Thursday, October 27, 2022

Roman Mythology

Roman Mythology

Roman mythology is something that can draw directly on Greek mythology as early as Rome's protohistory. Roman people recognized their gods with those of the ancient Greeks. Zeus and Jupiter were related closely. They reinterpreted myths about Greek deities below their Roman counterparts' names. In the modern age, Greek and Roman mythology are categorized as Classical mythology.

Latin literature was famous throughout the Middle Ages and into the Renaissance. Their interpretations of Greek myths could influence narrative and pictorial representations of "classical mythology" more than Greek sources. The Greek myths versions in Ovid's Metamorphoses were written while Augustus was the ruler.

What is Roman Mythology?

The myth body of ancient Rome is shown in the literature and visual arts of the Romans. Besides, it is a famous genre of Roman folklore. It can indicate the modern study of these representations. In addition, it is shown in the literature and art of other cultures in any period. Moreover, it can draw from the mythology of the Italians and Proto-Indo-European mythology.

The Purpose of Myths:

Before knowing about this, you have to understand the concept of a myth. Philip Matyszak described this in his book The Greek and Roman Myths: A Guide to the Classical Roman mythology Stories, where he also talked about the ancient's view of the world. These myths appear as simple stories containing valiant heroes, distressed maidens, and a host of all-powerful gods.

The anthropomorphic gods of the Greeks and Romans exhibit different human qualities, including love, hate, and jealousy. As a result, people living in Rome and Greece could see themselves in the tales and realize their relationship to the remaining world and their connection to the gods. But in this case, you must know that one must fulfill one's destiny with strength, determination, and nobility.

These myths allowed a person to stand against the ills and hardships. According to Matyszak, gods, and humankind must be together to fight against the "monsters and giants."

Nature of Roman Myth:

Rituals played a major role in Roman religion, which myth did for the Greeks. However, people have doubts that Romans had much of a native mythology.

It is a combination of Romanticism and the classical scholarship of the nineteenth century, valued Greek civilization as more "authentically creative." These inspired European paintings from the Renaissance to the eighteenth century.

Remember, this tradition is famous in historical myths or legends. It concerns the rise & foundation of the town. Usually, their primary focus is on human actors with intervention from deities occasionally. Previously, history and myth used to have a mutual and complementary relationship.

There are several sources for Roman myth, including the Aeneid of Virgil, the first few books of Livy's history, and Dionysius's Roman Antiquities. In addition, there are other essential sources, including the Fasti of Ovid. This one is a six-book poem made by the Roman religious calendar and Propertius's fourth book of elegies. Besides, many scenes appear in Roman wall paintings, coins, and sculptures.

Founding Myths:

The best examples of the founding myths are Aeneid and Livy's early history. You can find Trojan prince Aeneas being cast as the husband of Lavinia, the daughter of King Latinus, patronymic ancestor of the Latini. Later, these were adopted as people's mythical ancestors.

Other Roman Mythology Facts:

  • Rape of the Sabine women says how Sabine was important. It shows its importance in the formation of Roman culture and the growth of Rome through conflict & alliance. 
  • Numa Pompilius is Sabine's second king of Rome. He created several legal and religious institutions in Rome. 
  • Servius Tullius is the sixth king of Rome. His mysterious origins were mythologized. Besides, people considered him the lover of the goddess Fortuna. 
  • Lucretia is famous for her self-sacrifice, which prompted the overthrow of the early Roman monarchy. As a result, a republic was established. 
  • Cloelia was a Roman woman taken hostage by Lars Porsena. Besides, she ran away from the Clusian camp with a group of Roman virgins.
  • Mucius Scaevola thrust his right hand into the fire to prove his loyalty to his nation.

Religion and Myth:

Narratives of divine activity are essential in the system of Greek religious belief than among the Romans, who believed ritual and cult as primary.

There was no basis in scriptures and exegesis in this region. You can find that priestly literature was a very old written form of Latin prose.

The oldest pantheon included Janus, Vesta, and a famous Archaic Triad of Jupiter, Mars, and Quirinus. Tradition says that Numa Pompilius was Sabine's second king of Rome and established the Roman religion. It was believed that Numa had an adviser, Egeria, a Roman goddess or nymph of fountains and prophecy.

