. You are the one who knows your case the best, so you can represent yourself better if you handle it yourself.

On the other side, if you are unaware of the legal requirements and how the system functions, you may find yourself spending many sleepless hours attempting to understand everything. Serious errors could result, costing you money and valuable time. You cannot afford to make mistakes that could negatively impact your case and render it unrecoverable. Everyone will tell you to get some help, especially if you don't have a background in law.

Even though it is feasible to sue someone without a lawyer, having a lawyer on your side will benefit your case in a number of ways. They will not only iron out all the kinks in your case, but they will also offer you insightful counsel that will be beneficial once the procedures get underway. There are various forms of personal injuries, therefore hiring an attorney for one of them would require a focus on experience and specialization. If you want to speak with injury law firm for advice or legal representation, just click the link.

What Injuries are Eligible for the Claim?

It is advised to review the list of injuries that qualify for a legal claim once before moving forward with the lawsuit. Depending on the severity of the accident's effects, lawyers will typically assist you with the conditions of the claim. However, if you wish to do it yourself, the following is everything that could make you liable:

  • Extensive scarring that completely alters one's appearance from the past. Compensation will also be available for disfigurement.
  • A personal injury claim will also be necessary if a limb or organ is lost. Since they limit a person's ability to live their life without interference, they can be made up for.
  • Loss of a crucial physiological function can also adversely alter one's life, therefore a claim is acceptable.
  • In the event of death, the deceased's next of kin may file on their behalf.

Although these are the most typical instances, there is no absolute standard that determines whether the severity of your harm qualifies for financial compensation. However, it is crucial to have all of the medical documents to demonstrate the whole course of the harm and any potential effects on your everyday life.

What Kind of Compensation are you Entitled to?

You are exerting all of this work in exchange for money. If and when the court rules in your favour, it's critical that you remain clear-headed about what you hope to gain from the claim. It is a good idea to have a broad notion of what you would want out of this entire procedure, even in the case of a settlement.

Fortunately, you can read about comparable cases to see what other people received for claims like yours. If you have made the decision to work independently, gathering appropriate references will be beneficial, particularly when determining the type of financial compensation, you require. In the event that you settle or win the case, you are entitled to the following three types of compensation:

  • Economic Damages: When we discuss economic damages, we only mean the monetary compensation to which a person is legally entitled. It comprises the total cost of any medical expenses and property damage that a person had to pay for. It covers medical expenses, personal property repairs, and all lost income from working when absent due to a major injury. Based on the submitted material, each of these factors may be demonstrated.
  • Non-economic Damages: Non-economic damages are compensation for all mental anguish and physical suffering a person had as a result of their accident-related injuries.

Punitive Damages: If the court rules in your favour, you will only receive punitive damages. These damages are primarily aimed to penalize the opposing party, not to provide compensation.

The Lesson

Knowing the limits of your ability to seek damages and compensation will help you build a compelling case if you decide to go it alone.

Monday, November 14, 2022



We spell Boudicca as Boadicea or Boudica. This queen of ancient Britain led a mutiny against Roman rule in 60 CE. Prasutagus was the husband of Boudicca. He was the king of the Iceni. In 60, he died with no male heir. So, he left all his wealth to Emperor Nero and his two daughters. He thought that they would win imperial protection for his family.

But it was the Romans who annexed his kingdom. Then, the Romans humiliated his family. Besides, they have plundered the chief tribesmen. In 60 or 61, Suetonius Paulinus, the provincial governor, was absent. Then, she raised a rebellion throughout East Anglia. After that, Camulodunum (Colchester), Verulamium (St. Albans), the mart of Londinium (London), and a few military posts were burned by insurgents. Tacitus, a Roman historian, said her rebels massacred 70,000 Romans and pro-Roman Britons. In addition, the rebels also cut to pieces the Roman 9th Legion.

Her husband had the authority as an independent ally of Rome. Later, he left his kingdom. But he had a will. However, his intention was not fulfilled when he died. As a result, he found his kingdom annexed. They also took the entire wealth. Tacitus said that her daughters got raped, and she was flogged.

Let's know who Boudica is, how she led the Iceni people, how she fought against Suetonius, and how she died.

Who was Boudica?

Queen Boudica was the Celtic Briton king's wife of the Iceni tribe, and we know her as Boadicea or Boudicea in Latin chronicles. She was called Buddug in Welsh.

