Showing posts with label religion. Show all posts
Showing posts with label religion. Show all posts

Tuesday, June 24, 2014

Theologia Germanica

Theologia Germanica – Written during the Reign of Avignon Papacy 

Theologia Germanica
The Theologia Germanica known also as Theologia Deutsch or Teutsch or Der Franckforter is presumed to be written around 1350 by an anonymous author and as per the introduction of the Theologia, it seemed that the author was a priest who was a member in the house of the Teutonic Order, living in Frankfort, Germany. It was written during the troublesome reign of the Avignon Papacy from 1309-1378, where numerous clerics were refrained from performing Catholic rites due to the power struggle between the Pope and the Holy Roman Emperor.

This resulted in the lay groups of pious people such as the `Friends of God’, led by Dominicans, John Tauler and Blessed Henry Suso, becoming very prominent during this period and the author seemed to be associated with the Friends of God. Though speculation of the author went on, it was discovered and published by Martin Luther in the year 1516 and on his discovery, Luther declared that next to the Bible and St. Augustine, he had not found any other book from which he had learnt more of God and Christ and man and all things.

Most Influential and Widely Read

Theologia Germanica 1
Luther had produced two editions of the text in 1516, a partial text without a tile and another in 1518 with a title `Eyn deutsch Theologia’ and his input further enhanced the books’ continuous appeal with repeated publication. The Theologia Germanica was most influential and widely read and continuously published German religious text during the Middle Ages. The book urges Christians to follow the path of Christ, by detaching the life of selfishness, licentiousness and sin.

 It is a belief that when one allows the divine light of God to penetrate our daily activities,Gods becomes our guide directing our will with His Perfect Will. The Theologia Germanica was written within the framework of Christian tradition though the author’s spiritual advice is conveyed to Christians of all denominations and this would aid those who wholeheartedly tend to live a righteous life on earth. Only eight manuscripts of the Theologia Germanica survive till date which comes from the second half of the fifteenth century. Hence it was not widely disseminated before it drew the attention of Martin Luther who is credited in giving the treatise it modern name.

Focused on Latin Christianity

Written more than a century before Luther’s time, the theology is focused on the Latin Christianity of the Rhineland and appears in several editions and languages during its six hundred years old history which has taken its place alongside the Imitation of Christ in the literature of devotion.

Based on the Wurtzburg Manuscript, discovered in the nineteenth century, Susanna Winkworth translated the full version of the Theologia Germanica and the first publication of her translation in 1854 included additional passages which were not found in the editions that were made popular by Martin Luther. The syntax and the grammar of Susanna Winkworth’s original translation has been preserved from the German manuscript creating an edition which is true to the composition of the original translation while at the same time providing a modern and easy text reading.

Thursday, March 20, 2014

Baldur – The God of Truth and Light

Baldur 1
Balder, one of the most handsome of gods was born to Frigg and Odin who was considered to be the god of joy, purity, innocence, beauty, reconciliation and a god of truth and light. He was loved by all gods and men alike and was the best among all gods. Being of good character, he was friendly, eloquent and wise and was also very knowledgeable in healing herbs which made him favorite among the people of Midgard.

He lived in a palace called Breidabik along with his wife Nanna the daughter of Nep and their son Forseti, the god of justice. According to some belief, it was said that no lie could pass through the walls of his palace, which was the home of the god of truth. Most of the stories of Baldur are related to his death and he would often dream about his death so much so that Frigg extracted an oath from every force of nature, object and creature, everything in the nine worlds, that they would never harm Baldur her son, with all agreeing that they would not cause any kind of harm to him since he was loved by everyone.

Baldur 2
Thereafter the gods decided to test his vulnerability by throwing pebbles at him which would bounce back without hurting him in honor of its oath taken. Huge weapons were also used which included Thor’s axes which all returned without causing any harm to Baldur and thinking him to be invincible, the gods entertained themselves by targeting him for knife throwing and archery.

Loki who seemed to be jealous of Baldur tried tricking him by changing his appearance as a witch and asked Frigg if there was anything that could harm the god of light. Frigg unaware of the disguise informed that there was one thing, a small tree in the west called the mistletoe. According to her, at the time of extracting the oath, she thought that it was too small to harm her son. Loki immediately headed for the west to get hold of the mistletoe and tricked Baldur’s blind brother, Hod in throwing the mistletoe dart at Baldur. Hod guided by Loki and unaware of his plan aimed the dart at Baldur which pierced through his heart and Baldur fell down dead.