Later Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva replaced the Archaic Triad to capture the center position of official religion. After a while, the cult of Diana was set up on Aventine Hill.

The Aeneid & Aeneas:

An old event to relate to the story was Virgil (Vergil) in his Aeneid. It is the tale that connects with the travels of its hero, the Trojan warrior Aeneas.

The Aeneid needs to exhibit the most challenging expression of Roman mythology. In the story, you learn about the hero who succeeded in running away from Troy with his father and some of his fellow soldiers with his mother's help before the town succumbed to the Greeks.

The people of Rome hinted at the ancient Trojan culture for the story and its connection to the Trojan War. You must remember that Virgil is the source of the story of the Trojan horse. However, it is mentioned in Homer's Odyssey.

Romulus & Remus:

Aeneas's descendants were the founders of the city of his destiny: Rome. Hence, you need to know that Romulus and Remus were the sons of the war god Mars and Rhea Silvia. So, in Roman mythology who was Mars? He was the war god.

Besides, Silvia was the daughter of king Alba Longa, Numitor. Amulius overthrew his brother and attempted to protect his claim to the throne. As a result, he forced Rhea to join the Vestal Virgins.

Once, Mars raped the young Rhea in the sacred woods. King Amulius ordered them to throw her two sons into the Tiber. But a flood caused the two sons to drift ashore at Ficus Ruminalis. Later a she-wolf rescued them. It was the sacred animal of Mars. After a while, Faustulus, a local herdsman, and his wife Acca Larentia adopted the boys.

Later, these two founders become their community leaders while Remus lands in the king's dungeon. Then, Romulus rescued his brother and deposed Amulius with Numitor's help. Then, they also learned who they were. They established a town. But someone killed Remus due to jealousy, and the city became Rome. However, once Romulus won the naming rights, he became the king and ruled Rome for forty years.

Roman Gods & Goddesses in Roman mythology:

You can find proof of many gods and goddesses. Besides, the people of Rome adopted their stories and many gods. It is Greece influenced the Italian peninsula and the Greek culture. Later, the people renamed some gods. Apollo in Roman mythology is the name of a god common to both cultures.

Multiple gods in Rome were connected closely with cults rather than myths before the Greeks association. But these got changed. These people turned from farming to war. At the early stage of the development of Roman mythology, Saturn is equivalent to the Greek god Cronus. There was a temple at the foot of Capitoline Hill, which included the public treasury. Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva were the triad of early Roman cult deities.

While Jupiter is the sky god, he became more akin to the Greek Zeus. Besides, he influenced each aspect of the life of people in Rome. In addition, many commanders choose this temple on Capitoline Hill as the final destination. Who is juno in roman mythology? Regarding Juno Roman mythology, you could know her as his wife and sister. She became reminiscent of Hera.


Like in Greece, cities in Rome adopted their patron deity. In addition, these established temples and followed rituals to honor God. These people had many gods like Janus. He was the two-faced god of doorways and gates. Like the Etruscan god Culsans, he could see the future and the past. Vesta was Saturn's daughter, along with the hearth and family life. Her followers were known as the Vestal Virgins.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. Who are the 12 major Roman gods?

The twelve gods were: Jupiter, Juno, Mars, Mercury, Neptune, Venus, Apollo, Diana, Minerva, Ceres, Vulcan, and Vesta.

Q. Are Greek and Roman mythology the same?

These share multiple same gods and goddesses in their stories. But the names are mostly different.

Q. Who created it?

Ovid made it.

Friday, October 21, 2022

Rainbow Bridge for Pets

Rainbow Bridge For Pets

You might have heard the "rainbow bridge" term related to a pet's death. It is a poem depending on an afterlife for pets. Besides, it can provide pet parents a hope to reunite with their departed dogs and cats. It refers to the powerful bond between humans and their pets. Therefore, a few people use it to provide compassion to grieving pet owners.

There is even a national remembrance day on its inspiration. The Rainbow Bridge Remembrance Day is held on 28th August per year. So, let's dive into the article to know about the Rainbow Bridge poem for dogs as well as other pets. So, first of all, you should know what it is. Then, you get to know about the poem also. Besides, we will let you know who wrote it.

What is the Rainbow Bridge?