Queen Boudica History:

We have seen many warriors produced by Britain for a long time. They have fought against enemies so that they can keep their country free. And a lady warrior was there whom we will never forget. She was also one of those who tried to keep Britain free. Her name was Queen Boudica. She was commonly called Boadicea.

She ruled the Iceni tribe of East Anglia with her husband, King Prasutagus. Her appearance was fascinating. Though, She was very tall. She had a distinctive harsh voice. Besides, her reddest hair fell to her hips. In short, she had an impressive appearance.

Suetonius was the Roman Governor of Britain, and he had other plans regarding lands and property. However, after the death of Prasutagus, Roman officers & their slaves plundered all the households and lands.

Later, other Iceni chiefs faced troubles. Besides, their families were also treated like slaves. Britons succeeded at first in an excellent way. The Roman settlement of Camulodunum (Colchester) was under the Britons.

No quarter was given by the Boudica warrior queen and her allies when they won the revolt. Therefore, the defenders fled when Londinium and Verulamium were stormed. In this regard, you should note one thing that we call Londinium, currently London, whereas Verulamium is known as St. Albans. However, after that, they burned the cities.

The Bruins desecrated the Roman cemeteries also. Besides, they mutilated the statues, and a few of these statues are still seen today in Colchester Museum. However, they also broke tombstones.

Early literature:

Her 6th-century work De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae was an early mention, which was done by the British monk Gildas. You can see a female leader here. Gildas described the character as a "treacherous lioness." People can find references to the uprising of 60/61 in Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731) and Historia Brittonum, the 9th-century work by the Welsh monk Nennius.


Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, the Roman governor, was doing campaigns on Mona island, located on the northwest coast of Wales, in 60 or 61. Queen Boudica was the leader of the Iceni and other British tribes. They finished the Camulodunum, which is known as Colchester in recent times. It was the capital of the Trinovantes.

As soon as Suetonius heard of the revolt, he went to Londinium. We currently know Londinium as London. Besides, it was the 20-year-old commercial settlement, the next target of rebels. He didn't have enough numbers to defend the settlement. So, he evacuated the city and left after that.

She was the leader of an army of Iceni, Trinovantes, and others. Not only did she lead them, but she also defeated a detachment of the Legio IX Hispana. In addition, she burnt both Londinium and Verulamium.

Those who were following Boudica killed about 70,000-80,000 Romans and Britons. Later, Suetonius regrouped his forces in the West Midlands. He defeated the Celtic Britons. As a result, Roman emperor Nero withdrew his forces from Britain. However, when Suetonius won against Boudica, it confirmed the Roman control of the province.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. What is Boudicca best known for?

She, who was a warrior queen of the Iceni people, lived in East Anglia, England. In addition, she was the leader of Iceni and other peoples in 60–61 CE against Roman rule in a mutiny. She was defeated at last though her forces massacred 70,000 Romans and their supporters.

Q. How did Boudicca die?

She died after getting defeated in her final battle. It is believed that she took poison or got shocked, so she died. Illness is considered one of the reasons behind her death also.

Q. Where is Boudicca buried?

We still don't know the location of Boudicca's grave. However, the location may be Birdlip in Gloucestershire, Stonehenge, Norfolk, or London's Hampstead area. However, a few people said that the grave could be under a train platform at King's Cross Station in London.

Thursday, October 27, 2022

Roman Mythology

Roman Mythology

Roman mythology is something that can draw directly on Greek mythology as early as Rome's protohistory. Roman people recognized their gods with those of the ancient Greeks. Zeus and Jupiter were related closely. They reinterpreted myths about Greek deities below their Roman counterparts' names. In the modern age, Greek and Roman mythology are categorized as Classical mythology.

Latin literature was famous throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance. Their interpretations of Greek myths could influence narrative and pictorial representations of "classical mythology" more than Greek sources. The Greek myths versions in Ovid's Metamorphoses were written while Augustus was the ruler.

What is Roman Mythology?

The myth body of ancient Rome is shown in the literature and visual arts of the Romans. Besides, it is a famous genre of Roman folklore. It can indicate the modern study of these representations. In addition, it is shown in the literature and art of other cultures in any period. Moreover, it can draw from the mythology of the Italians and Proto-Indo-European mythology.

