Saturday, March 11, 2017

There Could Be Lava Tubes on the Moon, Large Enough for Whole Cities

Moon Lava Tube
Lava Tubes Beneath Lunar Surface – Bigger and More Stable

A research of networks of lava tubes that tend to wind beneath the lunar surface proposes that they could have been bigger and more stable than presumed earlier. The researchers sculpting the tunnels which are the remains of volcanic activity in the moon’s early stages are of the belief that they could possibly be up to around three miles wide thus raising the hope for subterranean bases.

The lava tubes which have been located in Iceland as well as Hawaii seem to be huge tunnels that have been carved out of the rock by the flowing lava. Geologists are of the opinion that they have been developed from streams of magma that had run dry, leaving channels through the solid rock.

Scientists are of the belief that the same structures are probably found beneath the lunar surface depending on small gravitational changes as well as images of cave openings gathered from lunar orbiters. If the lava tubes are found and seem to be stable they could offer shelter for a lasting lunar base.

Overcome Problems – Potential Hazards

This would help in overcoming the problems pertaining to potential hazards confronted by a base on the surface inclusive of the risk of meteorites as well as the increased solar radiation owing to the absence of protective atmosphere.

A group from Purdue University in Indiana had utilised computer demonstrating procedures in analysing how huge these tunnels could possibly grow. The circumstances on Earth would mean that the tubes tend to be limited to 30 metres across though the gravitational evidence recommends that on the moon they could be much larger. Utilising evaluations of rock density from the samples of moon rock, it was presumed that the width of the tubes would probably be thrice wider than their height.

The effects indicated that the stability is governed by the width of the tube, thickness of the roof together with the physical stress on the rock. In a paper published in journal Icarus, researchers had explained that if adequately deep, the lunar condition would probably generate fissures kilometres wide.

Lunar Base – Twice Commercial Base

It was informed that the theoretical maximum size of a lunar lava tube was based on various factors though with sufficient burial depth – 500 m together with an initial lithostatic stress state, the results portrayed that the lava tubes up to 3 miles – 5 km wide would be capable of staying structurally stable.

The estimates surpassed the earlier sizes that had been provided by the group during the 2015 conference which had recommended that tubes of 0.6 miles in diameter could be adequately steady to house permanent bases below the surface. Nasa scientists had earlier in the year calculated that there could be a possibility of returning to the surface of the moon in the next five to seven years at a total cost of about $10 billion.Spaceflight experts have debated in a series of papers, on the cost of building a lunar base which tend to be much less than anticipated and that there could be a substantial commercial value there.

They had mentioned that a lunar base can be twice a commercial mining base to enable the resources of the moon to be exploited. According to evidence, the moon could be a rich source of water ice, together with rare metals as well as a rare isotope of helium.

Wednesday, March 8, 2017

Man May be Able to Survive on Mars

Mars
Survival is a tough job, no matter you analyze it from whichever perspective. From time immemorial scientists have carried several expeditions on the Fourth planet of the solar family. The evidence of water has germinated the whole crux behind the possibility of sustaining life on Mars.

The scientists have derived an extra element that adds to the idea of sustenance of life on the planet, Mars. The researchers have said that it is difficult to study the mantle of Mars, but they are trying to delve into the matter and make the mars’ mantle as familiar as that of Earth. So that life can exist much easily there. The researchers have said that the mars’ mantle is similar to that of Earth’s and it is not as complicated as it was expected to be.

The scientists have discovered Elysium, which is a magnanimous complex of Volcano on Mars, and is known for being the second largest Olympic Mons and rises to the length of almost 16 km. They have also discovered that the lava that flows round Elysium does persist having an primary mantle that dissolves at dissimilar temperatures as the surface rises differently across time. Researches have revealed that the fourth planet is utterly a much complicated planet in terms of geological evolution than it was expected. Perhaps the change in the surface that takes place due to the rise of volcano is the reason behind several effects of loading.

