Monday, November 28, 2022

Rhodopis — History Mystery

Rhodopis — History Mystery

Rhodopis is one of the old Greek tales which was revolved around a Greek slave girl. This slave girl married the king of Egypt. In Greek, the term Rhodopis is known as Ῥοδῶπις Rhodôpis. Strabo, a Greek historian, recorded the Rhodopis Cinderella story first in the late first century BC or early first century AD (64 or 63 BC – c. 24 AD) in his Geographica (book 17, 33). People know it as the first variant of the "Cinderella" tale. If you want to find the origin of this fairy tale, then return to the 6th-century BC hetaera Rhodopis. Now, let's know about Rhodopis in detail, what are its sources, how the girl became the queen, and so on.

What is the Plot?

Geographica (book 17, 33) was the book where Strabo wrote the tale between c. 7 BC and c. 24 AD. According to the story of Rhodopis, an eagle came to snatch sandals from her maid when she was bathing. Then, the eagle took it away to Memphis. After a while, the eagle flung it into the king's lap when he was administering justice. The king was surprised at the beautiful shape of the sandal and the strangeness of the incident. After watching the sandal, he sent men in all directions to find the woman to whom the sandal belonged. Later, those men found her in the city of Naucratis. Then, they brought her up to Memphis, and she became the king's wife.

Who is Rhodopis?

Rhodopis is known as the oldest Cinderella story, or you can say this is the first Cinderella story. This story is loosely based on a real person. The time was around the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD when the tale appeared in Aelian's Varia Historia. Generally, people know this tale as Rhodopis Egyptian Cinderella during the 19th century.

Sources for Rhodopis Story:

We know that Strabo, a Greek geographer, first recorded the tale. But, later, Roman orator Aelian reported a similar tale in Miscellaneous History. It was written in Greek and quite identical to the story Strabo told. But in Aelian's story, the Pharaoh's name was Psammetichus. According to Aelian's account, the Rhodopis story remained famous throughout antiquity.

In this regard, you should know that the arrival of Herodotus was about 500 years before Strabo. Nevertheless, in his History, he recorded a renowned legend about courtesans named Rhodopis.

He claimed that Rhodipis, who was the slave of a landman of Samos, came from Thrace. Samos was the fellow slave of the story-teller Aesop. It was the time of Pharaoh Amasis when she was taken to Egypt. Freed there for a large sum by Charaxus (Χάραξος) of Mytilene, brother of Sappho, the lyric poet.

Slavery:

Herodotus said that she was a slave of Aesop. After that, we learned about the secret love affair between Aesop and her. Basically, they belonged to the Iadmon of Samos. A Samian named Xanthes made her his property and took her to Naucratis during the reign of Amasis II. After that, she met Charaxus, who was Sappho's brother. He went to Naucratis as a merchant.

After a while, Charaxus found himself in love with the woman. So, he decided to offer a lot of money as ransom for her slavery. Therefore, the money that she earned from her profession would belong to only her. In a poem, Sappho accused Rhodopis of robbing Charaxus of his property. Besides, her brother got ridiculed in a poem written by Sappho because he got entangled with Rhodopis.

After liberation: Rhodopis lived at Naucratis once she was liberated from slavery. Later, she donated 1/10 of her income to Delphi's temple. The tithe was converted into big iron spits for cooking oxen. After that, she sent these to Delphi. To this day, you can find these lying in a heap, in front of the shrine and behind the altar that Chians set up. Moreover, Ten iron spits were dedicated in her name. It was Herodotus who saw the spits.

Tales and legends:

After four hundred years, Herodotus, according to the statement of Strabo, Rhodopis, was called "Doricha" by Sappho. Then, after two hundred years of Strabo, Athenaeus said that two different women had been confused by Herodotus.

Strabo and Diodorus Siculus mentioned a variant of the tale where they told that people who loved Rhodopis built the pyramid to be her tomb. Although the story's origin is false, Georg Zoega and Christian Charles Josias Bunsen explained it very well. In inconsequence of the name Rhodopis, she was confounded with Niticris, who was the queen of Egypt. However, she had been the heroine of many Egyptian legends.

The Rhodopis name meaning is "rosy cheeks," and accordingly, this one was a professional pseudonym. But we are not sure whether her actual name was "Doricha" or not. According to the Hellenistic biographical tradition linked with Posidippus, Doricha and Rodopis were the same person.

Conclusion: 

Strabo and Aelian relate to another Rhodopis story. In this tale, she was the queen of Egypt. But how did she become queen? What is the reason? We had told before that the king got her one of the sandals, and then he sent men to discover her. As soon as they found her, she was brought to the place. Then, the king made her queen of Egypt. It is all about Rhodopis' story, famous as the first Cinderella story. However, due to thematic similarities and Herodotus's used epithet, it is said that Rhodopis has a link with Helen of Troy.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. Is Rhodopis a real person?

It was based on a real story which was revolved around a Greek slave girl. She married the Pharaoh (the king of Egypt).

Q. What did Rhodopis look like?

She had golden, curly, and coarse hair. Her eyes were green and bright. At the same time, she had a fair skin tone.

Q. What is the story of Rhodopis?

Greece was her birthplace. But pirates kidnapped her and brought her to Egypt. Later, she was sold as an enslaved person. An older man who was kind by heart was her master. He used to spend his time sleeping under a tree. As she was different, other servant girls mocked her.

Monday, November 21, 2022

Göbekli Tepe — History Mystery

Göbekli Tepe

Göbekli Tepe is called Girê Mirazan. In Kurdish, people know it as Xirabreşkê. It is a Neolithic archaeological site located in Turkey's Southeastern Anatolia area. The site's existence is expected between c. 9500 and 8000 BCE. Here, you will get to see several big structures of circular shape. Whereas giant stone pillars are designed to support these structures.

It is the oldest megalith in the world. You can see the pillars with anthropomorphic details, clothing, and reliefs of wild animals. Thus, archaeologists can get several rare insights from these pillars. In addition, here you can see many tiny buildings in the 15 m (50 ft)-high, 8 ha (20-acre). Besides, there are quarries, stone-cut cisterns from the Neolithic, and many more.

People used the site first at the dawn of the Neolithic period. In Southwest Asia, this period marks as the time when the old human settled permanently in the world. According to the Prehistorians, Neolithic Revolution has connections to agriculture's advent. However, they disagree that humans started living there due to farming or vice versa. In this article, you will learn about Göbekli Tepe, like how old it is, who built Göbekli Tepe, etc. You will also get to know why Göbekli Tepe was buried.

What is Göbekli Tepe?

Göbekli Tepe is a monumental complex. It was made on the top position of the rocky mountain. There were no known water sources. Besides, we don't have any exact proof of agricultural cultivation.

What did Klaus Schmidt Say about Göbekli Tepe?

To describe it, Klaus Schmidt, a German archaeologist and the site's original excavator, mentioned the term "world's first temple." He said that this one was a sanctuary that some nomadic hunter-gatherers used. According to him, there were very few or no permanent inhabitants. But there were a few archaeologists who disagreed with the interpretation. So, they challenged it and said that a lack of agriculture and the population in a residential area is far from conclusion.