The Purpose of Myths:

Before knowing about this, you have to understand the concept of a myth. Philip Matyszak described this in his book The Greek and Roman Myths: A Guide to the Classical Roman mythology Stories, where he also talked about the ancient's view of the world. These myths appear as simple stories containing valiant heroes, distressed maidens, and a host of all-powerful gods.

The anthropomorphic gods of the Greeks and Romans exhibit different human qualities, including love, hate, and jealousy. As a result, people living in Rome and Greece could see themselves in the tales and realize their relationship to the remaining world and their connection to the gods. But in this case, you must know that one must fulfill one's destiny with strength, determination, and nobility.

These myths allowed a person to stand against the ills and hardships. According to Matyszak, gods, and humankind must be together to fight against the "monsters and giants."

Nature of Roman Myth:

Rituals played a major role in Roman religion, which myth did for the Greeks. However, people have doubts that Romans had much of a native mythology.

It is a combination of Romanticism and the classical scholarship of the nineteenth century, valued Greek civilization as more "authentically creative." These inspired European paintings from the Renaissance to the eighteenth century.

Remember, this tradition is famous in historical myths or legends. It concerns the rise & foundation of the town. Usually, their primary focus is on human actors with intervention from deities occasionally. Previously, history and myth used to have a mutual and complementary relationship.

There are several sources for Roman myth, including the Aeneid of Virgil, the first few books of Livy's history, and Dionysius's Roman Antiquities. In addition, there are other essential sources, including the Fasti of Ovid. This one is a six-book poem made by the Roman religious calendar and Propertius's fourth book of elegies. Besides, many scenes appear in Roman wall paintings, coins, and sculptures.

Founding Myths:

The best examples of the founding myths are Aeneid and Livy's early history. You can find Trojan prince Aeneas being cast as the husband of Lavinia, the daughter of King Latinus, patronymic ancestor of the Latini. Later, these were adopted as people's mythical ancestors.

Other Roman Mythology Facts:

  • Rape of the Sabine women says how Sabine was important. It shows its importance in the formation of Roman culture and the growth of Rome through conflict & alliance. 
  • Numa Pompilius is Sabine's second king of Rome. He created several legal and religious institutions in Rome. 
  • Servius Tullius is the sixth king of Rome. His mysterious origins were mythologized. Besides, people considered him the lover of the goddess Fortuna. 
  • Lucretia is famous for her self-sacrifice, which prompted the overthrow of the early Roman monarchy. As a result, a republic was established. 
  • Cloelia was a Roman woman taken hostage by Lars Porsena. Besides, she ran away from the Clusian camp with a group of Roman virgins.
  • Mucius Scaevola thrust his right hand into the fire to prove his loyalty to his nation.

Religion and Myth:

Narratives of divine activity are essential in the system of Greek religious belief than among the Romans, who believed ritual and cult as primary.

There was no basis in scriptures and exegesis in this region. You can find that priestly literature was a very old written form of Latin prose.

The oldest pantheon included Janus, Vesta, and a famous Archaic Triad of Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus. Tradition says that Numa Pompilius was Sabine's second king of Rome and established the Roman religion. It was believed that Numa had an adviser, Egeria, a Roman goddess or nymph of fountains and prophecy.

Later Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva replaced the Archaic Triad to capture the center position of official religion. After a while, the cult of Diana was set up on Aventine Hill.

The Aeneid & Aeneas:

An old event to relate to the story was Virgil (Vergil) in his Aeneid. It is the tale that connects with the travels of its hero, the Trojan warrior Aeneas.

The Aeneid needs to exhibit the most challenging expression of Roman mythology. In the story, you learn about the hero who succeeded in running away from Troy with his father and some of his fellow soldiers with his mother's help before the town succumbed to the Greeks.

The people of Rome hinted at the ancient Trojan culture for the story and its connection to the Trojan War. You must remember that Virgil is the source of the story of the Trojan horse. However, it is mentioned in Homer's Odyssey.

Romulus & Remus:

Aeneas's descendants were the founders of the city of his destiny: Rome. Hence, you need to know that Romulus and Remus were the sons of the war god Mars and Rhea Silvia. So, in Roman mythology who was Mars? He was the war god.

Besides, Silvia was the daughter of king Alba Longa, Numitor. Amulius overthrew his brother and attempted to protect his claim to the throne. As a result, he forced Rhea to join the Vestal Virgins.