The entire research was led by David Susko said, who is a researcher at LSU Geology and Geophysics graduate. He said that Mars is more like Earth than like Moon. The expedition that was carried on Moon have revealed the fact that Moon lacks all the subordinate minerals that is vital for the sustenance of life which is present on Earth as a result of igneous-water contacts and weathering. We had witnessed Mars just like Moon that is lifeless, loaded with craters with several inactive volcanoes.

Mars is known as the red Planet and the more we dive into its several folds; we can find that it can sustain life and this planet is not at all identical to the Moon. Research is still being carried on in this field to figure out several more proofs that supports the idea of existence of life on Mars. Varieties of rocks have been discovered that has many geochemical compositions that ensure the fact that human population can exist on the fourth planet of the solar system.

Susko have confirmed that the features of volcano that are present on Mars are reported to be in the range of 3-4 billion years old. He also said that if they could trace the history of this volcano then they can easily figure out which rich ores and minerals are present on Mars that can be beneficial to support life on this planet. Such researches tend to claim that life can be possible on Mars with all the basic amenities.

Monday, March 6, 2017

World War II: Adolf Hitler Gruesome Plan of Destroying London Found In an Attic

World War II
World War II ear map has been unearthed after 75 years which showcases the Adolf Hitler’s plan of bombing the targets in London. This particular rare plan fitted in to a Luftwaffe direction finder and this map carefully labels the prominent targets which building some of the important buildings such as Chelsea Barracks and Battersea Power Station. Germans has also planned to bomb the Duke of York’s HQsas well as Fulham Palace which happens to the household of the Bishop of London.

Quite interestingly this map carefully focuses on the targets following the route of the river which works as an effective guidance for the navigators. This map is dated from November 30, 9141 and it brings forward the gruesome plan of the Germans to get rid of London iconic and strategic landmarks during the war. The ownership of this map has been attributed to a late Second World War air gunner and it is being speculated that map has been carefully taken from the wreckages of a short down Luftwaffe aircraft.

Rare Map can be bought at the auction

The only good thing which can be seen from this map is that Germans has decided not to bomb the hospitals by marking those building with a cross. This map is being sold off by Bernard Pass and it can be bought by anyone to keep a piece of the history with them. It will come as a surprise but even after bombing London for days Luftwaffe pilots were unable to demolish most of the landmarks from the skies.

World War II

A look into the history

Such maps are not meant to be kept safely at all rather it has to be destroyed so it doesn’t fall into the hands of British army. From the history it is widely known that facing the defeat in the Battle of Britain, Germans has attempted to bomb the London right into submission. This rare map shows that they had specially decided to target the major and minor targets in order to generate as much damage as possible. The bombing campaign began in September 1940 wherein London was bombed mercilessly for 57 days.

As we have seen in the history this act of mercilessly bombing didn’t resulted in breaking the morale of the British rather boosted the will of the people towards overthrowing the tyrant. During the bombing a number of iconic and prestigious building in London were destroyed which includes the City of London Hospital in Old Street, The Great Synagogue of London in Aldgate and the Carlton Hotel in Haymarket.

The bombing raids didn’t just damage the targeted buildings but also caused firestorm in many cases and quite incidentally the St. Paul’s Cathedral was narrowly saved. When Germans started preparation to invade the Soviet Union only then the Luftwaffe forces were withdrawn from the west. During the London bombing as many as 30,000 people were killed while 50,000 were left seriously injured in the World War II.

Friday, March 3, 2017

Mysterious Jade Jewel Worn by Mayan king to Appease Wind God Found in Belize

Jade
Archaeologists have unveiled a new discovery that supports an ancient a myth. The discovery includes a jade pendant of ancient origin that used to be worn by a Maya King especially on their chest. This pendent was first discovered on the soil of Nim Li Punit and is hailed as the second largest jade of the Maya king and is supposedly a product of late 672 AD.

It is undoubtedly a remarkable piece of art and is designed in such a way that it resembles wind and breath and when the archaeologists were carrying on the expedition the pendent was found adjacent to a vessel that could have been the ancient Maya god of wind. This is a gem of a jewel which consists of inscriptions just like a historical text. An important story is described they’re with the help of almost 30 hieroglyphs.