A survey in 1963 mentioned that Schmidt detected the site's importance first. He directed excavations from 1995 until he died in 2014. However, work has been running since then under the auspices of Istanbul University, Şanlıurfa Museum, and the German Archaeological Institute. In addition, this site was designated in 2018 as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Its imprest value was recognized as "one of the first manifestations of human-made monumental architecture." However, less than the site's 5% had been excavated as of 2021.

It was one of the most startling archaeological discoveries. This old town is in southeastern Turkey and is six miles from Urfa. There were huge carved stones about 11,000 years old. It can let you know how old Göbekli Tepe is.

In this regard, you should know that prehistoric people crafted and organized these. However, these people had not invented metal tools. We also got evidence of the existence of megaliths. Stonehenge was predated by some 6,000 years to these people. We know the place as Gobekli Tepe. According to Schmidt, this site is the world's oldest temple.

Brief synthesis: 

This site is situated in Upper Mesopotamia. In this regard, you should know that this region witnessed many ancient farming communities' emergence.

Groups of hunter-gatherers built the Monumental structures. We describe these structures as monumental communal buildings. These hunter-gatherers erected the enclosures in the Pre-Pottery Neolithic period, i.e., 10th-9th millennia BC. Moreover, architects have found a link between monuments, social events, and other rituals. In addition, you can see there are some limestone T-shaped pillars where a few are up to 5.50 meters tall.

A few pillars come with low reliefs of clothing items like belts and loincloths. Moreover, here you can see wild animals' high and low reliefs. Now, let's know about some criteria for this site. We have given here the criteria which will let you know some information about it.

Criterion (i):

It was the most significant transition in human history when the communities lived. Basically, the megalithic structure of Göbekli Tepe was manufactured by them.

Criterion (ii):

This site is one of the humans' first manifestations of monumental architecture. Besides, it testifies to some unique building techniques. In this case, the T-shaped limestone pillars' integration is one of the examples. It met the architectural functions. People can find the imagery at contemporaneous sites in the Upper Mesopotamian area. In this way, the site has testified to a near social network in the core region of Neolithisation.

Criterion (iii):

This site is an excellent instance of a monumental ensemble of monumental megalithic structures. You can see the pillars carved from the nearby limestone plateau. They are the witnesses who saw the existence of specialized craftsmen. In addition, they saw that hierarchical forms were emerging in human society.

Integrity

The site has almost all the elements required to express its Universal Value. Moreover, it can ensure that the features & procedures are represented completely. Hence, you should know that the property's physical fabric is in good condition.

Conclusion:

In 2013, a management plan was drawn up, which was later revised in 2016. Finally, in 2017, it got finalized.

In 2016, an Advisory Board was set up. Its job is to test the management plan. Besides, it helped to submit all suggestions to make decisions and execute the plan. Also, in that year, a Coordination and Audit Board was established. Its function was to test the draft master plan and approve it also.

Frequently asked questions:

Q. Who built Göbekli Tepe, and for what purpose?

It was made around 11,000 to 12,000 years ago. People believe that hunter-gatherers built it for animal domestication or farming.

Q. Is Göbekli Tepe the oldest civilization?

It is expected that this one is the oldest civilization of humans, and it is about 12,000 years old.

Q. Why was Göbekli Tepe abandoned?

According to Klaus Schmidt's opinion, people later used the area for farming (previously used for hunting). That's why it was abandoned.

Friday, November 18, 2022

Some Simple Tips, by Following them can Reduce the Accidents on Roads

Some Simple Tips, by Following them can Reduce the Accidents on Roads

Anybody can get into an automobile accident, regardless of how carefully you were driving. A catastrophe can occur with the mere momentary distraction of other driver on the road or you while operating the vehicle. Fortunately, there are a number of things a motorist can do to reduce their risk of being involved in a crash, stay safe while driving, prevent expensive vehicle damage, and prevent expensive insurance premium increases due to a claim. We've compiled some of the best defensive driving tactics you may use to lessen the likelihood of a collision as you drive.

Think about Updating your Vehicle

Consider switching to a safer kind of car if you have the resources to do so. Because they lack all of the current safety systems, older cars are typically more likely to be involved in collisions than newer ones. Simple features like cruise control could stop you from inadvertently exceeding the posted speed limit on the highway, and parking sensors can be especially helpful to ensure that you don't hit anything in your blind spots when you're reversing into a parking place. Additionally, purchasing a newer, safer type of vehicle may result in lower auto insurance costs.

Buy a Dash Camera

While simply having a dashboard camera installed in your car won't reduce your risk of getting into an accident, being extra cautious while driving may be encouraged by the knowledge that it is being constantly recorded.

Additionally, a dash cam can be very helpful if you are the victim of a hit-and-run because there's a potential that it will record the licence plate number of the other car for you if you don't have the time to do so yourself. Dashcam film can be extremely helpful in proving fault and outlining what happened if you need to file an insurance claim or present your case to a car accident attorney.

Drive Slowly into Traffic

Whenever you are entering traffic from a junction, do so slowly and cautiously. Because cars frequently pull out without properly inspecting, junctions are frequently the site of the most collisions. Stop, take a glance around, and pay attention, keeping an eye out for any blind spots in your rearview mirrors, behind windshield pillars, and close by street signs. When turning right, make sure to check both directions at least twice before starting to move. Also, start moving slowly so you have time to stop if a car suddenly emerges in your blind spot.

Utilize the Hands-Free Features

The items in your car can easily cause you to become preoccupied, whether it's your phone ringing in the cup holder or changing the radio station to a different song. Use hands-free functions wherever they are available to help you maintain your hands on the wheel and your eyes on the road. When you want to change the music, answer a call, or turn the radio off, you can do so without having to look at anything thanks to the voice-activated entertainment systems found in some cars. If you frequently use your audio while driving, you might want to consider updating it to one with voice-activated controls even if you aren't in a position to change your car.

Keep your Engine in Good Working Condition

Make sure you avoid accidents by doing routine engine maintenance to prevent abrupt vehicle stalls or leaving your car broken down in the middle of the road. A good time to have your car serviced is in the fall to ensure that it is ready for the incoming winter weather and icy roads. You should take your automobile to an auto technician at least once a year for maintenance.

Maintain correct tyre inflation and regular oil changes. You may purchase a convenient tyre pressure gauge to keep in your car and use it frequently to check if your tyres are losing air. Even though the weather has been dry recently, you never know when you might need to wash your windshield while driving. For example, dirt splashed on your windshield by a passing vehicle can seriously hinder your vision of the road ahead, which is a surefire way to cause an accident.

Don't Tailgate

It can be tempting to narrow the distance between you and the car in front of you to exert pressure on a driver who is moving too slowly, but it's safer for everyone if you wait, avoid tailgating, and maintain a three-second buffer. When it is safe and permitted, only pass them.

When Backing out, look Behind you

It can be simple to fall into the habit of only utilising your rearview mirror when reversing your car or backing out of a parking space, but since parking lot collisions are among of the most frequent incidents, it's always preferable to spin around and get a clearer perspective. As you back out, keep an eye out for any cars that might be leaving neighboring parking spaces or passing, as well as for any people crossing the parking lot on foot.