Baldur 3
While all the gods mourned the death of Baldur, Odin sent along his other son Hermod to Hel, the goddess of death in order to plead for the return of Baldur who agreed to do so on condition that everything in the world, whether dead or alive should weep for him. All wept except for Loki who refused to do so and Baldur had to remain in the underworld. The gods after dressing him in crimson shade placed him on the funeral pyre aboard his ship, `Ringhorn’, which was the largest in the world. They also laid the body of his wife Nanna who being heartbroken also died after him. His horse and his treasures were also placed on the ship and the pyre was set on fire with the ship sent to sea by the giantess Hyrrokin.

Friday, November 16, 2012

History Mystery: Angels Part.II

     Among the Talmudic age people, there were different opinions about the angels and their nature. Some of them thought every day new angels were created and they praise the god in the day and then at the end of the day they jump in to Nehar di Nur that is the river of fire. And some others added with that that Michael and Gabriel are the only two who serve the god permanently, hence we can come to the conclusion that the Talmudic age people discriminate the angels with respect to their duties assigned to them as eternal angels and the other angels.

       The Midarsh and the Talmud literature give a brief description about the angels and their creations. According to those literatures they angels were created by the God on the second and fifth day of their creation. They walk upright and they can fly, and they can reach the one end of the world form other end quickly and they can foretell predict the future and they can only speak Hebrew. They look like human but half fire and half water. Both demons and the angels have many things in common. The common belief is that no angel is assigned multiple tasks at a time that is each angle has to carry out a single assignment at a time and they also can make error as a human. There is much classification among angels, peace and evil angels, angels of life and death. Hence it is evident that there is segregation like lower and higher level of angels.

      Apart from already told arch angles Sandalfon Zaagzagael and Suriel are mentioned some places But the Midrash literatures gives much importance to the Metatron Angel. According to apocryphal literature every kingdom and their kings have their own guardian angels and they are chained to avoid doing harm to Israel. When the kings and their kingdoms fall the angels also fall and they also suffer punishment if the kings suffer punishments. Some of the details of guardian angels are there in Christian Neoplatonists also. Rabbis, the guardian angel otherwise mentioned as Dubiel, in Persia. The name of the guardian angel of Nebuchadnezzar was mentioned as Kal.

 The angels are fully depend o the God himself and they cannot act on their own. They have to proclaim the god’s sanctity and glory all day but they could not view the glory of the God himself and not even their dwelling place. The Aggadah the rabbinic literature differ from the above. According to it the god himself consulted the angels before creating the human and Michael and Gabriel played an important role in the marriage of Adam and Eve. Eve was made pregnant by the angel named Samael. During the Talmudic age traces of angel worship are not found. But the Christian writers have the different versions about that.

Friday, November 2, 2012

History Mystery: Angels

     In pre biblical texts angels are mentioned as independent with their own names and with uniqueness. In the early Jewish period the angels played dominant position in mythology than the pre biblical period. This was prevailed until the Hellenistic era of Jewish history with the unique doctrine of angels. Biblical writers mention the existence of angels which is superior to human with extraordinary powers but inferior than God and they served as Gods entourage and they conveyed God’s messages to Emperors and mankind. The terminology of the word Angel in old Hebrew Bible is not so exact. But it is mentioned as “angelos” in Greek bible which has the same meaning of Angel. Only when it was passed on to European language thro’ Latin Bible the word “Angel” got its exclusive meaning. In The post biblical scenario: the term Malakh was used in Hebrew to mention the messengers and representatives of god who have extraordinary and super natural powers. The bible also speaks of Angels with wings (Cherubim and Seraphim).


   In the second temple period they assumed that the great prophets had the privilege to communicate with the god and in later period people could be communicate with the god through angels. Hence the people tried to explore the nature and singularity of the angels. The apocalyptic wisdom literature assumed that the hidden secrets of the universe could be explored with the help of the angels. The Jews are very familiar with the Babylonian myths about the creation, the flood and the early human generation. Here worth mention Character is Enoch.
      Enoch is a first one created with the influence of the Babylonian myth. He was the creator and forerunner of the human culture and who conveyed the heavenly wisdom to the mankind. He was constantly in touch with the angels. Similar stories are with Noah and Abraham ascribing the awareness about the angels. This dogma of Angels was not evenly spread among the Jewish and the apocalyptic wisdom was kept secret and it was distributed among themselves by means of secret societies. The testament of Solomon in Greek mentions Solomon was acquainted with number of angels.