Once, Mars raped the young Rhea in the sacred woods. King Amulius ordered them to throw her two sons into the Tiber. But a flood caused the two sons to drift ashore at Ficus Ruminalis. Later a she-wolf rescued them. It was the sacred animal of Mars. After a while, Faustulus, a local herdsman, and his wife Acca Larentia adopted the boys.

Later, these two founders become their community leaders while Remus lands in the king's dungeon. Then, Romulus rescued his brother and deposed Amulius with Numitor's help. Then, they also learned who they were. They established a town. But someone killed Remus due to jealousy, and the city became Rome. However, once Romulus won the naming rights, he became the king and ruled Rome for forty years.

Roman Gods & Goddesses in Roman mythology:

You can find proof of many gods and goddesses. Besides, the people of Rome adopted their stories and many gods. It is Greece influenced the Italian peninsula and the Greek culture. Later, the people renamed some gods. Apollo in Roman mythology is the name of a god common to both cultures.

Multiple gods in Rome were connected closely with cults rather than myths before the Greeks association. But these got changed. These people turned from farming to war. At the early stage of the development of Roman mythology, Saturn is equivalent to the Greek god Cronus. There was a temple at the foot of Capitoline Hill, which included the public treasury. Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva were the triad of early Roman cult deities.

While Jupiter is the sky god, he became more akin to the Greek Zeus. Besides, he influenced each aspect of the life of people in Rome. In addition, many commanders choose this temple on Capitoline Hill as the final destination. Who is juno in roman mythology? Regarding Juno Roman mythology, you could know her as his wife and sister. She became reminiscent of Hera.


Like in Greece, cities in Rome adopted their patron deity. In addition, these established temples and followed rituals to honor God. These people had many gods like Janus. He was the two-faced god of doorways and gates. Like the Etruscan god Culsans, he could see the future and the past. Vesta was Saturn's daughter, along with the hearth and family life. Her followers were known as the Vestal Virgins.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. Who are the 12 major Roman gods?

The twelve gods were: Jupiter, Juno, Mars, Mercury, Neptune, Venus, Apollo, Diana, Minerva, Ceres, Vulcan, and Vesta.

Q. Are Greek and Roman mythology the same?

These share multiple same gods and goddesses in their stories. But the names are mostly different.

Q. Who created it?

Ovid made it.

Friday, October 21, 2022

Rainbow Bridge for Pets

Rainbow Bridge For Pets

You might have heard the "rainbow bridge" term related to a pet's death. It is a poem depending on an afterlife for pets. Besides, it can provide pet parents a hope to reunite with their departed dogs and cats. It refers to the powerful bond between humans and their pets. Therefore, a few people use it to provide compassion to grieving pet owners.

There is even a national remembrance day on its inspiration. The Rainbow Bridge Remembrance Day is held on 28th August per year. So, let's dive into the article to know about the Rainbow Bridge poem for dogs as well as other pets. So, first of all, you should know what it is. Then, you get to know about the poem also. Besides, we will let you know who wrote it.

What is the Rainbow Bridge?

It is a mythical overpass, a connection between heaven and Earth. You can call it a place where grieving pet owners meet their departed pets. Several pet owners say that they go there while disclosing their pet's death on social media. A pet is like a family member. So losing them is like losing someone from the family.

It is the theme of many works of poetry written in the 1980s and 1990s. The first one is a prose poem whose genuine creator is not fixed. On the other hand, another one is a six-stanza poem of rhyming pentameter couplets. Finally, a couple made it to ease the pain of losing pets.

Who Wrote The Rainbow Bridge Poem?

A minimum of three men have written a version of the poem, according to The Post. In addition, you can find poems attributed to the "unknown." Remember that the Rainbow Bridge poem has many versions available. Let's see the composition below:

"There is a bridge connecting Heaven and Earth.

It is called the Rainbow Bridge because of all its beautiful colors.

Just this side of the Rainbow Bridge, there is a land of meadows,

hills and valleys with lush green grass.

When a beloved pet dies, the pet goes to this place.

There is always food and water and warm spring weather.

The old and frail animals are young again.

Those who were sick, hurt, or in pain are made whole again.

There is only one thing missing,

they are not with their special person who loved them so much on Earth.

So each day, they run and play until the day comes.

When one suddenly stops playing and looks up!

The nose twitches! The ears are up!

The eyes are staring, and this one runs from the group!

You have been seen, and when you and your special friend meet,

you take him in your arms and hug him.

He licks and kisses your face again and again—

And you look once more into the eyes of your best friend and trusting pet.