Don't Rush Things; take your Time

Last but not least, it's a good idea to schedule your travel in advance. If you have an appointment or need to be someplace by a certain time, schedule extra time to arrive so that you don't have to rush. Speeding is one of the biggest causes of accidents, so try to resist the urge to do so even when you're in a rush. It will be lot less stressful if you know you have plenty of time if you get stopped in a traffic jam or behind a slow-moving car. While some automobile accidents cannot be prevented, there are several things a motorist can do to lessen their chance of an accident and increase road safety.

Can you go for a Personal Injury Lawsuit without a Lawyer?

Personal Injury Lawsuit

A person experiences significant bodily and emotional stress as a result of an accident. It drastically alters a person's life, especially if the injuries were severe or left a lasting mark. The physical trauma a person experiences may also have an impact on their psychological reactions. It is crucial to get compensation for negative events that occurred but were not your responsibility. The process of seeking compensation is official and legally binding. Serving the guilty party is one way to demand restitution. Legal action is predicated on the notion that the harm you experienced was the result of someone else's carelessness.

You are fully entitled to make a personal injury claim in the event that something similar occurs. We'll cover crucial queries about submitting a personal injury claim in this article. The most crucial query, regarding a person filing it without the assistance of an attorney, will also receive an answer.

Can you Perform it on your own?

Legally, every citizen has the right to bring a claim against another party for negligence that caused substantial harm. If you choose, you are also allowed to speak for yourself. If you intend to file a claim without the aid of an attorney, you will be responsible for the paperwork, documentation, and hearing and will have to deal with the legalese. You are the one who knows your case the best, so you can represent yourself better if you handle it yourself.

On the other side, if you are unaware of the legal requirements and how the system functions, you may find yourself spending many sleepless hours attempting to understand everything. Serious errors could result, costing you money and valuable time. You cannot afford to make mistakes that could negatively impact your case and render it unrecoverable. Everyone will tell you to get some help, especially if you don't have a background in law.

Even though it is feasible to sue someone without a lawyer, having a lawyer on your side will benefit your case in a number of ways. They will not only iron out all the kinks in your case, but they will also offer you insightful counsel that will be beneficial once the procedures get underway. There are various forms of personal injuries, therefore hiring an attorney for one of them would require a focus on experience and specialization. If you want to speak with injury law firm for advice or legal representation, just click the link.

What Injuries are Eligible for the Claim?

It is advised to review the list of injuries that qualify for a legal claim once before moving forward with the lawsuit. Depending on the severity of the accident's effects, lawyers will typically assist you with the conditions of the claim. However, if you wish to do it yourself, the following is everything that could make you liable:

  • Extensive scarring that completely alters one's appearance from the past. Compensation will also be available for disfigurement.
  • A personal injury claim will also be necessary if a limb or organ is lost. Since they limit a person's ability to live their life without interference, they can be made up for.
  • Loss of a crucial physiological function can also adversely alter one's life, therefore a claim is acceptable.
  • In the event of death, the deceased's next of kin may file on their behalf.

Although these are the most typical instances, there is no absolute standard that determines whether the severity of your harm qualifies for financial compensation. However, it is crucial to have all of the medical documents to demonstrate the whole course of the harm and any potential effects on your everyday life.

What Kind of Compensation are you Entitled to?

You are exerting all of this work in exchange for money. If and when the court rules in your favour, it's critical that you remain clear-headed about what you hope to gain from the claim. It is a good idea to have a broad notion of what you would want out of this entire procedure, even in the case of a settlement.

Fortunately, you can read about comparable cases to see what other people received for claims like yours. If you have made the decision to work independently, gathering appropriate references will be beneficial, particularly when determining the type of financial compensation, you require. In the event that you settle or win the case, you are entitled to the following three types of compensation:

  • Economic Damages: When we discuss economic damages, we only mean the monetary compensation to which a person is legally entitled. It comprises the total cost of any medical expenses and property damage that a person had to pay for. It covers medical expenses, personal property repairs, and all lost income from working when absent due to a major injury. Based on the submitted material, each of these factors may be demonstrated.
  • Non-economic Damages: Non-economic damages are compensation for all mental anguish and physical suffering a person had as a result of their accident-related injuries.

Punitive Damages: If the court rules in your favour, you will only receive punitive damages. These damages are primarily aimed to penalize the opposing party, not to provide compensation.

The Lesson

Knowing the limits of your ability to seek damages and compensation will help you build a compelling case if you decide to go it alone.

Monday, November 14, 2022

Boudica

Boudica

We spell Boudicca as Boadicea or Boudica. This queen of ancient Britain led a mutiny against Roman rule in 60 CE. Prasutagus was the husband of Boudicca. He was the king of the Iceni. In 60, he died with no male heir. So, he left all his wealth to Emperor Nero and his two daughters. He thought that they would win imperial protection for his family.

But it was the Romans who annexed his kingdom. Then, the Romans humiliated his family. Besides, they have plundered the chief tribesmen. In 60 or 61, Suetonius Paulinus, the provincial governor, was absent. Then, she raised a rebellion throughout East Anglia. After that, Camulodunum (Colchester), Verulamium (St. Albans), the mart of Londinium (London), and a few military posts were burned by insurgents. Tacitus, a Roman historian, said her rebels massacred 70,000 Romans and pro-Roman Britons. In addition, the rebels also cut to pieces the Roman 9th Legion.

Her husband had the authority as an independent ally of Rome. Later, he left his kingdom. But he had a will. However, his intention was not fulfilled when he died. As a result, he found his kingdom annexed. They also took the entire wealth. Tacitus said that her daughters got raped, and she was flogged.

Let's know who Boudica is, how she led the Iceni people, how she fought against Suetonius, and how she died.

Who was Boudica?

Queen Boudica was the Celtic Briton king's wife of the Iceni tribe, and we know her as Boadicea or Boudicea in Latin chronicles. She was called Buddug in Welsh.

Queen Boudica History:

We have seen many warriors produced by Britain for a long time. They have fought against enemies so that they can keep their country free. And a lady warrior was there whom we will never forget. She was also one of those who tried to keep Britain free. Her name was Queen Boudica. She was commonly called Boadicea.

She ruled the Iceni tribe of East Anglia with her husband, King Prasutagus. Her appearance was fascinating. Though, She was very tall. She had a distinctive harsh voice. Besides, her reddest hair fell to her hips. In short, she had an impressive appearance.

Suetonius was the Roman Governor of Britain, and he had other plans regarding lands and property. However, after the death of Prasutagus, Roman officers & their slaves plundered all the households and lands.

Later, other Iceni chiefs faced troubles. Besides, their families were also treated like slaves. Britons succeeded at first in an excellent way. The Roman settlement of Camulodunum (Colchester) was under the Britons.

No quarter was given by the Boudica warrior queen and her allies when they won the revolt. Therefore, the defenders fled when Londinium and Verulamium were stormed. In this regard, you should note one thing that we call Londinium, currently London, whereas Verulamium is known as St. Albans. However, after that, they burned the cities.

The Bruins desecrated the Roman cemeteries also. Besides, they mutilated the statues, and a few of these statues are still seen today in Colchester Museum. However, they also broke tombstones.