          The post biblical literature mentions so many angels. The one appear before Zechariah without name, Angel Gabriel in Book of Daniel, Uriel, Raguel, Raphael Michael. The arch angels, a group of seven angels are mentioned in Testament of Abraham. Uriel is the guardian angel of underworld, Raphael is the in charge of human spirit, Raguel is the angel for taking revenge on the world of lights, Angle for Israel is Michael, Gabriel in charge of heaven, Jeremiel guard the souls of underworld and the last one Sariel whose duties were not clearly mentioned. All these seven angels are in the close proximity of the God and call upon their duty. They are staying in four sides of the God’s throne. The angels Michael, Gabriel, Raphael and Phanuel are mentioned as the angels of presence in Enoch. They played an important part in punishing the fallen angels. The Hebrew Testament of Naphtali mentions the special group of 70 angles as ministering angels.

            The book of Enoch and The book of Jubilees mention about the Fallen Angels. According to the Book of Enoch the Fallen Angels, the sons of heaven lusted on the beautiful daughters of men in the world and they decided to land on Mt. Hermon to carry out their plan. They were headed by Shemhazai and take an oath (Herem) to fulfill their purpose and hence the mountain was called as Mt.Hermon. They were successful in their effort and gave birth to giants who were mercilessly destroyed men of the land. They taught them handling of the weapons there by promote the crime in the world which lead to the corruption among the mankind. The men in the world out cry for the help and the arch angels conveyed their plea to the god and God permitted the arch angels to punish the fallen angels. The book of Jubilee gives the different version. According to it the fallen angels came to earth to teach the mankind to order the society and were lusted and seduced by the daughters of the men in the earth.

                                                                                                                               ( to be continued....)

Friday, July 13, 2012

History Mystery: Did a historical Jesus exist? Part.II

According to the Gospels Jesus may crucified on the first day of the Passover or the day before (Depends upon the Gospel According to John Jesus was crucified on the day before the Passover).

The Passover is one of the holiest of Jewish holidays and it was the time for forgiveness and celebration. On those days only Jews made public scarifies to their god hence there is less chance for crucifixion. The arrest and quick trial of Jesus was happened on the pass over eve night. And the Jewish Sanhedrin could assemble in the middle of the night and spelt the quick judgment is highly impossible. The Sanhedrins were slapped and spit on Jesus could not be possible. (Sanhedrin was the Jewish judicial and administrative council which acts on set of rules). Mishnah Sanhedrin has certain rules to follow:

Tomb of Jesus
• No criminal trail can be hold at night.
• The Sanhedrin session could be taken place in the temple premises.
• Capital crime could not be trailed in one day sitting alone.
• No criminal session could be happened on the Sabbath day or of any festival day.
• The own confession of the accused is not enough to judge any one guilty.
• The blasphemy charges cannot be hold good if the accused pronounced the god before the witness.
But the trial of Jesus had broken all the rules.

The crucifixions of Jesus in the Gospels are completely symbolic in nature and based on the scriptures but not on the history. His arrest, trial and the execution all flout the Jewish law. And for blasphemy stoning is the ultimate sentence and there is no reason to hand over the execution to the Romans. The famous Jewish writer Philo of 20BCE wrote elaborately about the political and religious activities of those periods but he never mentioned or wrote anything about Jesus (he wrote about the political rivalry between Pontius Pilate in Judea and the Jews)
There are four documents, in other words historical documents available. Antiquity of the Jews by Josephus, The Annals by Tacitus, Letter to Trajan by Pliny the Younger, and The Lives of the Caesars by Suetonius. It is available in Catholic Encyclopedia.

According to Suetonius, “The Jews continuously made disturbance at the instigation of Chrestus and hence Chrestus was expelled”. Here we can only assume that Suetonius mentioned here Jesus as Chrestus. Chrestus is not the proper Latin translation of Greek Christos. Since the document itself talking about 49 CE by which Jesus was already dead.

Here The Annals by Tacitus mention the following,

“Hence to suppress the rumor, he falsely charged with the guilt, and punished Christians, who were hated for their enormities. Christus, the founder of the name, was put to death by Pontius Pilate, procurator of Judea in the reign of Tiberius: but the pernicious superstition, repressed for a time broke out again, not only through Judea, where the mischief originated, but through the city of Rome also, where all things hideous and shameful from every part of the world find their center and become popular”

Christus mentioned here clearly refers Jesus Christ but it is not enough to establish the historical existence of himself. Keep it in mind Tacitus wrote these forty years after the ruin of Judea.

