Saturday, July 23, 2022

Knights Templar- History Mystery

The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and the Temple of Solomon are called the Order of Solomon's Temple or the Knights Templar. This Catholic military order is one of the famous Western Christian military orders. They were set up in 1119, and its headquarters on the Temple Mount is in Jerusalem. In addition, they were available for two centuries, nearly during the Middle Ages.

The Knights Templar was a big set-up of devout Christians at the time of the medieval era carrying out a vital mission. They aim to secure European travellers when they visit sites in the Holy Land and carry out military operations. It has a strong and mysterious order that has fascinated historians, people for centuries, financial acumen, etc.

Who was Knights Templar?

Pilgrims from Western Europe began visiting the Holy Land after Christian armies captured Jerusalem from Muslim control in 1099 during the Crusades. Unfortunately, multiple people were robbed and killed while crossing through Muslim-controlled territories during the journey.

A French knight, Hugues de Payens, made a military order around 1118 with eight relatives and acquaintances. He called it the Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and the Temple of Solomon. We know it later as the Knights Templar.

Baldwin II was the ruler of Jerusalem. They established headquarters on that city's sacred Temple Mount with his support, which is the origin of the now-iconic name.

Knights Templar Brief History:

Knights Templars were well trained, well-equipped, and highly motivated. In addition, they were forbidden to retreat in a war until they outnumbered three to one. Besides, Knights Templars follow only the order of the commander. You should know that all of them were not warriors. Most of them wanted to acquire resources that could help them to fund themselves. But a few percent of people fought on the front lines.

Three classes existed within the orders. Knight was the highest class. While someone was sworn into the order, they made the knight a monk. There are a few things which you should know about them. The first one is that they used to wear white robes. Besides, they couldn't hold any property and receive any private letters. In addition, they could not get married or betrothed and have any vow in any other Order.

Moreover, they could not have more debt than they could pay, and they could not have any infirmities. However, the Templar priest class was like the modern-day military chaplain. Furthermore, they conducted religious services and led prayers wearing green robes, and we got proof that they used to wear gloves always until offering Holy Communion.

We know the mounted men-at-arms as the most common class, called "brothers." They got assigned two horses each, where they used to hold multiple positions, including guard, steward, squire, or other support vocations. But, when it comes to the primary support staff, brown or black robes were something they wore. Besides, they were garbed in plate mail or chain mail.

Like them, the armor was not so complete. The warriors got good training for the infrastructure. As a result, they were well-armed. Their horses got training to fight in a war. The combination of soldier and monk was strong for the Templar Knights. However, one of the popular ways to die in battle is martyrdom.

They were shrewd tacticians who followed the dream of Saint Bernard. According to him, a small force might defeat a big enemy. 1177 witnessed the Battle of Montgisard, one of the crucial wars where this was demonstrated. Saladin was a popular Muslim military leader at that time. He tried to push toward Jerusalem from the south with his 26,000 soldiers. Besides, he had pinned the forces of Jerusalem's King Baldwin IV. The coast at Ascalon held the proof of the incident. There were about eighty people who tried to reinforce.

It was in Gaza where they saw Saladin's troops and met. But their force was so small that they could not fight against the opponent. As a result, Saladin decided not to fight against them. Therefore, he went toward Jerusalem. As soon as Saladin and his army went from there, they could join King Baldwin's forces. After that, both went north along the coast.

But Saladin made a big mistake. He allowed them to spread out his army instead of ordering them to stay together. As a result, the opponent benefits from this low state of readiness. They attacked directly against Saladin and his bodyguard at Montgisard near Ramla. The army of Saladin was spread so thin that they could not defend themselves appropriately. It resulted in the loss of Saladin and his forces because they retreated to the south.

While returning to Jerusalem, the remaining number of forces was only a tenth of their original number. In this regard, you need to know that the war wasn't the last one with Saladin. But it bought some peace for a year for the Jerusalem kingdom. A tiny Knights group and the heavily armed warhorses collected tightly, galloping full speed at the enemy lines.

The bottom line:

Knights Templar had a strong will that they might even commit suicide but didn't fall back. In addition, they used to join other armies in crucial wars. Moreover, they stood on the front line of the force in a battle. Sometimes, they worked as fighters to protect the military from the rear. Even they fought wars with King Louis VII of France and King Richard I of England. Furthermore, they fought in the Spanish and Portuguese Reconquista.

Frequently Asked Questions

  • Q. Do they still exist today?

According to most historians, they disappeared 700 years ago. However, some people think they went underground and remained in some form of existence.

  • Q. What do they believe?

They swore an oath of poverty, chastity, and obedience like Cistercians. In addition, they heard the divine office like the monks during every canonical hour of the day.

  • Q. Why were they killed?

The King Philip IV of France and Pope Clement V arrested Jacques de Molay, the Grandmaster, in 1307. They charged him with sacrilege and Satanism.

Sunday, July 10, 2022



Vulgate is known as Bibila Vulgate also in the Bible. It is a late-4th-century Latin translation of the Bible. Pope Damasus I commissioned St Jerome in 382; Vulgate is his work. The motive is to revise the Vetus Latina Gospels the Roman Church used. Later, Jerome has done more work on revision and translation to add most books of the Bible. All his initiative helps him to do so.

It became adopted when Bible text within the Western Church. In addition, it eclipsed the Vetus Latina over succeeding centuries. It was thirteen century when it had taken over from the former version the designation versio vulgata. However, it has a few Vetus Latina translations on which Jerome never worked.

