Friday, January 7, 2011

An Army On Parade For 2000 Years Part.III

But in exchange they faced heavy taxation and were forced into hard unpaid labor on large scale public works. Initially, these policies brought wealth and power, and when Zheng took the throne of Qin he continued his predecessors’ polices. By 221 BC he had conquered and absorbed all the warring states.  From his capital at Xianyang, he set about the task of universally imposing the reforms that had made Qin such a success.

Looking back to China’s past, he adopted an ancient title, “Huang Di”, or ‘August Lord”, and ordered the prefix ‘Shi”. Shi Huang Di saw himself as China’s first emperor, the founder of a new imperial line.  In a bid to unify the empire, he imposed many forms of standardization. A single axle width was set for wheeled transport, to ensure that ruts worn into the roads matched all vehicles.

The numerous styles of Chinese script were consolidated into a single, standard version, encouraging the exchange of knowledge, and the various coinage system were phased out in favor of a universal currency.  The emperor also created more than 6000 Km of new roads across the empire, branching out from the imperial capital. Internal and foreign trade prospered, and foundations were laid for the flourishing networks that would later carry Chinese silk across Central Asia to the West.

The peasants were the backbone of the Chinese state, and improving agricultural productivity was a major state concern. Shi Huang Di forcibly relocated large numbers of farming families from populous or troublesome regions into areas where he wished to promote agriculture and settlement.


An Army On Parade For 2000 Years Part.II

His army accompanied him in death, molded in terracotta and armed with real bows, spears, and ge- Chinese halberds. They were buried in three in three shallow pits, lined with timbers and floored with tiles. When the rebel army set fire to the pits, the timber chambers collapsed, imprisoning the warriors for more than 2000 years. In March 1974, peasants digging wells in the Linton district came upon fragments of the life size terracotta figures. Archaeologists went on to discover the ancient pits.
The author of this extraordinary city of the dead, Zheng, ruler of Qin, was born in 259 BC into a period of great change. Qin was a feudal state in which a hereditary aristocracy wielded local power. Since the 8th century BC, neighboring powers had been fighting over land and shifting their allegiances. These territories became known as the Warring states.
In the 4th century BC, an outstanding political theorist, Lord Shang, became chief minister of Qin. On his advice, the state was transformed into a bureaucracy in which officials were appointed by, and answerable to, the king. Shang was a leading exponent of Legalism, an ideology based on the belief that man is intrinsically selfish, and cannot be expected to respect his leaders, and live in harmony without firm state coercion. The philosophy was put into practice through a strict code of laws and well defined systems of reward and punishment
Agricultural productivity was rewarded and commerce encourage by state regulation and standardized weights and measures. Peasants were freed of their serf status and their obligation to the now abolished nobility.


Thursday, January 6, 2011

An Army On Parade For 2000 Years Part.I

The ruthless but efficient king of Qin conquered all the rival Warring States to unite China, becoming its first emperor, Shi Huang Di. His empire surrounds him even in death, guarded by an army of nearly 7500 terracotta warriors.
Drunk with success, reveling in their freedom after years of oppression, the peasant soldiers of the rebel army attacked. The emperor’s troops stood fast, their faces impassive as the rabble descended. Still they stood as the enemy soldiers, screaming abuse, stripped them of their weapons and set fire to the ground around them. The emperor’s men had no choice. They were not made of flesh and blood.
As the fires raged, the colorful paint on their terracotta bodies began to disintegrate. The green, purple, blue, and red of their garments – color schemes that identified the individual contingents – gradually took on the same shade of ashen Grey.
Yet, despite the fire that stripped them of their colors each of the pottery warriors remained unique, distinguished from his fellows by the arrangement of his hair and the finer details of his face. The range of different features bore witness to the ethnic diversity of the dominion that stretched from southern China to Mongolia - the empire of the Qin.
The rebels were looters, and the army they disturbed in 206 BC were the silent guardians of a tomb set in the plains around Mount Li 40 Km east of the imperial capital at Xian yang, near present day Xi’an.
Forty years earlier, in 246 BC, the new 13 year –old king of the state of Qin had commanded the construction of a funerary city to house his body after death. By the time he died in 210BC, King Zheng had extended his power over a vast number of territories, and had proclaimed himself the first Emperor of China, Shi Huang Di.