The peoples of other civilizations don’t have a religious book like Bible to refer and cross examine the religious structure in other hand Jews have a scripture based religion. The Romans and Greeks have separate Law, Philosophy etc but for Jews all come under the same religion. In Judaism more particularly in Hellenistic Judaism the cult of Jesus Christ is a very small part of their religion.

From all the above “The story of Jesus Christ” fully relay on the Gospels rather than any historical evidences. For the Jesus story you can identify plenty of literary and conventional materials which raise the possibility for the observed historical events. That much only can say.

Saturday, July 7, 2012

History Mystery: Did a historical Jesus exist? Part.I

Today all most every one of us in the world believes that Jesus Christ was a real personality. Perhaps he may not be the son of god or perhaps he may not be the real Messiah. The belief, Jesus as a human being came out as Eucharist ritual and theology concept of flesh and blood. Then what is the basis for the claim that “Jesus ever existed”?

There are two views we are going to analyze here. The first one is the Biblical or the religious view that Jesus as a real personality and the other one; The materialistic or the historical view. Here I wish to point out one thing. We have only one source of information about him which is the bible alone; that too more particularly from the Gospels. Everything we know about him is derived from the Gospels alone.

According to the Gospels, Jesus Christ was most popular and well-known personality who done splendid miracles and have the capacity of his own to pull the crowd. He not only done miracles but some revolutionary changes in religious system in the Jewish priesthood hence arrested and put to death before thousands of his followers who stood as eye witness. The historical view removes some exaggerated accounts in the life of Jesus in the Gospels taking into account.

Both of the views purely depend on the Gospels alone but, Are the Gospels give a reliable historical account? When the Gospels were written, where the gospels were written? which is the origin? Nobody knows. Earlier estimates dates the Gospels were written from 50 to 150CE and some ascertain that may be 4th Century. The traditional belief is that the Gospels had been written by the disciples of Jesus or someone who directly connected with them. It is believed that the Gospels are the eyewitness.

Let us gain some knowledge about the Gospels and its writers through the account of early church leader Papias of 130CE. According to him the Gospel Mark was not written by him but it was someone named Mark and the Gospel of Mathew was recorded by someone named Mathew in Hebrew dialect and so on… Since the Gospel of Mathew contains the virgin birth of Jesus and the hereditary lineage with David, the early theologians thought it was the first Gospel. Since the Gospel of Luke was not an eyewitness in nature and it was a self described one. So there is no possibility for it being first one.

The Gospel of Mark is also considered as second hand information since the order of events was different in order. The source of information for Mark is Peter. There is a chance that Mark might come from Rome where Peter preached. Theologian ascertains The Gospel of Mark was the first Gospel. Since Peter was shown as a fool who could not understand the messages of Jesus, Peter could not be the source of information for Gospel of Mark hence Mark is the first gospel.                                               (Cont....)

Thursday, July 5, 2012

History Mystery: Sex And The Religions Part.XII

 Religious Dances of Ancient times

In ancient times the dances were of religious or the ceremonial importance. Most of the ancient religious system of temples had female slaves to perform such sacred dances. The religious dances of all most heathen temples were tried to replicate and applaud sexual delights and fantasy since all the early religions were based on sex worship. In those days in and around Egypt the females were trained as musicians and they were expert in them. Throughout their life time went naked and the nudeness in public while doing performance was not embraced them. Note: Most of the Psalms of David emblazoned to the Chief of the Chorus. Hence there is a probability that the leader and the team of musicians were nude.

Not only the Musicians the Dancers also performed by the undressed girls. It is similar to that of the dances performed by the Egyptian dancers named “Ferida “of these days. The dancers otherwise called Awalim also have singers in their troupe. The Orgy was a particular rite in worship of the Greek god Dionysus the god of wine. Those rites were celebrated only by the women and they assembled at the temples in the woods in nude or in brown skins. And they allowed their hair to hang loosely and had a stick in their hand to symbolically represent the sacred scepter of the wine god Dionysus. They danced and danced till their excitement subsides.

During the rituals at nights they sacrificed the scared bull. But in the early period Greeks sacrificed man but not the animal and in both cases the important aspect of the orgy was the respect given with high regard to the Penis or the Phallus of the sacrificed bull or the man. These represent the procreative god and their rituals were called as maenads (bacchantes). In Phrygia the dancers who were dancers of the goddess Rhea Cybele were called as Corybantes. The priests of the Goddess have castrated or remove their testicle of their own and entered into orgy dances with blood oozing out from their mutilated penis. All most all the dances including Greek had phallus as the sexual importance to symbolize the relationship of sexes. When Maenads danced it produces excitement that approached convulsions. Similar is in the religious dances to honor Bacchus. It can be understood that the Jews of those days also danced religious dances.

