Wednesday, July 19, 2017

Papin Sisters: The Shocking Housemaids’ Crime That Shook France – Part II

Papin Sisters

Injuries on Face & Head


The police on entering the house had gone up the stairs and witnessed the awful scene where most of the injuries had been on the face and head of the victims. But the legs and bottom of the daughter portrayed deep knife grazes and both the women were beyond recognition since their faces had been completely ruined. Their teeth laid scattered around the room and one of the eyes of Genevieve had been lying on top of the stair.

Later on it was observed by the investigators that the other eye was under her body while the eyes of Madame were hidden within the folds of her neck scarf. Mrs Lancelin had been lying on her back with her legs apart with only one shoe on while the body of Genevieve had been facing down. A kitchen knife soaked in blood with a dark handle laid near her right hip.

 The entire space was covered with blood which had also been splattered on the walls two meters above the bodies. After the bodies had been discovered by the police, they searched the entire house. They pondered in their mind if the killer had done the same thing to the sisters.

Sisters Confessed Crime


However when they climbed the upper level where the bedroom of the maids was located, the door seemed to be locked. A locksmith had been called to unlock the door and when the police had they had found the girls in bed together with the robes on.

 Near the bed on a chair was kept the bloody hammer with traces of hair stuck to it. When questioned by the police on what had happened, the sister had instantly confessed the crime. The police had arrested the sister and had taken them into custody. Christine had become distressed and had fits when the police tried separating the girls. Ultimately, the authorities permitted a meeting between the two sisters and reported Christine had behaved and spoke in a manner which implied a sexual relationship.

Three doctors had been appointed by the court to order mental evaluations to the sisters to define if they were sane. Christine had shown indifference to the world and indicated that she had no attachments except to Lea. It was reported by the doctors that Christine’s affection for her sister had been of family devotion and that they had not noticed any type of sexual situation in the relationship.

No Pathological Mental Disorders


Lea on the other hand had considered Christine as a big sister or a mother figure and the appraisal stated that the sisters had no pathological mental disorders and no family history. The doctors considered the sisters, completely sane, indicating that the unusually closeness had caused the girls to act out together, both equally responsible for the murder.

 The jurors, at the hearing had taken only 40 minutes to consider and found that Christine and Lea Papin guilty of the murder. Lea had received a 10-year prison sentence while Christine had to face the guillotine, though the sentence had been transformed to life in prison. The gruesome double murder had infuriated the city and shocked the whole of France since there had never been such cruelty in a murder such as this.

Several people wondered why these two girls who seemed to be decent and had been treated well in their domestic positions could be so full of deep hatred that had led them to commit this hideous crime The murder seemed to be very atrocious and the gouging out of eyes along with their fingers seemed to be an act of animal savagery.

No Logical Motive For Crime


Philosophers, psychotherapist, writers together with the others started to chime in with their theories and some intellectuals expressed sympathy with the two girls. They saw the crime as a reflection of oppressive class divisions, poor working conditions together with prejudice while others believed strongly that since the girls had worked in decent employment with kind family, ate the same meals which the rest of the family had and had generous monthly salary, there was no logical motive for this kind of crime.

Some sources presumed that the girls could have been starved of love and affection. They had spent their formative years away from their parents’ instability with the members of the family who should have shown love to them. However they eventually had to go to a Catholic orphanage and there is no indication that they had suffered or were not cared for.

At the trial, a fourth doctor had testified and the girls could definitely not be normal. He had proposed that the relationship between Christine and Lea was a total merger of personalities. Lea had lost her identity to the dominant personality of Christine. In principle, there was no Christine and no Lea. The killer could really be the joint personality of two, a third identity. Psychotherapists all over the world are scrambling for a diagnosis.

Sensational Theory


Another more sensational theory had emerged – did Mrs Lancelin discover that the girls were having an incestuous homosexual relationship and did she perceive something which was not intended for her eyes and that could have been the reason why the girls gouged out the eyes with their bare hands. Christine did not fare well without her sister, in prison.

 She had displayed bouts of madness and had become strictly depressed and dejected and ultimately refused to eat at all. The prison officials then transferred her to a mental institute but there she continued to starve herself till she died in May 1937. Lea on the other hand had shown exemplary behaviour and served only 8 years of her 10-year sentence. She became a free woman in 1941 and lived with her mother in Nantes, France.

 There she worked in hotel housekeeping under an assumed name. Some say she died in 1982 but in 2000 while making a film – In Search of the Papin Sisters, Claude Ventura claimed to have found Lea living in a hospice centre in France. She had suffered a stroke and had been partially paralyzed and not in a position to speak and has passed away in 2001.