Early literature:

Her 6th-century work De Excidio et Conquestu Britanniae was an early mention, which was done by the British monk Gildas. You can see a female leader here. Gildas described the character as a "treacherous lioness." People can find references to the uprising of 60/61 in Bede's Ecclesiastical History of the English People (731) and Historia Brittonum, the 9th-century work by the Welsh monk Nennius.

Conclusion:

Gaius Suetonius Paulinus, the Roman governor, was doing campaigns on Mona island, located on the northwest coast of Wales, in 60 or 61. Queen Boudica was the leader of the Iceni and other British tribes. They finished the Camulodunum, which is known as Colchester in recent times. It was the capital of the Trinovantes.

As soon as Suetonius heard of the revolt, he went to Londinium. We currently know Londinium as London. Besides, it was the 20-year-old commercial settlement, the next target of rebels. He didn't have enough numbers to defend the settlement. So, he evacuated the city and left after that.

She was the leader of an army of Iceni, Trinovantes, and others. Not only did she lead them, but she also defeated a detachment of the Legio IX Hispana. In addition, she burnt both Londinium and Verulamium.

Those who were following Boudica killed about 70,000-80,000 Romans and Britons. Later, Suetonius regrouped his forces in the West Midlands. He defeated the Celtic Britons. As a result, Roman emperor Nero withdrew his forces from Britain. However, when Suetonius won against Boudica, it confirmed the Roman control of the province.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. What is Boudicca best known for?

She, who was a warrior queen of the Iceni people, lived in East Anglia, England. In addition, she was the leader of Iceni and other peoples in 60–61 CE against Roman rule in a mutiny. She was defeated at last though her forces massacred 70,000 Romans and their supporters.

Q. How did Boudicca die?

She died after getting defeated in her final battle. It is believed that she took poison or got shocked, so she died. Illness is considered one of the reasons behind her death also.

Q. Where is Boudicca buried?

We still don't know the location of Boudicca's grave. However, the location may be Birdlip in Gloucestershire, Stonehenge, Norfolk, or London's Hampstead area. However, a few people said that the grave could be under a train platform at King's Cross Station in London.

Thursday, October 27, 2022

Roman Mythology

Roman Mythology

Roman mythology is something that can draw directly on Greek mythology as early as Rome's protohistory. Roman people recognized their gods with those of the ancient Greeks. Zeus and Jupiter were related closely. They reinterpreted myths about Greek deities below their Roman counterparts' names. In the modern age, Greek and Roman mythology are categorized as Classical mythology.

Latin literature was famous throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance. Their interpretations of Greek myths could influence narrative and pictorial representations of "classical mythology" more than Greek sources. The Greek myths versions in Ovid's Metamorphoses were written while Augustus was the ruler.

What is Roman Mythology?

The myth body of ancient Rome is shown in the literature and visual arts of the Romans. Besides, it is a famous genre of Roman folklore. It can indicate the modern study of these representations. In addition, it is shown in the literature and art of other cultures in any period. Moreover, it can draw from the mythology of the Italians and Proto-Indo-European mythology.

The Purpose of Myths:

Before knowing about this, you have to understand the concept of a myth. Philip Matyszak described this in his book The Greek and Roman Myths: A Guide to the Classical Roman mythology Stories, where he also talked about the ancient's view of the world. These myths appear as simple stories containing valiant heroes, distressed maidens, and a host of all-powerful gods.

The anthropomorphic gods of the Greeks and Romans exhibit different human qualities, including love, hate, and jealousy. As a result, people living in Rome and Greece could see themselves in the tales and realize their relationship to the remaining world and their connection to the gods. But in this case, you must know that one must fulfill one's destiny with strength, determination, and nobility.

These myths allowed a person to stand against the ills and hardships. According to Matyszak, gods, and humankind must be together to fight against the "monsters and giants."

Nature of Roman Myth:

Rituals played a major role in Roman religion, which myth did for the Greeks. However, people have doubts that Romans had much of a native mythology.

It is a combination of Romanticism and the classical scholarship of the nineteenth century, valued Greek civilization as more "authentically creative." These inspired European paintings from the Renaissance to the eighteenth century.

Remember, this tradition is famous in historical myths or legends. It concerns the rise & foundation of the town. Usually, their primary focus is on human actors with intervention from deities occasionally. Previously, history and myth used to have a mutual and complementary relationship.

There are several sources for Roman myth, including the Aeneid of Virgil, the first few books of Livy's history, and Dionysius's Roman Antiquities. In addition, there are other essential sources, including the Fasti of Ovid. This one is a six-book poem made by the Roman religious calendar and Propertius's fourth book of elegies. Besides, many scenes appear in Roman wall paintings, coins, and sculptures.

Founding Myths:

The best examples of the founding myths are Aeneid and Livy's early history. You can find Trojan prince Aeneas being cast as the husband of Lavinia, the daughter of King Latinus, patronymic ancestor of the Latini. Later, these were adopted as people's mythical ancestors.

Other Roman Mythology Facts:

  • Rape of the Sabine women says how Sabine was important. It shows its importance in the formation of Roman culture and the growth of Rome through conflict & alliance. 
  • Numa Pompilius is Sabine's second king of Rome. He created several legal and religious institutions in Rome. 
  • Servius Tullius is the sixth king of Rome. His mysterious origins were mythologized. Besides, people considered him the lover of the goddess Fortuna. 
  • Lucretia is famous for her self-sacrifice, which prompted the overthrow of the early Roman monarchy. As a result, a republic was established. 
  • Cloelia was a Roman woman taken hostage by Lars Porsena. Besides, she ran away from the Clusian camp with a group of Roman virgins.
  • Mucius Scaevola thrust his right hand into the fire to prove his loyalty to his nation.

Religion and Myth:

Narratives of divine activity are essential in the system of Greek religious belief than among the Romans, who believed ritual and cult as primary.

There was no basis in scriptures and exegesis in this region. You can find that priestly literature was a very old written form of Latin prose.

The oldest pantheon included Janus, Vesta, and a famous Archaic Triad of Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus. Tradition says that Numa Pompilius was Sabine's second king of Rome and established the Roman religion. It was believed that Numa had an adviser, Egeria, a Roman goddess or nymph of fountains and prophecy.

Later Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva replaced the Archaic Triad to capture the center position of official religion. After a while, the cult of Diana was set up on Aventine Hill.

The Aeneid & Aeneas:

An old event to relate to the story was Virgil (Vergil) in his Aeneid. It is the tale that connects with the travels of its hero, the Trojan warrior Aeneas.

The Aeneid needs to exhibit the most challenging expression of Roman mythology. In the story, you learn about the hero who succeeded in running away from Troy with his father and some of his fellow soldiers with his mother's help before the town succumbed to the Greeks.

The people of Rome hinted at the ancient Trojan culture for the story and its connection to the Trojan War. You must remember that Virgil is the source of the story of the Trojan horse. However, it is mentioned in Homer's Odyssey.

Romulus & Remus:

Aeneas's descendants were the founders of the city of his destiny: Rome. Hence, you need to know that Romulus and Remus were the sons of the war god Mars and Rhea Silvia. So, in Roman mythology who was Mars? He was the war god.