This excavation was carried in 2015 by Geoffrey Braswell who is an UC San Diego archaeologist, and have recently published a paper depicting the importance of this jade pendent in the Ancient Mesoamerica journal.
The pendent is 7.4 inch wide, 4.1 inch in length and is .3 inch in terms of breath. The thickness was very surprising for the archaeologists.

Further research regarding this ancient jewel have unveiled the fact that the sculptors who made this must have just used a string, fat and dust of jade to develop such a piece of a gem. Another imperative fact is that the jewel is the only ancient discovery found till date that consists of 30 hieroglyphs which makes it to identify as a historical text where the name of the person who first owned is also inscribed at the back of the pendent.

Braswell who led to its discovery said that the inscription depicts a very small story with a larger than life message. The pendent was found when they were excavating a palace that was built about 400 years ago.

They discovered the jewel inside the palace along with 25 pottery vessels, a stone that was quite big in stature and resembled a deity, and amongst them the jade pendent was lying. There weren’t any remains of a human. The pendent resembled the letter T and the same alphabet was carved on the front. The archaeologists who were a part of this expedition proclaims that this ‘T’ is the personification of wind and breath.

Wind is denoted as a very vital natural resource in Maya culture, as these winds are responsible to attract monsoon rains which is important for the crops to thrive in. In their culture the king was the one who other than looking at the well being of its subjects was also responsible for all the sacred ceremonies, for that the king performed several functions as per their authentic calendar. The rituals also included many exaggerating ceremonies performed by the king, so that the wind and rain is properly restored in their kingdom.

Wednesday, March 1, 2017

3D Scanning Reveals Robert the Bruce Scottish King had Leprosy

Robert the Bruce
700 Year Old Face - Amazing Images Revealed – 3D Scans

For the first time in 700 years, the face of a heroic Scottish King has come up from the shadows wherein scientist have utilised 3D scans on the skull of Robert Bruce in creating amazing images which could have been of those during his time in power in Scotland in the 14th century.

One of the images portrays the king in his prime as a enormous and influential male having well-built neck with stocky frame while another displays that he could have had some weakness with indications of leprosy that had disfigured his upper jaw and nose. Robert Bruce was around 55 years of age and reigned from 1306 till his death In 1314, he had been at war to bring down his Scottish rivals together with the English regime in Scotland terminating in the battle of Bannockburn.

His new images had been developed in collaboration between historians from the University of Glasgow together with craniofacial experts from Liverpool John Moores University – (LJMU). The Director of LJMU’s Face Lab and a world renowned craniofacial identification expert, Professor Caroline Wilkinson had supported the facials reconstruction by undertaking a 3D scan of what was assumed to be his skull.

3D Reproduction Process –stereo-lithography

It is believed that the skull had been unearthed between 1818 and 1819 from Dunfermline Abbey in Fife and the facial structure of the king had been generated by utilising the process of a 3D reproduction which is known as `stereo-lithography’.

No trustworthy photographic illustrations of Bruce had been made during his time and written accounts do not convey anything regarding his appearance. Professor Wilkinson, who had been responsible for the facial reconstruction of Richard III, stated that on utilising the cast of the skull, they could precisely create the formation of the muscle from the positions of bones of the skull in defining the structure and the shape of the face.

He further added that the reconstruction could not portray the colour of his eyes, the tone of his skin as well as the colour of his hair. Two versions had been produced, one without leprosy and another one with a mild sign of leprosy. He added that he could have had leprosy though if he did it would probably be that it did not manifest strongly on his face, since this had not been documented.

Indications of Leprosy

According to researchers an image had portrayed him with a large and powerful male head which had been supported by a muscular neck together with stocky frame and showed him as a privileged person who could have relished the benefits of an excellent diet. The researchers further stated that his physique could have prepared him for the ruthless burdens of feudal warfare.However, he could also be having indications of leprosy, which had disfigured his upper jaw and nose wherein the researchers had created another version accounting for the same. This was so because the historians were of the belief that Bruce had suffered due to the disease that had affected him many time at the time of his reign which has probably ended in his death. In 1327 for instance, he was said to be so frail and he could only move his tongue.