Papin Sisters: The Shocking Housemaids’ Crime That Shook France – Part I

Papin Sisters
Credit:neil-paton.tripod

Christine & Lea Papin – Famous for Murdering


In a location in northwest of France is a city called Le Mans known for little famous car race which tends to take place once a year – the `24 Hours of Le Mans’. However with a brief fleeting look at the entry of `Le Mans’ in Wikipedia in the section of Notable People one would perceive down in the 7th position in the midst of twenty difference aristocrats, priest together with well-known musicians, names of Christine and Lea Papin. These two sisters had gifted the city with some amount of dishonour which would then never have been achieved.

The Papin sisters instead of being famous for a splendid and promising accomplishment were famous only for murdering in the most horrific manner, their domestic employer together with her daughter in 1933. The Papin sisters belonged to a troubled family in Le Mans. Their mother was Clemence Derre and their father Gustave Papin. Though there were rumours circulating that Clemence had been having an affair with her boss, Gustave seemed to love her.

When she got pregnant in October 1901, Gustave had married Clemence and baby Emilia Papin was born in February 1902. However it kept Gustave wondering if Clemence still continued with her affair. He then decided to get a job in another town to take Clemence away from Le Mans.

Birth of Emilia


Two years after the birth of Emilia, Gustave made an announcement that he would be taking a new job in a different town. At this Clemence had threatened to commit suicide instead of leaving Le Mans. This gave rise in strengthening his suspicions that had she been having an affair. After she had come round to her senses, the couple then moved and began life afresh.

As they progressed their relationship seemed to be more volatile and according to reports Clemence showed no affection for her husband and children, becoming an unstable individual. Gustave on the other hand turned to alcohol. Clemence had sent Emilia who was 9 or 10 years old to the Bon Pasteur Catholic orphanage. Thereafter there were rumours stating that her father had raped her. Later on she had joined the convent and had become a nun.

Clemence had also given birth to two other children and both of them had been sent away at an early age by Clemence and her husband. Christine was born in 1905 being the middle child of the family seemed to be the difficult child. Immediately after her birth, her parents had handed her over to her father’s sister who had been happy to have her. She remained there with her aunt for seven years after which she went to a Catholic orphanage.

Papin Sisters

Christine - Strong Personality/Lea - Shy


Though Christine preferred joining the convent, her mother did not permit her and sometime later engaged her into service. Having an average intelligence she seemed to have a stronger personality than Lea her sister. Her employers had stated that she would be rude at times though she was a hard worker and a good cook. Lea born in 1911 on the other hand was shy and the youngest child of three girls.

She seemed to be somewhat lower intelligence than her sister and was an introvert, quiet and obedient. Lea had grown up with her mother’s brother till he died and thereafter had joined a religious orphanage till the age of 15 years. In 1926, Christine and Lea Papin being of age were fortunate to have a domestic live-in job together in the home of the Lancelin family in Le Mans. It was a home of a retired lawyer, his wife Leonie together with their adult daughter, Genevieve.

 Christine worked as the family cook and Lea cleaned the house. The Papin sisters seemed on most account good and mode housemaids and every Sunday they would dress up and attend church service. They had built up a reputation of being diligent workers with good behaviour.

The Papin Sisters – Unsocial


Being known to be quite unsocial, Christine and Lea preferred to be by themselves and everyday during their two-hour break after lunch, instead of going out to enjoy themselves, they rather preferred staying in their bedroom. The Papin sisters, by 1933 had been with the Lancelins for 6 years. Christine was 27 years while Lea was 21 years old. That year on February 2, Mrs Lancelin together with her daughter have returned home at around 5.30 to an almost dark house and it had been the second time in a week when due to malfunctioning of iron while Christine had been ironing ,had resulted in the electrical fuse to blow up. Strangely the repair man who had returned the iron that day found nothing wrong with it.

When Christine had informed Mrs Lancelin that the iron had broken down again, she became angry and an argument took place. Mrs Lancelin had been a strict employer and would often put on white gloves to check for dust, would give feedback on Christine’s cooking and make Lea redo the cleaning when she found that she had missed a spot. However this time seemed to be a different affair. It was said that Christine had snapped and being at the top of the stairs on the landing of the first floor had leaped at Genevieve tearing out her eyes with her fingers.

Brutally Slaughtered the Two Women


Lea had quickly joined in the struggle and grabbed Mrs Lancelin. Christine had ordered her to gouge out the eyes of Mrs Lancelin after which Christine ran downstairs to the kitchen to get a knife and hammer and returning back upstairs had clubbed and sliced the mother and her daughter. The sick sisters also utilised a pewter pitcher lying on a table at the top of the stairs to bash the heads of the ladies.

According to experts the incident had lasted for about 30 minutes but eventually the maids had brutally slaughtered both the women. When Mr Lancelin together with his son-in-law had returned home between 6.30 and 7.00 pm the door had been bolted from inside and they were unable to enter though they knew that someone was at home. The house had been in total darkness except for a faint light coming from the upper level of the house. This gave rise to suspicion and hence they sought the help of the police.