Besides, Silvia was the daughter of king Alba Longa, Numitor. Amulius overthrew his brother and attempted to protect his claim to the throne. As a result, he forced Rhea to join the Vestal Virgins.

Once, Mars raped the young Rhea in the sacred woods. King Amulius ordered them to throw her two sons into the Tiber. But a flood caused the two sons to drift ashore at Ficus Ruminalis. Later a she-wolf rescued them. It was the sacred animal of Mars. After a while, Faustulus, a local herdsman, and his wife Acca Larentia adopted the boys.

Later, these two founders become their community leaders while Remus lands in the king's dungeon. Then, Romulus rescued his brother and deposed Amulius with Numitor's help. Then, they also learned who they were. They established a town. But someone killed Remus due to jealousy, and the city became Rome. However, once Romulus won the naming rights, he became the king and ruled Rome for forty years.

Roman Gods & Goddesses in Roman mythology:

You can find proof of many gods and goddesses. Besides, the people of Rome adopted their stories and many gods. It is Greece influenced the Italian peninsula and the Greek culture. Later, the people renamed some gods. Apollo in Roman mythology is the name of a god common to both cultures.

Multiple gods in Rome were connected closely with cults rather than myths before the Greeks association. But these got changed. These people turned from farming to war. At the early stage of the development of Roman mythology, Saturn is equivalent to the Greek god Cronus. There was a temple at the foot of Capitoline Hill, which included the public treasury. Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva were the triad of early Roman cult deities.

While Jupiter is the sky god, he became more akin to the Greek Zeus. Besides, he influenced each aspect of the life of people in Rome. In addition, many commanders choose this temple on Capitoline Hill as the final destination. Who is juno in roman mythology? Regarding Juno Roman mythology, you could know her as his wife and sister. She became reminiscent of Hera.

Conclusion:

Like in Greece, cities in Rome adopted their patron deity. In addition, these established temples and followed rituals to honor God. These people had many gods like Janus. He was the two-faced god of doorways and gates. Like the Etruscan god Culsans, he could see the future and the past. Vesta was Saturn's daughter, along with the hearth and family life. Her followers were known as the Vestal Virgins.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. Who are the 12 major Roman gods?

The twelve gods were: Jupiter, Juno, Mars, Mercury, Neptune, Venus, Apollo, Diana, Minerva, Ceres, Vulcan, and Vesta.

Q. Are Greek and Roman mythology the same?

These share multiple same gods and goddesses in their stories. But the names are mostly different.

Q. Who created it?

Ovid made it.

Friday, October 21, 2022

Rainbow Bridge for Pets

Rainbow Bridge For Pets

You might have heard the "rainbow bridge" term related to a pet's death. It is a poem depending on an afterlife for pets. Besides, it can provide pet parents a hope to reunite with their departed dogs and cats. It refers to the powerful bond between humans and their pets. Therefore, a few people use it to provide compassion to grieving pet owners.

There is even a national remembrance day on its inspiration. The Rainbow Bridge Remembrance Day is held on 28th August per year. So, let's dive into the article to know about the Rainbow Bridge poem for dogs as well as other pets. So, first of all, you should know what it is. Then, you get to know about the poem also. Besides, we will let you know who wrote it.

What is the Rainbow Bridge?

Tom
It is a mythical overpass, a connection between heaven and Earth. You can call it a place where grieving pet owners meet their departed pets. Several pet owners say that they go there while disclosing their pet's death on social media. A pet is like a family member. So losing them is like losing someone from the family.

It is the theme of many works of poetry written in the 1980s and 1990s. The first one is a prose poem whose genuine creator is not fixed. On the other hand, another one is a six-stanza poem of rhyming pentameter couplets. Finally, a couple made it to ease the pain of losing pets.

Who Wrote The Rainbow Bridge Poem?

Tom
A minimum of three men have written a version of the poem, according to The Post. In addition, you can find poems attributed to the "unknown." Remember that the Rainbow Bridge poem has many versions available. Let's see the composition below:

"There is a bridge connecting Heaven and Earth.

It is called the Rainbow Bridge because of all its beautiful colors.

Just this side of the Rainbow Bridge, there is a land of meadows,

hills and valleys with lush green grass.

When a beloved pet dies, the pet goes to this place.

There is always food and water and warm spring weather.

The old and frail animals are young again.

Those who were sick, hurt, or in pain are made whole again.

There is only one thing missing,

they are not with their special person who loved them so much on Earth.

So each day, they run and play until the day comes.

When one suddenly stops playing and looks up!

The nose twitches! The ears are up!

The eyes are staring, and this one runs from the group!

You have been seen, and when you and your special friend meet,

you take him in your arms and hug him.

He licks and kisses your face again and again—

And you look once more into the eyes of your best friend and trusting pet.

Then you cross the Rainbow Bridge together, never again to be apart."

Rainbow Bridge Story:

Tom Happy to See! Painful to Feel!!
If a pet dies that someone used to treat with the utmost care, it will go to Rainbow Bridge. Hills and meadows give company to our pets by running and playing with them. Many foods, water, and sunshine are available. In addition, our special friends feel comfortable.

Pets like dogs, & cats, and other animals who are old and ill for some periods are restored to health. Pets are happy. But they miss their beloved ones whom they must leave behind.

All of them run & play together. But one day comes when the owner dies and arrives at the meadow. Then, his pet stops running and sniffs the air. After that, he sees the distance between him and his owner.

The bright eyes are intent, and the eager body quivers. After that, your special friend starts running from the group. Then, he flies over the green grass. He runs quicker with his legs. Being an owner, your friend and you will enjoy the reunion while meeting finally. You will enjoy the happy kisses of your pet on your face. Besides, you will caress the pet's head and look at his eyes. These moments could never go from your heart as these things were missing on Earth.

Background:

Tom Birthday
It is a total paradise concept where pets wait for their best friends, owners, who come later in the meadows in Margaret Marshall Saunders' book Beautiful Joe's Paradise. Regarding green land, pets don't wait for their owners. But they learn and grow together. In addition, they recover themselves from the unfair treatment.

There was a post where it was mentioned first on the newsgroup rec.pets.dogs, dated 7th January 1993, quoting the poem from a 1992 (or earlier) issue of the Mid-Atlantic Great Dane Rescue League Newsletter. According to other posts from 1993, it was set up and circulated online then.

In philosophy:

Tom Birthday

You may use Lesser Heaven in metaphysics and theology to respond to the issue of animal suffering. It is an attempted rebuttal to the Heaven Theodicy.

The Bottom Line:

Tom Beach Visit
Nowadays, people of all types accept widely that all animals can cross the Rainbow Bridge and make it to heaven. Suppose an animal doesn't have an owner. In such cases, we assume that they go to heaven directly. Rainbow Bridge is for pets who are willing to cross it with their alive human companions. We never want to lose an animal as they are remarkable human friends. It is all that you can learn about the term.

Frequently Asked Questions:

  • Q. What does crossing the Rainbow Bridge mean?