Then you cross the Rainbow Bridge together, never again to be apart."

Rainbow Bridge Story:

Tom Happy to See! Painful to Feel!!
If a pet dies that someone used to treat with the utmost care, it will go to Rainbow Bridge. Hills and meadows give company to our pets by running and playing with them. Many foods, water, and sunshine are available. In addition, our special friends feel comfortable.

Pets like dogs, & cats, and other animals who are old and ill for some periods are restored to health. Pets are happy. But they miss their beloved ones whom they must leave behind.

All of them run & play together. But one day comes when the owner dies and arrives at the meadow. Then, his pet stops running and sniffs the air. After that, he sees the distance between him and his owner.

The bright eyes are intent, and the eager body quivers. After that, your special friend starts running from the group. Then, he flies over the green grass. He runs quicker with his legs. Being an owner, your friend and you will enjoy the reunion while meeting finally. You will enjoy the happy kisses of your pet on your face. Besides, you will caress the pet's head and look at his eyes. These moments could never go from your heart as these things were missing on Earth.


Tom Birthday
It is a total paradise concept where pets wait for their best friends, owners, who come later in the meadows in Margaret Marshall Saunders' book Beautiful Joe's Paradise. Regarding green land, pets don't wait for their owners. But they learn and grow together. In addition, they recover themselves from the unfair treatment.

There was a post where it was mentioned first on the newsgroup rec.pets.dogs, dated 7th January 1993, quoting the poem from a 1992 (or earlier) issue of the Mid-Atlantic Great Dane Rescue League Newsletter. According to other posts from 1993, it was set up and circulated online then.

In philosophy:

Tom Birthday

You may use Lesser Heaven in metaphysics and theology to respond to the issue of animal suffering. It is an attempted rebuttal to the Heaven Theodicy.

The Bottom Line:

Tom Beach Visit
Nowadays, people of all types accept widely that all animals can cross the Rainbow Bridge and make it to heaven. Suppose an animal doesn't have an owner. In such cases, we assume that they go to heaven directly. Rainbow Bridge is for pets who are willing to cross it with their alive human companions. We never want to lose an animal as they are remarkable human friends. It is all that you can learn about the term.

Frequently Asked Questions:

  • Q. What does crossing the Rainbow Bridge mean?

Once you lose your pet, you will hear the term. For example, the Rainbow Bridge is a mythical overpass that links heaven and Earth. In short, this one is a location where pet owners meet their departed pets or special friends.

  • Q. Is the Rainbow Bridge just for dogs?

It is accepted widely for all animals, not only for dogs and cats. So all can cross and make it heaven.

Q. Is the Rainbow Bridge for humans?

It is a meadow where pets wait for their companions to join them.

Monday, October 10, 2022

The City of David - History Mystery

City of David

The City of David is a very famous excavation site in Jerusalem. About one million people visit this National Park every year. It is an archaeological site that reveals the birthplace of Jerusalem. This place allows you to experience ancient Jerusalem.

You can enjoy Warren’s Shaft, old water systems like Hezekiah’s Tunnel and the Second Temple Shiloah pool. Besides, the location can offer extra family-friendly attractions, festivals, concerts, guided tours etc during festivals. You can see old stories taking shape and coming to life before their eyes. Is Jerusalem the City Of David? Let's know about it.

What is the City of David?

The City of David is a biblical and religious epithet of the old city of Jerusalem. It can denote an archaeological location linked with ancient Jerusalem. This name indicates an archaeological site is considered by most scholars. It is the actual settlement core of Jerusalem during the Bronze and Iron Ages. This location is located on the southern part of the eastern ridge of ancient Jerusalem, West of the Kidron Valley and east of the Tyropoeon valley, to the immediate south of the Temple Mount.

It is an important part of biblical archeology. People found the rest of the defensive network around the Gihon Spring back to the Middle Bronze Age. In addition, people continued using them throughout subsequent periods.

Two monumental Iron Age structures are called the Large Stone Structure and the Stepped Stone Structure. A debate between scholars is that if these can be identified with David or dated to a later period. It is home to the Siloam Tunnel, made by Hezekiah during the late eighth century BCE in preparation for an Assyrian siege.

But according to the current excavations at the site, it has an old origin in the late 9th or early 8th century BCE. Besides, other remaining spots include the Pool of Siloam, and the Stepped Street stretches from the pool to the Temple Mount.