''Let Israel rejoice in him that made him; let the children of Zion be joyful to their king. Let them praise his name in the dance; let them sing praises unto him with the timbrel and harp." (Ps, CXLIX, 2, 3)

"But when Herod's birthday was kept, the daughter of Herodias danced before them, and pleased Herod” (Matt, xiv, 6). In the early Christian churches the choir danced while they sung.

The painting Borgia amusing himself painted by Grainier displays the form of entertainment in dancing by the nude girls of those days. There was a shameful understanding about the nudeness and the dances danced by the naked girls. In Ancient Rome Caracalla gave lavish entertainments in the Capri islands were the dancers were the beautiful dancing girls. Once the appreciation for their dances recedes then the dancing girls will be thrown in to the sea over the cliffs. Even now in Rural Spain there is a popular dance performed by both male and female during the dance the dancers throw off their garments one by one until the absolute nudity.

Tuesday, June 12, 2012

History Mystery: Sex And The Religions Part.XI

Probably India is one of the leading country has the worship of the nature and its power by symbolizing the genital organs of male and female. Tantras, the scared writings of Saktas are (somewhat later than Puranas) are the worshippers of the wives of the Trimurthi, hence they are the real worshippers of the female powers of the nature. This female worship extends to Shiva Sakthi otherwise called as Parvathi, Kali devi, Dhurga, Bhavani and more. This kind of female worship can be found in Puranas and is much described in Tantras.

Tandras have most mystic and magic rituals, it largely consisting vulgar and dissolute practicing methods. The oldest Indian myths say that the sky and the earth are the parents of all the other gods which is similar to same folklore of the Greek Bible by Homer and Hesiod. Prajavathi is another god sometimes equally ranked with the Trimurthi and is believed that he is the creator of all other gods and of the life on earth. Hence Prajavathi is identified as the God of Heaven. In ancient days the Phallus was not adored and promiscuously displayed as of today. The women were not allowed to view the genital part of a male of that period. According to the ancient Vedic stories Urvasi was not allowed to see her husband Pururavas as nude. Similar story could be seen in Amor and Psyche in Greek work.

In ancient days, the eternal feminine that is the attributes of conceiving and producing and of nourishing is mentioned as Goethe. Moses told “The Almighty shall bless thee with blessings ……. of the breasts and of the womb" (Gen. xlix, 25). In Psalm “Thy wife shall be as a fruitful vine by the sides of thine house; thy children like olive plants round about the table" (Ps.cxxviii, 3). Similarly the sterility was considered as a curse on Human beings.

Wednesday, May 16, 2012

History Mystery: Sex And The Religions Part.X

With mention to Milton’s paradise lost we can conclude the tree of the knowledge of evil and good and the serpent in the Eden only referred the sexual passion. The feast celebrated as Yom Ashoora on the tenth day of Moharran is the celebration in representation of the first meeting of Eve and Adam after they had driven out of the Eden garden once was their paradise land. The snake has been represented as the symbol of evil from the early historic period. The trepidation of the serpent is common throughout the world since the ancient times. Even devil is worshiped by the ancient people to appease the evil spirit. The Persian goddess Ahriman and Dew are the representation of evil spirits and they are supposed to be the poisonous snakes. In Hinduism the supreme power of creation is of two folded. The right side is the male usually represented by lingam and the left side is the female indicated by the yoni, and is called as Maya Prakriti which is undying and non perishable. In some of the Ardanari- Eshwari the right side is provided with real penis and the left with the valva.

Similar theory can be found in Bible. Philo A Jewish philosopher, who is a contemporary of the Jesus mentioned that Adam was hermaphrodite in nature and god only separated Adam and Eve into two. Further Philo mentioned that the yearning for the reunion of the two halves (Adam and Eve) of the bisexual man with love is the prime basis of the sensual pleasure which is represented as the snake. This is the beginning of all wrongdoing.

According to Augustine, Justin, Gregory of Nyssa, Adam was yield to his obsessive desire for Eve and if he stayed away from the sexual pleasure with her even we might have rebuked god and force god to find out some other harmless way of reproduction without the co operation of the sexes. And the world may fill with the people without romance. We aware that god warned Adam and Eve and told them not to eat the fruit of the tree of Knowledge of good and the bad. But the serpent came and tempted Eve and made them to eat.