It is a mythical overpass, a connection between heaven and Earth. You can call it a place where grieving pet owners meet their departed pets. Several pet owners say that they go there while disclosing their pet's death on social media. A pet is like a family member. So losing them is like losing someone from the family.

It is the theme of many works of poetry written in the 1980s and 1990s. The first one is a prose poem whose genuine creator is not fixed. On the other hand, another one is a six-stanza poem of rhyming pentameter couplets. Finally, a couple made it to ease the pain of losing pets.

Who Wrote The Rainbow Bridge Poem?

A minimum of three men have written a version of the poem, according to The Post. In addition, you can find poems attributed to the "unknown." Remember that the Rainbow Bridge poem has many versions available. Let's see the composition below:

"There is a bridge connecting Heaven and Earth.

It is called the Rainbow Bridge because of all its beautiful colors.

Just this side of the Rainbow Bridge, there is a land of meadows,

hills and valleys with lush green grass.

When a beloved pet dies, the pet goes to this place.

There is always food and water and warm spring weather.

The old and frail animals are young again.

Those who were sick, hurt, or in pain are made whole again.

There is only one thing missing,

they are not with their special person who loved them so much on Earth.

So each day, they run and play until the day comes.

When one suddenly stops playing and looks up!

The nose twitches! The ears are up!

The eyes are staring, and this one runs from the group!

You have been seen, and when you and your special friend meet,

you take him in your arms and hug him.

He licks and kisses your face again and again—

And you look once more into the eyes of your best friend and trusting pet.

Then you cross the Rainbow Bridge together, never again to be apart."

Rainbow Bridge Story:

Tom Happy to See! Painful to Feel!!
If a pet dies that someone used to treat with the utmost care, it will go to Rainbow Bridge. Hills and meadows give company to our pets by running and playing with them. Many foods, water, and sunshine are available. In addition, our special friends feel comfortable.

Pets like dogs, & cats, and other animals who are old and ill for some periods are restored to health. Pets are happy. But they miss their beloved ones whom they must leave behind.

All of them run & play together. But one day comes when the owner dies and arrives at the meadow. Then, his pet stops running and sniffs the air. After that, he sees the distance between him and his owner.

The bright eyes are intent, and the eager body quivers. After that, your special friend starts running from the group. Then, he flies over the green grass. He runs quicker with his legs. Being an owner, your friend and you will enjoy the reunion while meeting finally. You will enjoy the happy kisses of your pet on your face. Besides, you will caress the pet's head and look at his eyes. These moments could never go from your heart as these things were missing on Earth.


Tom Birthday
It is a total paradise concept where pets wait for their best friends, owners, who come later in the meadows in Margaret Marshall Saunders' book Beautiful Joe's Paradise. Regarding green land, pets don't wait for their owners. But they learn and grow together. In addition, they recover themselves from the unfair treatment.

There was a post where it was mentioned first on the newsgroup rec.pets.dogs, dated 7th January 1993, quoting the poem from a 1992 (or earlier) issue of the Mid-Atlantic Great Dane Rescue League Newsletter. According to other posts from 1993, it was set up and circulated online then.

In philosophy:

Tom Birthday

You may use Lesser Heaven in metaphysics and theology to respond to the issue of animal suffering. It is an attempted rebuttal to the Heaven Theodicy.

The Bottom Line:

Tom Beach Visit
Nowadays, people of all types accept widely that all animals can cross the Rainbow Bridge and make it to heaven. Suppose an animal doesn't have an owner. In such cases, we assume that they go to heaven directly. Rainbow Bridge is for pets who are willing to cross it with their alive human companions. We never want to lose an animal as they are remarkable human friends. It is all that you can learn about the term.

Frequently Asked Questions:

  • Q. What does crossing the Rainbow Bridge mean?

Once you lose your pet, you will hear the term. For example, the Rainbow Bridge is a mythical overpass that links heaven and Earth. In short, this one is a location where pet owners meet their departed pets or special friends.

  • Q. Is the Rainbow Bridge just for dogs?

It is accepted widely for all animals, not only for dogs and cats. So all can cross and make it heaven.

Q. Is the Rainbow Bridge for humans?

It is a meadow where pets wait for their companions to join them.