Tuesday, January 4, 2011

Mystery behind the Piri Re'is map

Most of our theories about the early peoples and their civilizations have no concrete physical evidence. The entire theories are merely given shape by the historians. Most of the history is based on the artifacts.  We are right now using accurate maps with the help of the vast knowledge we acquire in the field of astronomy and science. But very perfect maps of our Globe were drawn long before by Piri Re.  His map appears to be one of the historical artifacts. Earlier to 15th century the people were not aware of the shapes of the continents. The Piri Re’ is world map is the one of the few anomalous maps of the time.

From Ptolomy to Finaeus of 15th century map makers included the southern continents perfectly in their World maps and not the Northern Antarctica. Remember the Antarctica was not discovered during that time and it was explored only in the late 20th century only. Anomalous maps of that period showed that Asia is linking America by The Behring strait and the river deltas too drawn shorter by that time.   Some of the old maps like Piri Re’is have very minute details when compared with the modern maps, which shed more light on the Earth’s geological past most particularly in the Ice ages.

The Piri Re’is map is a great wealth as it is most informative and of of the attribution of the information it have. Piri Re’is map have extraordinary details of the coasts and their outlines. His map was only found in Constantinople in the year 1929. The map was drawn in a parchment and it was dated 1513 AD (919 Ah in Islamic calendar). The map was signed by Piri Ibn Haji Memmed (otherwise called Piri Re’is) an admiral of Turkish navy by that time. According to him the map had been consolidated from a set of about twenty maps drawn during the period of Alexander the Great. Piri Re’is maps show the mapping skills of our ancestors. His map is a patch work of the source map. In the recent past his map shed more light on the unknown Ice age civilization. In his map he drawn the outline of Antarctica without glaciers and the recent studies proved that also. 

Then, what causes the glaciers? In 9500 BC The Earth’s inclination suddenly changed with moved Antarctica to another hundred miles south which turned the climate to the freezing, but there is no evidence to prove that Polar Shift theory. Still the maps have hidden secrets  but without clue.

Saturday, January 1, 2011

Ice Man, the Mummy in the Glacier Part.II

According to the team of scientists and forensic investigators, the Ice Man certainly had the right equipment to survive in the harsh conditions of the Otztaler Alps. He wore a fur cap, as well as a cape woven from grasses that probably served as a rudimentary raincoat.

Under his cape, he had on a robe made from pieces of fur sewn together. In order to protect his legs from the bitter alpine cold, he wore fur clad leg warmers. He also had on a loincloth and shoes made from solid leather which were stuffed with thick grass. The Ice man carried the equipment necessary for making a fire, as well as a container made from birch bark which was probably used to transport the hot coals which were so laboriously kindled.

The Ice man’s bow and arrow made it possible for him to hunt wild animals, but it is thought that he was not a hunter. Buy the time of his death, human survival depended less upon hunting than upon farming and raising livestock. Scientists today believe that the ice Man was probably a shepherd, who may have hunted wild animals but more likely herded his cattle on the high pastures in summer.

 Why did the Ice Man undertake his last, fatal hike into the high mountains? The researchers speculate that he must have either been involved in a serious fight, or perhaps that his home village had been targeted for attack by outsiders. This view is borne out b the fact that he already had several fractured ribs before he set out on his last journey into the mountains. If he really was a shepherd, then he probably knew the highland terrain well enough to hide from his pursuers.

 Despite his severe injuries, the ice man kept on climbing higher and higher, until he had exhausted his strength. Finally, he reached the bleak, frozen Hauslabjoch area. There he probably encountered a change in weather:  perhaps snow began to fall, and the temperature dropped. The ice Man sought shelter under an overhanging rock, ate some dried meat and desperately tried to keep awake. He knew for certain that he would die if he went to asleep. But he was too exhausted to care any longer; he lay down, fell asleep and never woke up. Several hours later, a thick blanket of snow had covered his cold and lifeless body.