Monday, July 10, 2017

Why They Fight Russia in the Air, But Not at Sea

Open Ocean Combat

We have been observing rising violence on the land, sea as well as in the air, after a break of some years, from some familiar sources. As in the past few months there have been recurrent conflicts on the sea, particularly from the Chinese as well as the Iranians.

But in the case of the Russians we only seem to knock up against their elements in the sky which is due to two core elements namely geography and terror. Though several may not be aware of it, it was not till recently that such things like an `open ocean’ combat had taken place in military history. Navies had for most of the time, found themselves restrained either by depth, winds or currents to certain routes.

Besides that there had been the tussle to essentially discover their opponent out on the open ocean and for this purpose, certain chokepoints have envisaged various naval clashes. Credits of our own independence is due to one such fight between a French battle fleet and the British Royal Navy which had stopped the British from being capable of evacuating Lord Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1781 and eventually had terminated the war.

Chokepoints – Straits Leading to Ocean

The fight had begun right at the mouth of the Chesapeake Bay where the French had been waiting for the Brits and hence it had been that these chokepoints like straits leading to the ocean had turned out to be blockages for those following them also.

 It was this that had been driving the Russian crazy for at least four centuries. The Russia Empire since the time of Tsar Peter the Great had pursued expansion to increase not only their wealth but regularly endless search in obtaining unfettered access to the sea. Fettered termed has been utilised since the Russia had actually been restrained with regards to their access to the open oceans.

Their port towards the top of the Baltic Sea in the Gulf of Finland had been initiated by the same Tsar Peter and had been humbly named after him. St Petersburg has long given the Russians the facility to move in the adjoining bodies of water though a bit more.

Getting to the actual blue water and the whole of the globe would mean getting beyond the Danes as well as the Norwegians or even both and that alone was not a convincing proposal even before NATO.

Deep Water Sheltered Port – Access Black Sea

Destined towards the north by geography at the entrance of the Baltic and with ice above the Arctic Circle, the Russians moved south and ran into the same kind of situation as they stretched. Tsarina Catherine the Great had pressed downward and had incorporated the Ukraine together with it the Crimean peninsula into greater Russia.

 The Russian naval base of Sebastopol with her founding had a deep water sheltered port which enabled them to access the Black Sea. However they still has been hemmed in now for a number of centuries by the ironclad lock of the Bosporus more recently at least nominally by the Treaty of Montreaux.

Even if they managed to get out, they would still only have access to the Mediterranean and not the actual open ocean. They tend to have access to the Pacific though it is quite far away from their epicentre and there their operationary to be mostly expeditionary just on leaving the base.

Rodina – Motherland – Land Issue

All this goes a long way in comprehending half of the reasons why the Russians are seen nudging up against us from the sky. To comprehend the remaining half, one could recall that the Russians tend to be really, extremely, fearful. It seems to be all about defense of the Rodina, the `Motherland’ for them and that seems to be a land issue.

 All that they do and design is said to be directed upon that individual prevailing passion. For this purpose, the Russian and before that the Soviet, Navy was and is, designed with power projection in mind as well as with disruption of anyone who tends to influence events on land and hence would be a land threat to them.

It is for this reason that they tend to have an extensive, and to some extent technologically striking, track record in submarines building though not aircraft carriers. This is also the reason why they seem to make long-range anti-ship missiles though are not progressing anything even distantly impending an oceanic system of at-sea replacement or restoration.

A century ago, they had given up on true battleships and knew that they could never combat their way out from their two significant naval bases on the surface and stopped attempting. On the contrary they aimed on developing the weapons which could stop America as well as the other NATO and world allied from getting to Europe and through it, on land, to the Motherland.

Friday, July 7, 2017

Existence Of Orbiting Supermassive Black Holes Confirmed

Black Holes

Research on Interaction Between Black Holes


Astronomers at The University of New Mexico have informed that for the first time they have accomplished observing and measuring the orbital motion between two supermassive black holes hundreds of millions of light years from Earth, a discovery said to be more than a decade in the creation. Krishma Bansal, graduate student of UNM Department of Physics & Astronomy is said to be the first-author on the paper `Constraining the Orbit of the Supermassive Black Hole Binary 0402 +379’ published recently in The Astrophysical Journal.

 Bansal together with UNM Professor Greg Taylor and colleagues at Stanford, the U.S. Naval Observatory and the Gemini Observatory had been researching on the interaction between these black holes for 12 years. Taylor had informed that for a long time they had been looking in space to attempt and find a pair of these supermassive black holes orbiting as a result of two galaxies reunion.