It wanted to be the Catholic Church's officially promulgated Latin version of the Bible. The motive was to be the Sixtine Vulgate in 1590, the Clementine Vulgate in 1592, and the Nova Vulgata in 1979. People used it recently in the Latin Church, which affirmed it as the official Latin Bible at the Council of Trent (1545–1563). However, no authoritative edition existed then, and its Clementine edition became the Roman Rite's common text of the Catholic Church. People found it the same until 1979 when the Nova Vulgata was promulgated.

Why is it called the Vulgate?

It originates from the Latin versio vulgata, indicating "the version commonly used." Jerome used it to refer to the Latin translations that appeared before it, and ancient people of that time used these translations.

What is the origin or source of Vulgate? The root word vulgus is its source, meaning "common people." It meant previously "used by the people." Previously, Latin used to be the main language used in the Western Roman empire. But a difference existed between the way of using and speaking. The way scholars used it was not as the average citizen spoke it. Scholars wrote in "Classical Latin", whereas citizens spoke in "Vulgar Latin."

Vulgate Authorship:

It contains a compound text which doesn't belong to the works of Jerome. Its four Gospels' translations are revisions of Vetus Latina translations, and the Latin translations of the remaining text part belonging to the New Testament are revisions to the Vetus Latina. People think it was produced by Pelagian circles, Rufinus the Syrian, or Rufinus of Aquileia.

People can find many other unrevised books of the Vetus Latina Old Testament in it. For example, 1 and 2 Maccabees, Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch and the Letter of Jeremiah are some of these available in it. Jerome translated The book of Psalms from the Greek Hexapla Septuagint. Later he did the same with all books of the Jewish Bible - the Hebrew book of Psalms included - from Hebrew himself. He even did this to the books of Tobit and Judith from Aramaic versions.

The additions to the Book of Esther from the Common Septuagint are included with the Book of Daniel from the Greek of Theodotion.

Multiple editors made revised texts of the Vulgate over the years. When it was the thirteenth century, the University of Paris made a vital edition. The edition was to offer an agreed standard for theological teaching and debate. You should know hence that the previous printed Vulgate Bibles were based on the Paris edition.

According to the Council of Trent in 1546, it was the exclusive Latin authority for the Bible. But it needs to be printed with the fewest possible faults. Pope Clement VIII issued Clementine Vulgate in 1592. At that time, it was the authoritative biblical text of the Roman Catholic Church, and Catholic scholars made the English language Confraternity Version of the New Testament.

In recent times, people are facing different critical editions. The Second Vatican Council established a commission in 1965 to revise it. The same thing happened in 1979 with Nova Vulgata, and people know it as the Neovulgata. In that year, Pope John Paul II promulgated it in April. At that time, it was the official Latin text of the Roman Catholic Church. Later in 1986, a second edition was released.

After getting commission from Pope Damasus and the death of Damasus in 384 A.D., he finished his task. He had done it with a more cursory revision from the Greek Septuagint of the Old Latin text of the Psalms. After Pope's death, St. Jerome translated it from the Hexaplar revision of the Septuagint. In this case, you should know that he had been the Pope's secretary for a long time and lived in Bethlehem. It is the place where he made a new version of the Psalms.

But he translated all thirty-nine books in the Hebrew Bible M from 390 to 405 A.D. He even translated the third version of the Psalms surviving in some manuscripts. He labelled the new translation of the Psalms as "iuxta Hebraeos." However, he didn't use it in the Vulgate. But he used the translations of the other 38 books. That's why it is considered the first translation of the Old Testament into Latin. It happened directly from the Hebrew Tanakh instead of the Greek Septuagint.

People still cannot know how direct the conversion of Hebrew to Latin was. The exegetical material's use by Jerome, written in Greek, is one reason for it. Besides, Aquiline and Theodotiontic texts use are also responsible. In addition, he translated something in a paraphrastic style which is the reason for it. He discussed the books or some parts of the books in the Septuagint in his prologues. During the time, people could not find Septuagint in Hebrew as non-canonical, and he called them apocryphal. However, these are available in entire editions and manuscripts.

What books are included in the Vulgate?

It has all books available in Protestant Bibles. In addition, it also includes some writings which were vital to the church. These were known as apocryphal to Jerome, meaning that he didn't believe these belonged to the Christian canon. However, the church didn't agree with him and called these deuterocanonical, meaning they belonged to the "second canon."

Later Jerome quotes some apocryphal books in his writings. According to some scholars, it was proof of his changed mind. In addition, according to Catholic and Eastern Orthodox traditions, these are deuterocanonical. But Protestants call them apocryphal, and that's why people can't find these in Protestant translations of the Bible like the NIV. These are the books available in it, with apocryphal/deuterocanonical books in bold:

The Pentateuch:






Historical writings:




1 Samuel

2 Samuel

1 Kings

2 Kings

1 Chronicles

2 Chronicles



Tobias (or Tobit)



Wisdom literature:





Song of Solomon

Wisdom (or Wisdom of Solomon)

Ecclesiasticus (or Sirach)

Major Prophets:





Letter of Jeremiah



Song of the Three Children

Story of Susanna

Bel and the Dragon

Minor Prophets:













1 Maccabees

2 Maccabees

New Testament:







1 Corinthians

2 Corinthians





1 Thessalonians

2 Thessalonians

1 Timothy

2 Timothy





1 Peter

2 Peter

1 John

2 John

3 John




Prayer of Manasseh

3 Esdras

4 Esdras


People know about the impact of the King James Version. They know his lasting impact on the English language, Western literature, art, and culture. But then, the Latin Vulgate was famous for over a millennium, and it was so well-known before the existence of the KJV, the Renaissance.

You can find many English words in modern Bibles. These were lifted out of the Vulgate like "creation," "salvation," "justification," and "testament." This term is common for the devil among English speakers.