Nowadays, the excavated parts of the archeological site belong to the Jerusalem Walls National Park. Israel Nature and Parks Authority manage the site, on the other hand the Ir David Foundation operates it. This place is located in Wadi Hilweh, an extension of the Palestinian neighborhood of Silwan, East Jerusalem, intertwined with an Israeli settlement.

Where is the City Of David?

It is located on a rocky spur south of the Temple Mount and outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem. The place is located as the southeastern ridge of old Jerusalem. Descending from the Dung Gate, the hill goes toward the Gihon Spring and the Pool of Siloam. It is a portion of the Palestinian neighborhood and former village of Silwan. The position was on the slopes of the southern part of the Mount of Olives, east of the City of David.

The village expanded West and crossed the valley to the eastern hill in the 20th century. Before 1948, it was called Wadi al-Nabah in Arabic. Later, it was renamed to Wadi al-Hilweh after the wife of the local mukhtar who was killed in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.

Naming of City of David:

The origin of the term is in the biblical narrative where David, the Israelite king, conquers Jerusalem, called Jebus, from the Jebusites. His conquest is described two times in the Bible— in the Books of Samuel and the Books of Chronicles. These versions vary in specific details.

The Bible's reliability for the period's history is one debate topic among scholars. The Hebrew Bible says that the name was applied to Jerusalem after its conquest by David c. 1000 BCE. Ensure that you must not confuse its name with the new organization. It displays tiny excavated portions of the bigger town.

Israeli authorities denote this town as the City of David, while most Palestinian Arab residents mean this as Wadi al-Hilweh. Rannfrid Thelle wrote that the title favors the Jewish national agenda. In addition, it appeals to Christian supporters.

It is older than the Old City of Jerusalem. You need to walk for two minutes from the Western Wall, the location of the ancient city in Biblical studies. It makes this town an important archaeological site in Israel. Remember that it is the location of the biggest number of archaeological expeditions.

Several Attractions for the Whole Family:

The City of David National Park Visitor Center can provide different attractions, tours, and surprises. These are unavailable anywhere. You can take a walking tour through an old underground water tunnel and have an archaeological experience at the Emek Tzurim National Park sifting project. In addition, you can enjoy the nighttime presentation Hallelujah. It takes help of progressed projection technology to ask about the old Jerusalem story. Besides, it may be a famous tourist attraction for families. This location is full of different visitor's centers, 3D exhibitions, and so on.

The Revival of the City Of David Jerusalem:

Ir David Foundation, called Elad, is a Hebrew acronym indicating the city of David. It was set up in1986 to strengthen the Jewish connection to Jerusalem. The foundation wants to set up and renew the Jewish community in the town. In 1991, a new Jewish community emerged. Until now, about 30 Jewish families have appeared alongside the Arab families there.

Archaeological Sites:

The Gihon Spring: You can see this lying on Jerusalem's southeastern hill of the eastern slope aka the City of David. It is why the town first emerged at this certain spot.

You should remember that above it was found a vast town wall. People use this to identify the old settlement's place. The old water systems which are attached to the Gihon Spring are natural, masonry-built, and rock-cut structures, such as:

The Spring Tower: It is a natural shaft that people thought of as a water supply system. Besides, people thought that it couldn't be accessed during the time attributed to King David.

The Siloam Channel: It is a Canaanite (Bronze Age) water system that preceded the Siloam Tunnel. This one is called Hezekiah's Tunnel. It is an Iron Age water supply system where you found the Siloam inscription.

The Siloam Pool: There are two pools attached and the upper one comes from the Byzantine time at the Siloam Tunnel's entryway. The other one is the lower pool founded recently. It is dated to the Hasmonean portion of the Second Temple Period.

Giv'ati Parking Lot excavations: It extends over an area of about 5 dunams (1.2 acres). 

Many built structures exist within the area and these are spread over excavated sections— Area A, B, C ... including:

  • The Large Stone Structure 
  • The Stepped Stone Structure 
  • City walls and towers, houses, a columbarium, 
  • The Jerusalem Water Channel, a large drainage system 
  • A monumental stepped street. Second Temple-period pilgrims use it. 
In addition, this one is made over the Jerusalem Water Channel.

Other Locations:

King's Garden (excavated by Bliss and Dickie).