Though they conceived that this should be happening, no one had seen it till now. An international team of researchers in early 2016, comprising of a UNM former student working on LIGO project had identified the presence of gravitational waves endorsing the 100-year-old prediction of Albert Einstein, surprising the scientific community.

The Very Long Baseline Array - VLBA


These gravitational waves had been the consequence of two stellar mass black holes bumping in space within the Hubble time and due to the latest research, the scientists are now in a position of beginning to comprehend what leads up to the merger of supermassive black holes that tends to create ripples in the fabric of space-time.

 They have begun to learn regarding the evolution of galaxies together with the role these black holes tend to play in it. Researchers have been able to observe several frequencies of radio signals emitted by these supermassive black holes – SMBH by utilising the Very Long Baseline Array – VLBA, which is a system made up of 10 radio telescopes all over the U.S. and operated in Socorro, N.M. The astronomers, over a period of time had been capable of planning their course and confirm them as visual binary system.

It meant that they observed these black holes in orbit with one another. Bansal had informed that when Dr Taylor had handed over the data, he had been at the beginning of learning how to image and understand the same. As he learned there was data going back to 2003 and they planned it, determining they were orbiting one another and the same was thrilling.

An Unbelievable Achievement


The discovery for Taylor was the outcome of over 20 years of work with an unbelievable achievement considering the accuracy needed to pull off these measurements. At approximately 750 million light years from Earth, the galaxy called 0402+379 together with the supermassive black holes in it, were exceedingly isolated though were also at the precise distance from Earth and from each other to be observed.

Bansal has informed that these supermassive black holes tend to have a blend of mass of 15 billion times that of the sun or 15 billion solar masses. The incredible size of these black holes means that their orbital period is about 24,000 years. While the team has perceived them for a decade they have still to look out for the slimmest curvature in their orbit.

Roger W. Romani, professor of physics at Stanford University as well as the member of the research team had informed that if one imagines a snail on the recently discovered Earth-like planet orbiting Prixima Centauri – 4,243 light years away, moving at 1 cm per second, it is the lanky motion they are determining here.

Binary Stars Offer Incredible Insights


Taylor had commented that what they have been able in doing is a true chemical achievement over the 12-year period utilising the VLBA in achieving adequate resolution and accuracy in the astrometry to really see the orbit happening, has been a bit of victory in technology to have been able to do so. Though the technical accomplishment of this finding has been really remarkable, Bansal and Taylor have stated that the research could also teach them a lot more regarding the universe where galaxies come from and when they go.

An astronomer with the U.S. Naval Observatory, Bob Zavala stated that the orbits of binary stars offer incredible insights regarding stars and now we will be in a position of using same techniques in understanding supermassive black holes as well as the galaxies they tend to reside in. On-going observation of the orbit and interaction of these two supermassive black holes could be helpful in obtaining an improved understanding of what the future of our galaxy could look like.

 Presently the Andromeda galaxy that has a SMBH also at its core is said to be on a path to run into with our Milky Way. Bansal has informed that the research team would be taking another observation of the system in three or four years and confirm the motion and gain an accurate orbit. The team in the meantime, anticipates that the discovery would encourage related work from the other astronomers across the globe.

Wednesday, July 5, 2017

'Second Earth' Proxima b Could Support Alien Life After All


ALIEN LIFE ON THE PROXIBA B

People can’t take away that we belong to the mother Earth and we are her children. Now, ever since the space travel came into inception, man has travelled to far distant lands in search of water and life and air. They have been successful to some extent. The best thing is that the last summer the researchers and the other scientists announced that the nearest star which is close to our Earth can be considered as the Second Earth. The name has been given Proxima b. the report suggests that alien life is possible on this second earth as the conditions supports that of the survival of life. it is indeed a great news.

THE FACTS

Last year in the month of August, the news of Proxima B came into existence. The planet is not more than 4.2 light years from our own planet. The discovery has led to the conclusion that the second earth has the perfect atmosphere to receive enough sum of light in order to sustain the fluid water on the body. There were some questions raised after the discovery of the Proxima b. well, the first one to shoot was that it might be the cause of a huge amount of radiation due to the proximity. Finally, the conclusion from the scientists is that this new planet can support life.

THE DISTANCE

The planet is very cool and is only 25.2 trillion miles from our earth. It is a red dwarf planet which belongs to the system of Alpha Centauri. This second earth is now a part of the Star shot project. The name is given as it is almost the same size of our own earth. The atmosphere is considered to be the same as that of our own earth. To break the barriers of climate’s knowledge, the scientists from the University of Exeter are doing their research.

THE WORKING

The Met office unified model have been used in order to understand the climate of the second earth. This is a great step as the weather pattern is the most important part of the planet. It will ensure whether life is possible or not. The weather is almost similar that of the earth. So, life is habitable on this second earth. The atmosphere comprised of carbon dioxide traces. So, life is possible on this planet.