Once you lose your pet, you will hear the term. For example, the Rainbow Bridge is a mythical overpass that links heaven and Earth. In short, this one is a location where pet owners meet their departed pets or special friends.

  • Q. Is the Rainbow Bridge just for dogs?

It is accepted widely for all animals, not only for dogs and cats. So all can cross and make it heaven.

Q. Is the Rainbow Bridge for humans?

It is a meadow where pets wait for their companions to join them.

Monday, October 10, 2022

The City of David - History Mystery

City of David

The City of David is a very famous excavation site in Jerusalem. About one million people visit this National Park every year. It is an archaeological site that reveals the birthplace of Jerusalem. This place allows you to experience ancient Jerusalem.

You can enjoy Warren’s Shaft, old water systems like Hezekiah’s Tunnel and the Second Temple Shiloah pool. Besides, the location can offer extra family-friendly attractions, festivals, concerts, guided tours etc during festivals. You can see old stories taking shape and coming to life before their eyes. Is Jerusalem the City Of David? Let's know about it.

What is the City of David?

The City of David is a biblical and religious epithet of the old city of Jerusalem. It can denote an archaeological location linked with ancient Jerusalem. This name indicates an archaeological site is considered by most scholars. It is the actual settlement core of Jerusalem during the Bronze and Iron Ages. This location is located on the southern part of the eastern ridge of ancient Jerusalem, West of the Kidron Valley and east of the Tyropoeon valley, to the immediate south of the Temple Mount.

It is an important part of biblical archeology. People found the rest of the defensive network around the Gihon Spring back to the Middle Bronze Age. In addition, people continued using them throughout subsequent periods.

Two monumental Iron Age structures are called the Large Stone Structure and the Stepped Stone Structure. A debate between scholars is that if these can be identified with David or dated to a later period. It is home to the Siloam Tunnel, made by Hezekiah during the late eighth century BCE in preparation for an Assyrian siege.

But according to the current excavations at the site, it has an old origin in the late 9th or early 8th century BCE. Besides, other remaining spots include the Pool of Siloam, and the Stepped Street stretches from the pool to the Temple Mount.

Nowadays, the excavated parts of the archeological site belong to the Jerusalem Walls National Park. Israel Nature and Parks Authority manage the site, on the other hand the Ir David Foundation operates it. This place is located in Wadi Hilweh, an extension of the Palestinian neighborhood of Silwan, East Jerusalem, intertwined with an Israeli settlement.

Where is the City Of David?

It is located on a rocky spur south of the Temple Mount and outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem. The place is located as the southeastern ridge of old Jerusalem. Descending from the Dung Gate, the hill goes toward the Gihon Spring and the Pool of Siloam. It is a portion of the Palestinian neighborhood and former village of Silwan. The position was on the slopes of the southern part of the Mount of Olives, east of the City of David.

The village expanded West and crossed the valley to the eastern hill in the 20th century. Before 1948, it was called Wadi al-Nabah in Arabic. Later, it was renamed to Wadi al-Hilweh after the wife of the local mukhtar who was killed in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.

Naming of City of David:

The origin of the term is in the biblical narrative where David, the Israelite king, conquers Jerusalem, called Jebus, from the Jebusites. His conquest is described two times in the Bible— in the Books of Samuel and the Books of Chronicles. These versions vary in specific details.

The Bible's reliability for the period's history is one debate topic among scholars. The Hebrew Bible says that the name was applied to Jerusalem after its conquest by David c. 1000 BCE. Ensure that you must not confuse its name with the new organization. It displays tiny excavated portions of the bigger town.

Israeli authorities denote this town as the City of David, while most Palestinian Arab residents mean this as Wadi al-Hilweh. Rannfrid Thelle wrote that the title favors the Jewish national agenda. In addition, it appeals to Christian supporters.

It is older than the Old City of Jerusalem. You need to walk for two minutes from the Western Wall, the location of the ancient city in Biblical studies. It makes this town an important archaeological site in Israel. Remember that it is the location of the biggest number of archaeological expeditions.

Several Attractions for the Whole Family:

The City of David National Park Visitor Center can provide different attractions, tours, and surprises. These are unavailable anywhere. You can take a walking tour through an old underground water tunnel and have an archaeological experience at the Emek Tzurim National Park sifting project. In addition, you can enjoy the nighttime presentation Hallelujah. It takes help of progressed projection technology to ask about the old Jerusalem story. Besides, it may be a famous tourist attraction for families. This location is full of different visitor's centers, 3D exhibitions, and so on.

The Revival of the City Of David Jerusalem:

Ir David Foundation, called Elad, is a Hebrew acronym indicating the city of David. It was set up in1986 to strengthen the Jewish connection to Jerusalem. The foundation wants to set up and renew the Jewish community in the town. In 1991, a new Jewish community emerged. Until now, about 30 Jewish families have appeared alongside the Arab families there.

Archaeological Sites:

The Gihon Spring: You can see this lying on Jerusalem's southeastern hill of the eastern slope aka the City of David. It is why the town first emerged at this certain spot.

You should remember that above it was found a vast town wall. People use this to identify the old settlement's place. The old water systems which are attached to the Gihon Spring are natural, masonry-built, and rock-cut structures, such as:

The Spring Tower: It is a natural shaft that people thought of as a water supply system. Besides, people thought that it couldn't be accessed during the time attributed to King David.

The Siloam Channel: It is a Canaanite (Bronze Age) water system that preceded the Siloam Tunnel. This one is called Hezekiah's Tunnel. It is an Iron Age water supply system where you found the Siloam inscription.

The Siloam Pool: There are two pools attached and the upper one comes from the Byzantine time at the Siloam Tunnel's entryway. The other one is the lower pool founded recently. It is dated to the Hasmonean portion of the Second Temple Period.

Giv'ati Parking Lot excavations: It extends over an area of about 5 dunams (1.2 acres). 

Many built structures exist within the area and these are spread over excavated sections— Area A, B, C ... including:

  • The Large Stone Structure 
  • The Stepped Stone Structure 
  • City walls and towers, houses, a columbarium, 
  • The Jerusalem Water Channel, a large drainage system 
  • A monumental stepped street. Second Temple-period pilgrims use it. 
In addition, this one is made over the Jerusalem Water Channel.

Other Locations:

King's Garden (excavated by Bliss and Dickie).

Excavations and Scholarly Views:

The old site of the town depends on a long spur facing north-south. Besides, it extends outside the wall of the old town, south of its southeastern corner, in the southern part of the eastern ridge adjacent to the Gihon Spring. You should know that it can reveal a lot of interesting archeological finds of the old world. However, the spot is an activity center.

Keep in mind that it was an old epicenter of Jerusalem. Its boundaries are expanded from the Temple Mount north and southward to the Pool of Siloam. It includes the place marking Kidron brook in the east and near dale in the West.

The settlement started in the Chalcolithic period and the Early Bronze Age.

However, it isn't called by the name. According to the Old Testament, Jebus was exchanged by this name after the conquest of Jerusalem. Solomon, son of David, stretched the wall to the north. Then, he included the Temple Mount area, where he made an edifice for the God of his fathers. The town started expanding westward beyond the dale from the eighth century BCE.