Monday, October 10, 2022

The City of David - History Mystery

City of David

The City of David is a very famous excavation site in Jerusalem. About one million people visit this National Park every year. It is an archaeological site that reveals the birthplace of Jerusalem. This place allows you to experience ancient Jerusalem.

You can enjoy Warren’s Shaft, old water systems like Hezekiah’s Tunnel and the Second Temple Shiloah pool. Besides, the location can offer extra family-friendly attractions, festivals, concerts, guided tours etc during festivals. You can see old stories taking shape and coming to life before their eyes. Is Jerusalem the City Of David? Let's know about it.

What is the City of David?

The City of David is a biblical and religious epithet of the old city of Jerusalem. It can denote an archaeological location linked with ancient Jerusalem. This name indicates an archaeological site is considered by most scholars. It is the actual settlement core of Jerusalem during the Bronze and Iron Ages. This location is located on the southern part of the eastern ridge of ancient Jerusalem, West of the Kidron Valley and east of the Tyropoeon valley, to the immediate south of the Temple Mount.

It is an important part of biblical archeology. People found the rest of the defensive network around the Gihon Spring back to the Middle Bronze Age. In addition, people continued using them throughout subsequent periods.

Two monumental Iron Age structures are called the Large Stone Structure and the Stepped Stone Structure. A debate between scholars is that if these can be identified with David or dated to a later period. It is home to the Siloam Tunnel, made by Hezekiah during the late eighth century BCE in preparation for an Assyrian siege.

But according to the current excavations at the site, it has an old origin in the late 9th or early 8th century BCE. Besides, other remaining spots include the Pool of Siloam, and the Stepped Street stretches from the pool to the Temple Mount.

Nowadays, the excavated parts of the archeological site belong to the Jerusalem Walls National Park. Israel Nature and Parks Authority manage the site, on the other hand the Ir David Foundation operates it. This place is located in Wadi Hilweh, an extension of the Palestinian neighborhood of Silwan, East Jerusalem, intertwined with an Israeli settlement.

Where is the City Of David?

It is located on a rocky spur south of the Temple Mount and outside the walls of the Old City of Jerusalem. The place is located as the southeastern ridge of old Jerusalem. Descending from the Dung Gate, the hill goes toward the Gihon Spring and the Pool of Siloam. It is a portion of the Palestinian neighborhood and former village of Silwan. The position was on the slopes of the southern part of the Mount of Olives, east of the City of David.

The village expanded West and crossed the valley to the eastern hill in the 20th century. Before 1948, it was called Wadi al-Nabah in Arabic. Later, it was renamed to Wadi al-Hilweh after the wife of the local mukhtar who was killed in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War.

Naming of City of David:

The origin of the term is in the biblical narrative where David, the Israelite king, conquers Jerusalem, called Jebus, from the Jebusites. His conquest is described two times in the Bible— in the Books of Samuel and the Books of Chronicles. These versions vary in specific details.

The Bible's reliability for the period's history is one debate topic among scholars. The Hebrew Bible says that the name was applied to Jerusalem after its conquest by David c. 1000 BCE. Ensure that you must not confuse its name with the new organization. It displays tiny excavated portions of the bigger town.

Israeli authorities denote this town as the City of David, while most Palestinian Arab residents mean this as Wadi al-Hilweh. Rannfrid Thelle wrote that the title favors the Jewish national agenda. In addition, it appeals to Christian supporters.

It is older than the Old City of Jerusalem. You need to walk for two minutes from the Western Wall, the location of the ancient city in Biblical studies. It makes this town an important archaeological site in Israel. Remember that it is the location of the biggest number of archaeological expeditions.

Several Attractions for the Whole Family:

The City of David National Park Visitor Center can provide different attractions, tours, and surprises. These are unavailable anywhere. You can take a walking tour through an old underground water tunnel and have an archaeological experience at the Emek Tzurim National Park sifting project. In addition, you can enjoy the nighttime presentation Hallelujah. It takes help of progressed projection technology to ask about the old Jerusalem story. Besides, it may be a famous tourist attraction for families. This location is full of different visitor's centers, 3D exhibitions, and so on.