THE FURTURE

The future is unpredictable but still we live with our hopes. This is what makes our lives more enchanting and give us one more reason to live another day. In the near future, there may be experiments held on the grounds of the second planet whether life can rally sustain with the elements found on the surface of the planet. The temperature of the planet is between -90 degree Celsius to 30 degree Celsius. The presence of liquid water makes the possibility even clearer.

Tuesday, July 4, 2017

Your Guide to Solving the Next Online Viral Maths Problem

Precise Means of Online Equations - Explained

Several times we may have come across an online post or a fragment of a social media feed stating something such as `This math Problem is Stumping the whole Internet & Can You Solve It? Or Apparently 9 out of 10 people get this wrong. Do you know the answer?

‘At the core of the post there tends to lie numbers and symbols. Irrespective of how hard you may tend to try, it may seem impossible to accept the challenges. One may attempt to do so and on checking on the comment sector you are likely to get to know that some have agreed with your answers while the others tend to have a different point of view. The precise means of approaching these online equations with the least of hassle is explained below:

Language of Mathematics


We tend to read from left to right in the English language and hence it seems natural to view mathematical equations in the same manner. However one would not try to read Arabic or Mandarin in the same way nor would they try to do so with the discrete language of mathematics. In order to be maths-literate, it is essential to comprehend some of the applicable rules regarding spelling and grammar in mathematics.

 A set of firm rules called the order of operations tends to express the precise arithmetical grammar wherein it conveys to us the system in which the mathematical operations need to be performed such as addition and multiplication when they both appear in an equation. The mnemonic BODMAS – Brackets, Order, Division, Multiplication, Addition, and Subtraction, in Australia tends to teach students in assisting them to recall the correct order.

In BODMAS, the order tends to refer to mathematical powers like squared, cube or square root. This could be taught in other countries as PEMDAS, BEDMAS or BIDMAS though all these may come down to precisely the same thing. For instance, it would mean that if we have an equation containing addition as well as multiplication we tend to carry out multiplication first irrespective of the order where they are written.
While considering the equations:
  • (a) 3 x 4 + 2 
  • (b) 2 + 3 x 4
When BODMAS is applied we see that these equations are precisely the same or equivalent and in both the cases we tend to calculate 3x4=12 and then calculate 12+2=14. However some may tend to get an incorrect answer for the second equation since they would have tried solving it from left to right. They may do the addition first (2+3=5) and thereafter multiplication of (5x4) in order to get a wrong answer of 20.

Brackets tend to make a difference


It is here where the brackets tend to be beneficial segment of arithmetical punctuation. A well placed bracket in maths could change the calculation completely. They are utilised in providing a specific part of an equation and we always carry out the calculation within the bracket before dealing with what is outside the bracket. If brackets are introduced around the addition in equation in the above equations we then tend to have two new equations namely
  • (c) 3x(4+2) 
  • (d) (2+3)x4

Correct Understanding of Operation


These equations are not equivalent to each other and in both the cases, the bracket conveys to us to carry out the addition before doing the multiplication. This would mean that we have to compute 3x6 for (c) and for (d) 5x4. We now arrive at different answers wherein the answer for (c) is 18 and (d) is 20. In the case of (a) and (b) equations brackets were not essential since BODMAS conveys to us to do the multiplication before addition.

But with the addition of brackets which reinforces the BODMAS rules could be helpful in evading confusion. Comprehending BODMAS is likely to get us most of the way with regards in resolving the problem though it also assists in being aware of the commutative as well as the associative properties of mathematics. Calculated process is said to be commutative if it is not considered in which order the numbers are said to be written in and addition is commutative since a+b=b+a. However subtraction is not a commutative since a-b is not the same as b-a.

 Moreover it is also direct to display that multiplication is commutative while division is not. An operation is said to be associative when we have numerous successive incidences of this type of operation and it does not matter to which order we carry them out.

Moreover addition as well as multiplication seems to have this property and though subtraction together with division does not have the same. Once the understanding of the correct order of operation together with the associative as well as commutative properties has been arrived we tend to have the tool-box in solving any well-defined arithmetical equation.

Friday, June 23, 2017

Operation Gladio

Operation Gladio – Nickname for - NATO

Operation Gladio is the name given for a secret North Atlantic Treaty Organisation – NATO `stay behind’, procedure during the Cold War in Italy. Its resolution was to formulate and implement armed resistance in case of a Warsaw Pact attack and conquest. It was a NATO backed revolutionary network that had been established after WW2 initially inspired due to fear of the USSR.



 It had been called the `stay behind network since in case of doubt if the Red Army would invade Europe, its member had to `stay behind’ enemy line to disrupt Soviet control. Gladio is said to be the Italian type of gladiu a kind of Roman shortsword. The stay-behind operations had been prepared in several NATO member countries as well as some neutral countries.