People are able to recognize the site on the hill southeast of the Old City with Jebus and later the Jerusalem City of David. It started in the late 19th century with the excavations of Charles Warren and Hermann Guthe. The 1909–11 work of Louis-Hugues Vincent and Montagu Brownlow Parker detected the oldest popular settlement traces in the Jerusalem region. It suggested that the place was an ancient settlement core in Jerusalem back to the Bronze Age. In 2015, a report on Israeli archaeology asked that the National tAcademy of Sciences criticize the political use of archeology.

Finds by Period:

Chalcolithic (4500–3500 BCE):

The remaining Chalcolithic comes with bits of pottery found in clefts in the bedrock by Macalister and Duncan. It set up different places where the bedrock had been cut in other methods.

Early Bronze Age (3500–2350 BCE):

Pieces of pottery have been found.

Middle Bronze Age (2000–1550 BCE):

Jerusalem is mentioned in Egyptian texts from the 19th–18th centuries BCE.

Late Bronze Age (1550–1200 BCE):

The Canaanite city wall faces the Kidron Valley.

Conclusion:

It is the actual hilltop. King David dedicated old Jerusalem upon this as his capital 3,000 years ago. A report leaked in 2018 asked that the European Union become a tourist place. According to the statement of Rafi Greenberg, archaeological practice is subsumed entirely by political and corporate motivations.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. Which city is called the City of David?

Jerusalem is acquainted as the City of David.

Q. Where is the City of David now?

The city of David today is southeast of the Old City, on Ophel Hill near the Western Wall. This one is now below the Arab village of Silwan.

Q. What religion is the City of David?

The Jewish community is the religion that is aimed to be established.

Thursday, September 22, 2022

Persephone- Queen of UnderWorld; History Mystery

Persephone

The very first question which can arise in your mind is, who is Persephone? She is the daughter of Demeter and Zeus. Besides, she was the Queen of the Underworld. In addition, she was the wife of Hades. So, is Persephone a fertility goddess?

While she was a fertility goddess, she was also a dual deity. But her husband Hades abducted her. This myth was often used to explain the cycle of the seasons. Persephone, the greek goddess, and her mother were the central characters of the Eleusinian mysteries. Let's dive into the article to know Persephone Hades and their story.

Persephone's Role:

She was popular among various names in Ancient Greece. But the recent scholarly consensus is that all suggest a Pre-Greek origin of the word and the goddess. Besides, it is also the name of the Roman counterpart. Therefore, it may have a Greek dialectical origin. However, the Romans believed that the Latin Proserpere was the source of the term. It means "to shoot/creep forth," a verb related to the germination of plants. Being the daughter of Demeter, she was famous as Kore Persephone, meaning simply "the girl" or "the maiden."

Persephone's Portrayal and Symbolism:

She was a venerable queen in Classical Greek Persephone art where she got robbed and carried a scepter & a sheaf of wheat. In such cases, Demeter, Persephone's mother, is the one who carries the scepter and the sheaf. Besides, she holds a four-tipped torch used in the Eleusinian mysteries.

Regarding Persephone and Pomegranate story, you can see her holding a pomegranate – or even a seed of a pomegranate. It indicates her marriage with Hades and the Underworld. The horn of plenty is also connected to her. Hence, the goddess of fertility is the Persephone symbol.

Persephone's Epithets:

She was the Queen of the Underworld. Therefore, people got frightened of her. That's why she had many friendly names. While a few people called her "The Maiden," a few called her "The Mistress."

In addition, she was popular as "The Pure One," "The Venerable One," and "The Great Goddess." Her bonding with her mother was so close that people referred to Demeter and Persephone as "The Two Demeters" or "The Two Goddesses."

The Abduction of Persephone

The most famous Persephone myth is the story of her abduction. So let's know about hades and Persephone.

Persephone and Hades:

Queen of UnderWorld

Hades, the ruler of the Underworld, decided to marry her. She is the only daughter of his sister Demeter. One day, she went with her maidens to collect flowers in the Nysian meadow. But suddenly, she smelt the fragrance of a beautiful flower. Due to the blooming of the flower, she got separated from her maidens. Once she went to pluck the flower, the ground below her feet opened up. Hades came before her with his majesty in his four-horse golden chariot. Then, he snatched her and took her to his Underworld to make her Queen and his wife.

As a result, Demeter wasn't very pleased when she knew about this incident from Hecate and Helios. Therefore she started wandering around. After that, Zeus, Persephone's father, sent Hermes to the Underworld to fetch his daughter to Demeter. But Hades tricked her by giving her a pomegranate seed to taste before leaving the Underworld. Therefore, as per the ancient laws, she remained in the Underworld.

Anthesphoria:

It is a religious festival held in Ancient Greece in honor of Persephone's return from the Underworld. Once she ate the pomegranate seeds, she was forced to spend one-third of the year there. She allotted two-thirds of the year aboveground only. It was held in various regions throughout the ancient world, where every festival comes with its distinct customs and rituals.

The Athenian Anthesphoria was beautiful and allowed flowers & music to commemorate the return of the goddess of springtime. It was famous for its beauty. In addition, other festivals like the Sicilian Anthesphoria celebrated the day more precisely. However, even it was one of the vital celebrations of the year.

The Rape of Proserpina is called the Abduction of Proserpina. It is a giant Baroque marble group sculpture by Italian artist Gian Lorenzo Bernini. Execution of the sculpture occurs between 1621 and 1622, the beginning stage of Bernini's career. This sculpture depicts the abduction of Proserpina.

Persephone in Other Myths:

It was the living world where she used to spend her time. But all myths related to her occur in the Underworld.

Persephone and Adonis:

Adonis's tale copies her destiny. In this case, you can find Aphrodite and her falling in love with the same mortal. It is Adonis, a handsome young man. They couldn't agree on who deserved him more. Zeus divided his time between the Underworld and the upper world.

But Adonis indeed loved Aphrodite more. Therefore, when the time came, he didn't want to return to her kingdom. Later, Adonis died in Aphrodite's arms. Then, he got transformed into the anemone flower. But after that, the goddess of the Underworld sent a wild boar to kill him.

Persephone and Minthe:

You can't see any mention of Hades and Persephone's children. But because of this reason, she didn't have any issues with Hades' fidelity, unlike her celestial counterpart Hera. The story of the nymph Minthe is one of the few half-exceptions. Hence, you should know that Minthe may have been Hades' mistress before her abduction. Minthe boasted that she was once far more beautiful than his new lover. Therefore, Minthe can win Hades again any day. But she transformed Minthe into the mint plant. It ensures that such a thing won't happen again.

Persephone and Hades

Persephone the Influential Queen:

He differed from Hera in an even more essential manner. But unlike Hera, she was not Hades' consort.

Persephone and the Visiting Heroes:

She was reported as the sole maker of essential decisions related to mortals if it let Orpheus leave Hades with Eurydice or Heracles with Cerberus. In addition, she allows Sysiphus to return to his wife, agreeing to the Admetus/Alcestis soul swap. Besides, she granted Teiresias the privilege of retaining his intelligence in Hades.

The king of Lapiths is Pirithous. He attempted to abduct her with his friend Theseus. But the plan got changed. At last, he got a permanent position in Hades always.