The Revival of the City Of David Jerusalem:

Ir David Foundation, called Elad, is a Hebrew acronym indicating the city of David. It was set up in1986 to strengthen the Jewish connection to Jerusalem. The foundation wants to set up and renew the Jewish community in the town. In 1991, a new Jewish community emerged. Until now, about 30 Jewish families have appeared alongside the Arab families there.

Archaeological Sites:

The Gihon Spring: You can see this lying on Jerusalem's southeastern hill of the eastern slope aka the City of David. It is why the town first emerged at this certain spot.

You should remember that above it was found a vast town wall. People use this to identify the old settlement's place. The old water systems which are attached to the Gihon Spring are natural, masonry-built, and rock-cut structures, such as:

The Spring Tower: It is a natural shaft that people thought of as a water supply system. Besides, people thought that it couldn't be accessed during the time attributed to King David.

The Siloam Channel: It is a Canaanite (Bronze Age) water system that preceded the Siloam Tunnel. This one is called Hezekiah's Tunnel. It is an Iron Age water supply system where you found the Siloam inscription.

The Siloam Pool: There are two pools attached and the upper one comes from the Byzantine time at the Siloam Tunnel's entryway. The other one is the lower pool founded recently. It is dated to the Hasmonean portion of the Second Temple Period.

Giv'ati Parking Lot excavations: It extends over an area of about 5 dunams (1.2 acres). 

Many built structures exist within the area and these are spread over excavated sections— Area A, B, C ... including:

  • The Large Stone Structure 
  • The Stepped Stone Structure 
  • City walls and towers, houses, a columbarium, 
  • The Jerusalem Water Channel, a large drainage system 
  • A monumental stepped street. Second Temple-period pilgrims use it. 
In addition, this one is made over the Jerusalem Water Channel.

Other Locations:

King's Garden (excavated by Bliss and Dickie).

Excavations and Scholarly Views:

The old site of the town depends on a long spur facing north-south. Besides, it extends outside the wall of the old town, south of its southeastern corner, in the southern part of the eastern ridge adjacent to the Gihon Spring. You should know that it can reveal a lot of interesting archeological finds of the old world. However, the spot is an activity center.

Keep in mind that it was an old epicenter of Jerusalem. Its boundaries are expanded from the Temple Mount north and southward to the Pool of Siloam. It includes the place marking Kidron brook in the east and near dale in the West.

The settlement started in the Chalcolithic period and the Early Bronze Age.

However, it isn't called by the name. According to the Old Testament, Jebus was exchanged by this name after the conquest of Jerusalem. Solomon, son of David, stretched the wall to the north. Then, he included the Temple Mount area, where he made an edifice for the God of his fathers. The town started expanding westward beyond the dale from the eighth century BCE.

People are able to recognize the site on the hill southeast of the Old City with Jebus and later the Jerusalem City of David. It started in the late 19th century with the excavations of Charles Warren and Hermann Guthe. The 1909–11 work of Louis-Hugues Vincent and Montagu Brownlow Parker detected the oldest popular settlement traces in the Jerusalem region. It suggested that the place was an ancient settlement core in Jerusalem back to the Bronze Age. In 2015, a report on Israeli archaeology asked that the National tAcademy of Sciences criticize the political use of archeology.

Finds by Period:

Chalcolithic (4500–3500 BCE):

The remaining Chalcolithic comes with bits of pottery found in clefts in the bedrock by Macalister and Duncan. It set up different places where the bedrock had been cut in other methods.

Early Bronze Age (3500–2350 BCE):

Pieces of pottery have been found.

Middle Bronze Age (2000–1550 BCE):

Jerusalem is mentioned in Egyptian texts from the 19th–18th centuries BCE.

Late Bronze Age (1550–1200 BCE):

The Canaanite city wall faces the Kidron Valley.


It is the actual hilltop. King David dedicated old Jerusalem upon this as his capital 3,000 years ago. A report leaked in 2018 asked that the European Union become a tourist place. According to the statement of Rafi Greenberg, archaeological practice is subsumed entirely by political and corporate motivations.

Frequently Asked Questions:

Q. Which city is called the City of David?

Jerusalem is acquainted as the City of David.

Q. Where is the City of David now?

The city of David today is southeast of the Old City, on Ophel Hill near the Western Wall. This one is now below the Arab village of Silwan.

Q. What religion is the City of David?

The Jewish community is the religion that is aimed to be established.