Wednesday, May 27, 2020

Galaxy – XMM-2599: Dead Monster Galaxy in Distant Universe

Galaxy – XMM-2599

Ultra-Massive Giant Galaxy – XMM-2599

According to reports, astronomers are anxious regarding an ultra-massive giant galaxy which dates back to the ancient days of the universe. It has been named XMM-2599. Astronomers are of the opinion that the galaxies lived fast and died young. If one tends to gaze at the night sky with a telescope and see beyond the naked eye, they will see numerous stars which are in fact imposters. Several of these points of light are in fact galaxies which are a collection of millions and trillions of stars. Galaxies are formation of stars, dark matter and dust which are held together through gravity. Astronomers are uncertain on the formation of galaxies.

Some of the astronomers are of the opinion that gravity tends to pull dust and gas together for the formation of single star. These stars then have a tendency to draw closer into collection which eventually become galaxies. Several of the galaxies tend to have black holes towards the centre which produces a great amount of energy. This can be seen by the astronomers over great distances. A galaxy’s central black hole, in some instance is extremely big or active even in the case of comparatively small galaxies.

Galaxy – XMM-2599 in Existence – 2 Billion Years Ago

The giant galaxy XMM-2599 had been in existence around 12 billion years back. According to data and measurement astronomers taken, utilising W. M. Keck Observatory’s Multi-Object Spectrograph for Infrared Exploration, it has rapidly moulded into a bunch of stars and died. It is unknown why the galaxy seemed to die down. The astronomers have concluded that the cause of its death is unclear though there could be numerous possible explanations.

Its expiry seems surprising since the galaxy passed away during a time when the other galaxies seemed to be stirring out stars in enormous masses. The observatory is located in the proximity of the summit of the dormant Mauna Kea volcano in Hawaii. Benjamin Forrest, lead study author and postdoctoral researcher in the University of California, Riverside’s Department of Physics and Astronomy had commented that the galaxy had been in existence much before the universe was 2 billion years old and XMM-2599 had already moulded into a mass of over 300 billion suns, thus making it an ultra-massive galaxy.

Descendent –Population of High Star Formation

The galaxy at its peak had the capability of creating over 1,000 solar masses comprising of stars in a given year. This is considered to be an incredible high rate of formation of stars in comparison to its own galaxy, the Milky Way - its one new star each year. Strangely, XMM-2599 formed several of its stars in a massive state when the universe seemed to be less than a billion years old. By the time, the universe became 1.8 billion years old, it seemed to be inactive.

According to the opinion of Danilo Marchesini, study co-author and an associate professor of astronomy at Tufts University in Massachusetts, XMM-2599 could have been a descendent from a population of high star formation, dusty galaxies in the initial stage of the universe which the new infrared telescopes have recently revealed.

Galaxy – XMM-2599 Caught in Inactive Phase

However astronomers are uncertain on how the massive galaxy could have evolved. In comparison to the other known galaxies in size, this formation seems strange. XMM-2599, based on their models could still be forming stars. Gillian Wilson, professor of physics and astronomy at the University of California, Riverside Forrest informed the amazing fact that XMM-2599 seemed interesting and unusual since it had stopped forming stars probably due to its restriction in obtaining fuel or its black hole seemed to turn on.

He further added that results call for changes in how models turn off star formation in early galaxies. XMM-2599 has been caught in its inactive phase. Astronomers are now speculating on what would happen now that the galaxy is no longer forming stars anymore and is unable to lose mass. Wilson is contemplating that as time goes by, its gravitational attraction of nearby stars could help in formation of galaxies and end up being a bright city of galaxies.

Answers – Ultra Massive Giant Galaxy

It is essential to note that when we gaze at distant areas of space, we tend to peer back in time due to the time light it takes in reaching us and hence the giant galaxy has now met its fate A professor of astronomy and co-author at UC Irvine stated that this the result could be a strong possibility. Cooper commented that perhaps during the following 11.7 billion years of cosmic history, XMM-2599 would be the central member of one of the brightest and most massive clusters of galaxies in the local universe. Moreover, it could continue to exist in isolation.