The role of the Central Intelligence Agency – CIA in Gladio as well as the extent of its activities at the time of the Cold War era together with any connection to terrorist attacks perpetrated in Italy at the time of the `Years of Lead’ – in late 1860s to early 1980s, were the topic of debate. Switzerland together with Belgium were the countries who had parliamentary inquiries in the matter. Operation Gladio had first been known in 1990 in Italy after more than 40 years of secret operations.

NATO’s Secret Armies


It had been revealed by the members of the project that identical projects prevailed in most of the countries of Western Europe. These stay-behind networks had been in essence, super-secret armies in about 14 European countries that had been kept undisclosed from the official governmental structure of the host countries.

They were controlled by the other forces like the CIA and MI6 which were mostly inactive though were also involved in anti-communist activities comprising of anti-democratic tension together with false flag `terrorism’. Gladio or Sword in Italian was the name technically given to their operations in Italy though has since, come by extension to stand for the phenomenon as complete.

 Indication of such type of arrangement that had been kept concealed from both public as well as politicians democratically elected governments in the host countries for a quarter of a century had been exposed through a series of scandalous revelations in Italy together with other NATO countries at the time of the 90s.

It had been meticulously documented by Daniele Ganser, a Swiss historian in his 2004 book – NATO’s Secret Armies. This had debatably been the most shocking book ever to be unnoticed by the corporate media.
 

Accepted/Confirmed Instance of False-Flag Terrorism


  Evidence in the Ganser book of terrorism focused against the people by secret armies had been funded and organised by NATO as well as answerable to deep state elements with NATO, MI6 together with CIA instead of the respective governments, is said to be too shocking that the initial reaction of several people would be to discard the same.

However, in Italy, Switzerland and Belgium, the claims have been authenticated by juridical inquired and have been debated in the European Parliament. Gladio and its stay-behind networks could be one of the historically `accepted or confirmed instance of false-flag terrorism.

 The resolution, documentation together with the confessions and convictions tend to confirm that Gladio is said to be much more than the media or government would have you to believe a mere plot theory.

Wednesday, June 21, 2017

Black Hole Computer Simulations Help to Identify Third Gravitational Wave

Gravitational Wave Signal

Significant contributions to gravitational wave astronomy continues with Rochester Institute of Technology researchers with the third detection of gravitational waves as well as a fresh black hole which is 49 time the size of the sun. The results from the detection of gravitational waves on January 4, was recently announced by the LIGO collaboration and the finding would be published in the journal Physical Review Letters.

 RIT scientists had supported the collaboration measure as well as interpreted black hole spins together with their alignment. These measurements could tell scientists on what occurred when massive stars tend to die and transform into black holes. The gravitational wave signal had been developed from the collision of black holes. The freshly located black hole which had been formed by the merger had a mass of around 49 times that of the sun.

This tends to fill in a breach between the masses of the two merged black holes detected earlier by LIGO, with that of the solar masses of 62 – the first detection and 21 – second detection. Richard O’Shaughnessy, associate professor in RIT’s School of Mathematical Sciences had commented that they can see the outlines of a population of black holes emerge.

Combination of Heavy Black Holes – Plenty of Net-Aligned Spin

The LIGO paper quotes O’Shaughnessy’s upcoming research that had been utilised in part to assist in interpreting the latest event. He had presented his work at the American Astronomical Society in Austin, Texas. He noted that the fresh observations rule excludes the possibility that combination of heavy black holes tend to have plenty of net-aligned spin and are in agreement with the breakthrough observation of 2015 of LIGO.

O’Shaughnessy stated that either since heavy black hole spins seems to be small or due to they being tilted, their net effect cancels out. Various teams have made diverse predictions for black hole spins and the most extreme forecasts are ruled out. With regards to the others, it is only a matter of time. Centre for Computational Relativity and Gravitation, a research at RIT is developing the techniques for comprehending the crucial astrophysical parameter spin according to Professor Carlos Lusto, in the School of Mathematical Science of RIT.

 Lousto had commented that at RIT, they are working on enhancing the spin measurements of the black holes by resolving to high precision the equations of Einstein and directly comparing those theoretical forecasts with those of the observed signals of LIGO.

Gravitational Ways Moves at Speed of Light

At the Centre for Computational Relativity and Gravitational of RIT, researchers have openly linked the wave signals to their computer simulations considering the equations of Albert Einstein. The latest interpretations have further tested the general theory of relativity and prediction of Einstein that gravitational ways tends to move always at the speed of light.

 No confirmation has been seen by LIGO that the waves had travelled at different speeds. According to Manuela Campanelli, director of the Centre for Computational Relativity and Gravitation and Frontier in Gravitational Astrophysics, which is an RIT signature research area, this third event is in a mass range intermediate to the earlier two events showing that the black hole mergers are common in the universe.