The bottom line:

People can find the entire story of her abduction in the "Homeric Hymn to Demeter." Besides, you can find other exciting transformation myths in the fifth book of Ovid's "Metamorphoses." it is all about Persephone's story.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Q. Who was she?

Alongside being the daughter of Demeter & Zeus and the wife of Hades, she was the Queen of the Underworld and the fertility goddess.

  • Q. What did she rule over?

She ruled over the Underworld and Mount Olympus.

  • Q. Where did she live?

Her home was Hades.

  • Q. Who were her parents?

Her parents were Zeus and Demeter.

  • Q. Who were her brothers and sisters?

She had fourteen siblings: Arion, Philomelus, Eubuleus, Aphrodite, Dionysus, Helen, Hephaestus, Heracles, Hermes, Perseus, The Graces, The Horae, The Muses, and The Fates.

Sunday, September 18, 2022

Jason: Ancient Greek Mythological Hero

Jason: Ancient Greek Mythological Hero

Jason, an unconventional hero, was the leader of the Argonautic Expedition. As he was the son of Aeson and Alcimede, he should get his father's position on the throne of Iolcus. But his half-uncle Pelias usurped the position. His uncle feared for his life if Jason could attack him for the ancient prophecy. So, Pelias planned to keep him away from Iolcusas far as possible. So, Pelias ordered him to fetch the Golden Fleece from the King Aeetes of Colchis, one of the impossible things to do during that period.

He had a ship, Argo, where he assembled some great heroes of his time. Argonauts, a team of the greatest heroes, retrieved the Golden Fleece after an exhausting expedition beset by giants & monsters and brought that back to Iolcus.

Aeson's son got immense help from a goddess (Hera), the members of his crew, and King Aeetes' daughter, Medea. She left everything behind to be with him. However, after some years, he deserted her for Corinth's princess, Creusa. But she could not tolerate the betrayal and murdered both Creusa and her two sons by Aeson's son.

Although his parents sent him to the Centaur Chiron, Jason returned to claim the throne. But he was ordered to fetch the Fleece and took it away with the help of the enchantress Medea. After their return, she murdered Pelias. But Pelias' son drove them out. As a result, they had to take refuge with King Creon of Corinth. However, later, he deserted Medea for Creon's daughter. His desertion and the results are popular as Euripides' Medea. 

Ancient Greek Mythological Hero Jason:

Nickname: "Amechanos"

Family:-

Father: Aeson;

Ancestor: Aeolus;

Maternal great-grandfather: Hermes

Who Was Jason?

He was an ancient Greek mythological hero. Besides, he was the leader of the Argonauts. In addition, he was the son of Aeson, the original king of Iolcos. Moreover, he was the great-grandson of the messenger god Hermes on his maternal side.

The Argonauts and the Quest for the Golden Fleece:

He assembled the greatest heroes of that time. They are famous as the Argonauts after their ship, the Argo. These are the names of the heroes, including:-

  • Acastus; 
  • Admetus; 
  • Argus, the eponymous builder of the Argo; 
  • Atalanta; 
  • Augeas; 
  • The winged Boreads, Zetes & Calaïs; 
  • The Dioscuri, Castor & Polydeuces; 
  • Euphemus; 
  • Heracles; 
  • Idas; 
  • Idmon, the seer; 
  • Lynceus; 
  • Meleager; 
  • Orpheus; 
  • Peleus; 
  • Philoctetes; 
  • Telamon; and 
  • Tiphys, the helmsman

Jason's Early Life:

He was born in the mid-term while a war was running inside his family for the throne of Iolcus. Later, he returned to Lolcos after being raised by the Centaur Chiron to claim his position on the throne. But Pelias sent him away to fetch Golden Fleece, an impossible task.

Pelias Usurping the Throne of Iolcus:

Although Jason was Aeson's son, king of Iolcus, it was uncertain who his mother was. But it might be Alcimede, the daughter of Clymene, or Polymede, one of Autolycus' daughters.

Pelias killed all the kids of Aeson but failed to kill Jason. Therefore when he was a baby, his parents sent him to the Centaur Chiron, who nurtured him into adulthood.

Jason Returning to Iolcus:

Once, Pelias held some games in honor of the god Poseidon. The son of Aeson attended these games. But while helping a disguised Hera to cross, he lost one of his sandals in the river Anaurus. In this regard, you should know that Hera was a goddess who hated Pelias because he neglected to honor her. So, she blessed the son of Aeson at that moment. She turned him into an instrument to bring Pelias' demise soon. As soon as he appeared in front of Pelias to introduce himself, the original heir of Aeson, Pelias recognized the danger. Pelias asked him about his contribution to the emperor. So, Pelias told him that if he could fetch the Golden Fleece to Iolcus, he would step down from the throne to allow him to hand over the position.

Jason and Argonauts:

He gladly accepted the task of bringing the Golden Fleece from Colchis to Iolcus. So, he began his journey with the Argonauts after his ship, Argo. He, with his heroes, met with multiple adventures and perils.

At Colchis: Aeetes' Tasks:

They reached Colchis. After that, the king of Aeetes welcomed them. He saw the Golden Fleece in possession of the king. Phrixus gifted the golden Fleece to the king while arriving there on a flying golden ram years before. Then, the king said he would give it to him if he completed some tasks in a single day.

Fortunately, there was Hera, his guardian-goddess, to help him in every step of his journey. During that time, Medea, Aeetes' daughter, fell in love with him because of Hera. Along with being a princess, she was a high priestess of Hecate.

What was Jason first task?

His first task was to plow a field from end to end with the help of two angry bulls. Jason promised Medea that he would marry her once the expedition was over. She gave him an ointment to keep him secured from the fire. As a result, he became practically invulnerable. After that, he flew the field and yoked the bulls using the balm.

What was Jason second task?

The second job was to sow the dragon's teeth in the plowed field. It might appear a simple task to do. But once it got completed, an army of stone warriors would spring out from the earth. However, Medea knew the solution and prepared him according to it. He followed her advice and flung a rock amid those warriors. The warriors didn't know who had thrown it. So, they turned on each other and began fighting. By the Sunset, he remained the one who was still alive on the field.

But still, the king did not want to hand over the Golden Fleece. Instead, he planned to kill Aeson's son and the Argonauts with the leading men of Colchis during the night. However, Medea realized it and fled from her father. Then, she joined the Argonauts to direct them to the Golden Fleece. It was hung from a sacred oak tree, and a sleepless dragon was on guard. Then she used her spells and drugs to make the dragon fall asleep. Finally, the time was sufficient for him to snatch the Fleece and carry it back to his ship.

Jason and Medea:

She helped him to extinguish Talos, the giant bronze man. Besides, she killed her brother also. In simple words, she was fully committed to him. But still, he betrayed Medea and married another woman. However, her revenge was both tragic and gruesome.

Conclusion— The Death of Jason:

According to a few people, he killed himself. But others told another story regarding his death. In the latter period, Hera stopped doing any favor to him after when he broke his vows to Medea. It seemed like he was only a captain that he had been once. While sleeping under the stern of his ship, a rotten beam fell on him, causing his death.