Excavations and Scholarly Views:

The old site of the town depends on a long spur facing north-south. Besides, it extends outside the wall of the old town, south of its southeastern corner, in the southern part of the eastern ridge adjacent to the Gihon Spring. You should know that it can reveal a lot of interesting archeological finds of the old world. However, the spot is an activity center.

Keep in mind that it was an old epicenter of Jerusalem. Its boundaries are expanded from the Temple Mount north and southward to the Pool of Siloam. It includes the place marking Kidron brook in the east and near dale in the West.

The settlement started in the Chalcolithic period and the Early Bronze Age.

However, it isn't called by the name. According to the Old Testament, Jebus was exchanged by this name after the conquest of Jerusalem. Solomon, son of David, stretched the wall to the north. Then, he included the Temple Mount area, where he made an edifice for the God of his fathers. The town started expanding westward beyond the dale from the eighth century BCE.

People are able to recognize the site on the hill southeast of the Old City with Jebus and later the Jerusalem City of David. It started in the late 19th century with the excavations of Charles Warren and Hermann Guthe. The 1909–11 work of Louis-Hugues Vincent and Montagu Brownlow Parker detected the oldest popular settlement traces in the Jerusalem region. It suggested that the place was an ancient settlement core in Jerusalem back to the Bronze Age. In 2015, a report on Israeli archaeology asked that the National tAcademy of Sciences criticize the political use of archeology.

Finds by Period:

Chalcolithic (4500–3500 BCE):

The remaining Chalcolithic comes with bits of pottery found in clefts in the bedrock by Macalister and Duncan. It set up different places where the bedrock had been cut in other methods.

Early Bronze Age (3500–2350 BCE):

Pieces of pottery have been found.

Middle Bronze Age (2000–1550 BCE):

Jerusalem is mentioned in Egyptian texts from the 19th–18th centuries BCE.

Late Bronze Age (1550–1200 BCE):

The Canaanite city wall faces the Kidron Valley.


It is the actual hilltop. King David dedicated old Jerusalem upon this as his capital 3,000 years ago. A report leaked in 2018 asked that the European Union become a tourist place. According to the statement of Rafi Greenberg, archaeological practice is subsumed entirely by political and corporate motivations.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. Which city is called the City of David?

Jerusalem is acquainted as the City of David.

Q. Where is the City of David now?

The city of David today is southeast of the Old City, on Ophel Hill near the Western Wall. This one is now below the Arab village of Silwan.

Q. What religion is the City of David?

The Jewish community is the religion that is aimed to be established.

Thursday, September 22, 2022

Persephone- Queen of UnderWorld; History Mystery


The very first question which can arise in your mind is, who is Persephone? She is the daughter of Demeter and Zeus. Besides, she was the Queen of the Underworld. In addition, she was the wife of Hades. So, is Persephone a fertility goddess?

While she was a fertility goddess, she was also a dual deity. But her husband Hades abducted her. This myth was often used to explain the cycle of the seasons. Persephone, the greek goddess, and her mother were the central characters of the Eleusinian mysteries. Let's dive into the article to know Persephone Hades and their story.

Persephone's Role:

She was popular among various names in Ancient Greece. But the recent scholarly consensus is that all suggest a Pre-Greek origin of the word and the goddess. Besides, it is also the name of the Roman counterpart. Therefore, it may have a Greek dialectical origin. However, the Romans believed that the Latin Proserpere was the source of the term. It means "to shoot/creep forth," a verb related to the germination of plants. Being the daughter of Demeter, she was famous as Kore Persephone, meaning simply "the girl" or "the maiden."

Persephone's Portrayal and Symbolism:

She was a venerable queen in Classical Greek Persephone art where she got robbed and carried a scepter & a sheaf of wheat. In such cases, Demeter, Persephone's mother, is the one who carries the scepter and the sheaf. Besides, she holds a four-tipped torch used in the Eleusinian mysteries.

Regarding Persephone and Pomegranate story, you can see her holding a pomegranate – or even a seed of a pomegranate. It indicates her marriage with Hades and the Underworld. The horn of plenty is also connected to her. Hence, the goddess of fertility is the Persephone symbol.

Persephone's Epithets:

She was the Queen of the Underworld. Therefore, people got frightened of her. That's why she had many friendly names. While a few people called her "The Maiden," a few called her "The Mistress."

In addition, she was popular as "The Pure One," "The Venerable One," and "The Great Goddess." Her bonding with her mother was so close that people referred to Demeter and Persephone as "The Two Demeters" or "The Two Goddesses."