The members of the RIT of the LIGO Scientific Collaboration comprise of John Bero, Hans-Peter Bischof, Manuela Campanelli, James Healy, Brennan Ireland, Jacob Lange, Carolos Lusto, Rupal Mittal, Richard O’Shaughnessy, Monica Rizzo, Nicole Rosato, John Whelan, Andrew Williamson, Jared Wofford, Daniel Wysocki, and Yuanhao Zhang together with Yosef Zlochower.

The international collaboration tends to have around 1,000 members who seem to perform the research of LIGO along with the European-based Virgo Collaboration. The new discovery had taken place at the time of the prevailing observing run of LIGO that had started on November 30 2016 and would be continuing through the summer.

Interpretations of LIGO – Twin Detectors

The interpretations of LIGO had been carried out by twin detectors, one in Hanford, Wash while the other was in Livingston, La. It was operated by Caltech and Massachusetts Institute of Technology with subsidy from the National Science Foundation. The first undeviating surveillance of gravitational waves by LIGO was done in September 2015 while the second discovery was in December 2015.

The LIGO breakthrough paper obviously quotes 2005 landmark research done by Campanelli together with her team on binary black hole mergers and considering this milestone work, Lusto together with Healy statistically revealed the merger of a pair of black holes with replicated gravitational waveforms which seemed to match the first detection of LIGO.

Subsidized by the National Science Foundation, LIGO was operated by MIT and Caltech, conceived and the project was constructed. Monetary support for the Advanced LIGO project had been led by NSF with Germany – Max Planck Society, the U.K. – Science and Technology Facilities Council and Australia – Australian Research Council which made substantial commitments as well as contributions to the project.

Over 1,000 scientists from across the globe had participated in the work through the LIGO Scientific Collaboration that comprised of the GEO Collaboration. The partners of LIGO with the Virgo Collaboration which is a consortium comprising of 280 additional scientists all over Europe had been supported by the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare and Nikhef and Virgo’s host institution, the European Gravitational Observatory.

Monday, June 12, 2017

Leaked footage from top-secret Area 51 military base shows mysterious ALIEN craft


Area 51 – Base for Alien Spacecraft & Technology

Area 51 is said to be one of the secretive areas in the world and according to the author of the UFO Investigations Manual, Nigel Watson who informed MailOnline, Area 51 is said to be a magnet for those who are of the belief that the US Government knows a lot more about UFOs than they seem to reveal to the public. People like the late Boyd Bushman, a senior scientist who had worked for Lockheed Martin had declared that the Area 51 is a base where alien spacecraft and technology is stored and examined.

UFO hunters at Secure Team 10 have now exposed leaked footage which portrayed an unfamiliar craft hiding in the Nevada-based military facility. The peculiar video tends to portray a flying object soaring in the sky and later flying away, releasing a strange light while occasionally moving from side to side. Tyler Glockner running the SecureTeam 10 on the YouTube clip has commented that it is one of the mysterious pieces in UFOlogy. He has described the footage as a hidden gem which is said to be filmed in the 1980s or 1990s. The mysterious object seemed to be getting higher and higher releasing a peculiar light as per the footage.

Hot Spot for Alien Fanatics

However unconvinced ufologist Scott Brando running hoax busting website ufoofinterest.org had stated that the video had not been recorded at Area 51 but another top-secret USAF base in Nevada had been recorded. On May 30, 1995, Mr Brando had shown the same footage that had been recorded at the Nellis Air Force base in Las Vegas. He frequently highlights Secureteam 10 for confusing its over 750,000 subscribers. He together with other UFO hoax busters have claimed to have revealed its use of CGI footage and misrepresentation and the channel seems to be on the blacklist on a numb UFO website.

Mr Glockner has denied being a deliberate hoaxer and had claimed that his research is candid. Since late 1970s, the Nevada based military testing facility is said to be a crucial point of several conspiracy theorist as well as UFOlogists who have claimed that the base houses enigmatic alien technology. The extensive military complex is placed between a dry lake bed towards the North East and a small mountain to its West. Since 2013, area 51 has been a hot spot for alien fanatics since the government had not acknowledged it existence.

Historic Test Site for Military Aircraft

The same has remained enclosed from prying eyes of the public with guards equipped with weapons guarding the surrounding area. Statements of alien conspiracies near Area 51 have been largely exposed though the site has been confirmed as a historic test site for military aircraft.

Some of the well-known machines have been developed there comprising of the U-2 spy plane, SR-71 Blackbird and the F-117A Nighthawk stealth fighter. Area 51 is covered by a severe 23 by 25 mile, no-fly zone for civilian aircraft. Neighbouring viewpoints Freedom Ridge and White slides Peak providing vantage points watching down on the base are said to be prohibited to the public.