Philo describes Eve as the representation of the sensual or perceptive side of man and hence serpent easily attacked Eve. Senses only yield pleasure and bind them and obliterate the immortal virtue. Ancient authors called the “Adams apple” musa paradisiaca, a variety of plantain since this fruit resembles as lingam. Some authors believe that may be a citrus fruit lemon. Almost 90% of the people believe Eve gave Adam an apple to eat. This is the great mistake. The name of the fruit that was given by Eve to Adam was no where mentioned in the bible. More over the apple was unknown to the people of Asia Minor which was the supposed location of the Paradise the Eden garden.

Sunday, February 26, 2012

History Mystery: Sex And The Religions Part.IX

The Kabbalah is a Jewish religious theosophy written in the earliest century of this era. The Kabbalah have certain mysteries which were taught to Adam by God himself in the heaven. They were transmitted to the successive generations orally until they were come to existence to writing. In kabbalah calls the God as Pure Thought or Supreme will or the En Soph. According to the Kabbalah, the Holy Ghost made all the things in the universe as male or female otherwise nothing could endure.

It describes the archetypal man using many mystic references to geometry by assigning the strange numerical values of words and mentioned sex to the right and left. This archetypal man has some special references for example the wisdom was placed in the forehead and hence it was male and the intelligence in the left side of the chest and hence it is female. The father wisdom and the mother intelligence produced a crown. The right arm was for love hence it is male and the justice was in the left arm hence it is female and both together they produce beauty stay in the breasts. The firmness reside on the right thigh hence it is male and the splendor was female and reside on the left thigh they both together produce the sexual organs. According to Kabbalah the marriages are made in heaven and it preaches the greater holiness in monogamous marriages and it says the souls of husband and wife are of two halves of the hermaphrodite spirit wandered without bodies for certain period.

Similar one to Kabbalah is mentioned in the Mormons dogma. Here I wish to state Mormons are not Christian sects. Adam is the primary god where as Christ, Mohammed are the secondary divine characters. They believe that every woman has the duty of giving birth to as many children as possible since all the souls who do not enter into the children during the birth cannot enter into the heaven. They believe that a woman who avoids becoming a mother is a sin and who is doing their duty as a mother and giving birth to many children will be rewarded in the heaven proportionately. Hence Mormonism introduces the polygamy as a religious duty.

The Kabbalah has influence the Christian thinking and has flourished during the Renaissance. That was openly mentioned in the work of the famous and significant things as Pico della Mirandola, Johannes Reuchlin, Cardinal Egidio da Viterbo Arippa etc.

Wednesday, October 5, 2011

History Mystery: Sex And The Religions Part.II

Of course, sex was clearly perceptible in the higher animals and humans, but the ideas as to the sexual progression were fuzzy and are completely unscientific. In fact, the most primitive references in the oldest mythology did not always spoken of “aggressive principles", but it is evident that it taught that the God was of hermaphrodite nature. The story of Cronus is worth remembered. According to Hesiod (The great old Bible of Greek) Cronus (Saturn) separated the Earth and the Heaven with a sickle, by dissecting (Castrated) the sexual organ of his father Uranus.

In Elephanta caves near Bombay there are lot of magnificent old workmanship representing Lord Shiva and Shakthi as one being of hermaphrodite in nature. One of these statutes is about 16 feet high, both male and female sex organs, or being half female and half male. The genderless form of Siva Parvathi, before separation, was called Viraj. In the middle of this cave temple is a bust of the Hindu Trimurti, six feet high.

The thought that formerly gods and men were androgynous, and had to be separated into unisexual beings, accounts for the word "sex," derived from secus (the seco means to ampute or cut apart). Here I wish to state one peculiarity here. Most of the Aryan nations speak of their ultimate God as “Father”. This proclaims the importance of sex in the religion.

The ancient Rig Veda which is the sacred writings of Hindu religion is the oldest literary work of the religious faith. They are supposed to be composed between 4000 to 1500BC. Earlier Vedas were transmitted orally to the younger by the elders of the family. It was reduced to writing only after 600BC. The Vedas in one supreme god Brahma whose   attributes are the three personified powers of creation, protection and destruction. The respective names are Brahma, Vishnu and Siva. They together form the Trimurti, or Hindu Trinity, represented as one body with three heads or three faces within a single head.

                                           (to be continued)