Alternatively, we could have a scenario which would lie between these two results. The astronomers have been permitted additional time limit at the observatory in order to carry out their research on the complex galaxy. They are waiting in anticipation in discovering the answers to their various question with regards to the ultra-massive giant galaxy.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

All about Remote Proctoring You Should Know

All about Remote Proctoring You Should Know
Due to the trend of digitalization, every sector is focused to shift themselves towards it. Today, if any person or sector does not shift towards it will be considered as outdated. Not only this, but they will also not be able to compete in the market as the person who doesn't change himself cannot stand in the future. The same is the case with the educational sector. It is shifting gradually towards digitalization. Today, the trend of distance learning is decreasing and, in its place,, online teaching is trending. And the educational institutions which don't have modern and advanced technology are suffering. For example, due to COVID-19, the studies of the students are being affected as the schools or colleges don't have the technology or if they have the technology then there are no skilled persons to operate that. It is the major reason why it is important to upgrade to advance technology.

Now, the problem in online teaching arises when the students can't be monitored which means they can do whatever they want during online classes. They strikingly escape the classes or show their presence when they are not even there. And the bigger problem is cheating during online exams. Online exams cannot be taken without proper surveillance as students can use books or phones for the answers or it might be possible that someone else gives the exam in place of the student. Hence, to resolve all these problems the concept of remote proctoring is established. It is reaching and gauging the students without any geographical boundaries with the help of computers and high-speed internet.

In simple words, it is keeping an eye on the students every activity during the online exams to prevent cheating. It also helps to know the identity of the person with the help of a webcam. Its main purpose is to keep the sanctity of the exams alive and to prevent cheating. The person who is responsible for the surveillance of exams and monitoring the activities of students is known as proctor.

Working of online remote proctoring: - 

  • It is a double-sided affair, on which one side there is the candidate and the other side proctor or invigilator. It is important to have computers with internet for controlling the online test efficiently.
  • After ensuring with essentials, the candidate is supposed to fill all the informative fields related to his biodata i.e. Name, Roll No., etc.
  • After that candidate is supposed to submit an identity proof. This will help to recognize the facial features with the identity so that no other person can come to give the exam.
  • After that, the exam commences, and the proctor can keep an eye on every candidate with the help of a webcam.
  • There is a chatbox with the help of which any further information can be conveyed to candidates.
  • If any sceptical activity is noticed, then the proctor has the right to take action accordingly.
  • The exam gets submitted spontaneously once the candidate ran out of time. He can also submit it before the time.
  • The result is reflected on the screen, once the exam is submitted.
Types of online remote proctoring are:-

  • Live online proctoring: - In this, there is no restriction of location. Candidate can give tests from any place. The proctor is obliged to look after the activities using audio and visual devices. Any candidate suspicious of being involved in cheating can be disqualified from the exam.
  • Recorded proctoring: - In this, instead of monitoring the students while they give the test, they are reviewed afterward. The proctor is supposed to examine the recorder audio-video and mark it with a red flag where there is any doubtful activity.
  • Advance automated proctoring: - It is the most advanced form of proctoring as in this no proctor is required to examine the candidates. As the recorded audio-video is later on monitored by the audio-video analytics system.
Cases where online remote proctoring is used: - 

  • University: - The teachers in colleges or universities can use this advanced technology for keeping track of the students while examination. This will lower the burden of exam printing, making sitting arrangements for the students. This will also save a lot of paper and the teacher's efforts to check the answer sheets. They can also set up online entrance exams and this will help in saving time and cost of students.
  • Companies: - This concept will also be very beneficial for the companies as they can conduct the online test and can shortlist the candidates for the interview. This will save their cost as setting up the exam for recruitment of candidates cost a lot not only in terms of money but also in terms of time.
  • Certification programs: - Certification programs are taking the greatest advantage of remote proctoring. As they provide certificates programs at a lower cost and even to the students who cannot afford to travel or pay the fee.
  • Government: - Even the government is using this concept to conduct exams or recruit candidates.
Advantages of remote proctoring are: -

  • No need for exam centre: - It has helped in doing away with exam centre or hall. No hall needs to be booked now as students can give an exam sitting at their home.
  • No requirement of physical proctoring: - Remote proctoring has eliminated the need for physical monitoring i.e. there is no need to invigilate the candidates physically. It can be done online having real-time access.
  • Simplified exam of scheduling: - Earlier, there is a fixed time and place to give the exam. But now, it can be given at flexible hours and can be monitored easily with the help of webcams.
  • Advance exam security: - In the traditional examination system, there needs to be strict invigilation and supervision and still, there are chances of cheating. Now the concept of auto proctoring has made it easy to monitor the examination and reduces the chances of cheating.
  • Now candidates do not need to travel to examination centres. It saves time, energy, and efforts.
Across the board analysis, it can be said that it is the best and secure way of supervision and monitoring the online exams. Hence, more and more educational institutions should adopt it so that its benefits can be taken at difficult times like the COVID-19 pandemic.