The Abduction of Persephone

The most famous Persephone myth is the story of her abduction. So let's know about hades and Persephone.

Persephone and Hades:

Queen of UnderWorld

Hades, the ruler of the Underworld, decided to marry her. She is the only daughter of his sister Demeter. One day, she went with her maidens to collect flowers in the Nysian meadow. But suddenly, she smelt the fragrance of a beautiful flower. Due to the blooming of the flower, she got separated from her maidens. Once she went to pluck the flower, the ground below her feet opened up. Hades came before her with his majesty in his four-horse golden chariot. Then, he snatched her and took her to his Underworld to make her Queen and his wife.

As a result, Demeter wasn't very pleased when she knew about this incident from Hecate and Helios. Therefore she started wandering around. After that, Zeus, Persephone's father, sent Hermes to the Underworld to fetch his daughter to Demeter. But Hades tricked her by giving her a pomegranate seed to taste before leaving the Underworld. Therefore, as per the ancient laws, she remained in the Underworld.


It is a religious festival held in Ancient Greece in honor of Persephone's return from the Underworld. Once she ate the pomegranate seeds, she was forced to spend one-third of the year there. She allotted two-thirds of the year aboveground only. It was held in various regions throughout the ancient world, where every festival comes with its distinct customs and rituals.

The Athenian Anthesphoria was beautiful and allowed flowers & music to commemorate the return of the goddess of springtime. It was famous for its beauty. In addition, other festivals like the Sicilian Anthesphoria celebrated the day more precisely. However, even it was one of the vital celebrations of the year.

The Rape of Proserpina is called the Abduction of Proserpina. It is a giant Baroque marble group sculpture by Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Execution of the sculpture occurs between 1621 and 1622, the beginning stage of Bernini's career. This sculpture depicts the abduction of Proserpina.

Persephone in Other Myths:

It was the living world where she used to spend her time. But all myths related to her occur in the Underworld.

Persephone and Adonis:

Adonis's tale copies her destiny. In this case, you can find Aphrodite and her falling in love with the same mortal. It is Adonis, a handsome young man. They couldn't agree on who deserved him more. Zeus divided his time between the Underworld and the upper world.

But Adonis indeed loved Aphrodite more. Therefore, when the time came, he didn't want to return to her kingdom. Later, Adonis died in Aphrodite's arms. Then, he got transformed into the anemone flower. But after that, the goddess of the Underworld sent a wild boar to kill him.

Persephone and Minthe:

You can't see any mention of Hades and Persephone's children. But because of this reason, she didn't have any issues with Hades' fidelity, unlike her celestial counterpart Hera. The story of the nymph Minthe is one of the few half-exceptions. Hence, you should know that Minthe may have been Hades' mistress before her abduction. Minthe boasted that she was once far more beautiful than his new lover. Therefore, Minthe can win Hades again any day. But she transformed Minthe into the mint plant. It ensures that such a thing won't happen again.

Persephone and Hades

Persephone the Influential Queen:

He differed from Hera in an even more essential manner. But unlike Hera, she was not Hades' consort.

Persephone and the Visiting Heroes:

She was reported as the sole maker of essential decisions related to mortals if it let Orpheus leave Hades with Eurydice or Heracles with Cerberus. In addition, she allows Sysiphus to return to his wife, agreeing to the Admetus/Alcestis soul swap. Besides, she granted Teiresias the privilege of retaining his intelligence in Hades.

The king of Lapiths is Pirithous. He attempted to abduct her with his friend Theseus. But the plan got changed. At last, he got a permanent position in Hades always.

The bottom line:

People can find the entire story of her abduction in the "Homeric Hymn to Demeter." Besides, you can find other exciting transformation myths in the fifth book of Ovid's "Metamorphoses." it is all about Persephone's story.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Q. Who was she?

Alongside being the daughter of Demeter & Zeus and the wife of Hades, she was the Queen of the Underworld and the fertility goddess.

  • Q. What did she rule over?

She ruled over the Underworld and Mount Olympus.

  • Q. Where did she live?

Her home was Hades.

  • Q. Who were her parents?

Her parents were Zeus and Demeter.

  • Q. Who were her brothers and sisters?

She had fourteen siblings: Arion, Philomelus, Eubuleus, Aphrodite, Dionysus, Helen, Hephaestus, Heracles, Hermes, Perseus, The Graces, The Horae, The Muses, and The Fates.