Friday, June 9, 2017

Chapatti Movement

The Revolution of 1857 – Chapatti Movement 

 

History is said to be of several lessons and tends to have great mysteries for us to unravel. Some may tend to be new while others could be very ancient. One such mystery is regarding the Chapatti Movement which involved the rare distribution of thousands of chapattis which is known to be a kind of unleavened flatbread that was eaten in various Indian villages during 1857. The revolution of 1857 was said to be the first war of independence of India from the British rule.

Though the Indian soldiers were not well equipped as the British soldiers, they fought bravely with all their might laying their lives down fighting the oppression of the British policies. Some historians were of the belief that few months before the revolution of 1857, a mysterious distribution of chapattis had started which was difficult to explain by anyone and the event has left all perplexed over the years.

The Chapatti Movement involved the rare distribution of thousands of chapattis though the crucial cause of the movement is not clear. However the British agents were of the opinion that the chapattis could have contained some secret messages though investigation carried out showed no such messages.

Strange & Inexplicable Distribution

 

Dr Gilbert Hadow, an army surgeon in the employment of the East India Company, in March 1857, had written the following lines describing the peculiar movement which had taken place in 1857 in a letter to his sister in Britain saying that there was a mysterious affair going on all over India. No one was aware of the meaning of the same.

 Moreover it was unclear where it had originated from by whom or for what reason, whether it was supposed to be linked to any religious ceremony or whether it had to do with some secret society. The Indian papers were full of assumptions to what it meant and was known as the Chapatti Movement.

 Dr Hadow described the 1857 movement of the strange and inexplicable distribution of thousands of chapattis which had been passed from one person to another and from village to village all over the country. During that time, tension in British occupied India, was at its peak and the discontented Indians, tired and sick of the unfair British rule were on the quiet planning a mutiny. That year, in February a strange thing occurred.

Movement Exposed by Magistrate of Town of Mathura 

 

Thousands of unmarked chapattis had been circulated to homes as well as police outposts all over India by runners at night where those who had accepted them would silently make more collections and pass them on.

The movement had been exposed by the magistrate of the town of Mathura, Mark Thornhill, who had engaged in some investigation and discovered that chapattis had been travelling up to a distance of 300 kilometres each night everywhere from Narmada River in the south to the border of Nepal many hundred miles to the north.

 The mysterious distribution of the chapattis led to a belief that something strange was going on. On extensive enquiries on the strange distribution of the same gave rise to several theories though few facts. Moreover since there was no written note or any sign on the chapattis, the British were irate for being incapable of finding any valid reasons for stopping or arresting the chapatti runners who often seemed to be police officials themselves.

Strangely, when the chapatti runners were questioned later on regarding the significance of distributing the same from one home to another, they had been totally ignorant of the purpose of the distribution.

Code Signalling a Call to Rebel 

 

The chapattis had been real and even the runners had not been aware of the purpose of the distribution of the chapattis. The police officials would bake the same, which was two inches each in diameter and distribute them to their colleagues who in turn would make some more and pass them to their associates in the neighbouring villages.

In some unusual documents of the revolution of 1857 it was discovered that the chapattis had travelled far and wide by March 5, 1857, from Avadh and Rohilkhand to Delhi. The British officers were filled with anxiety when they discovered that the chapattis had reached into every police station in the vicinity and around 90,000 policemen had been involved in the movement.

They were particularly disturbed knowing that the chapattis had been moving much quicker than the fastest British mail. Though they had no convincing proof the confused British assumed that the chapattis had been some sort of a code signalling a call to rebel against the colonial rule.

Shaken British Empire to the Core

 

Debates were on as to whether the same had come from the east, near Kolkata or from Avadh in the north or from Indore in the centre of the country. Overall the Chapatti Movement had shaken the British Empire to the core.

 India had been controlled by the British with a small number of men about 100,000 in total, conquering a large population of 250 million and hence they were aware of how insufficient they would be in the event of a serious revolution. Being continuously tensed due to it, they considered any sort of communication by the locals which they were unable to comprehend as suspicious resulting in fear.

Rumours regarding the unusual chapatti chain had resulted in an uneasy atmosphere prevailing across the country. When the rebellion broke out that year, with the first armed rebellion at Meerut on May 10, it had been alleged that due to the circulation of the chapattis, an underground movement had been planned which had started the movement.

Operative Weapon of Psychological Warfare

 

Some years later, J W Sherar, in the book Life During the Indian Mutiny, had acknowledged that if the purpose behind the plan was intended to create an atmosphere of mysterious restlessness its purpose was served. The movement had put the British in a state which turned out to be very operative weapon of psychological warfare against the colonial rule.

Moreover it was said that the chapattis had been a basic in the army of Tantia Tope and Lakshmi Bai when they had moved around at the time of the revolution. The notable guerrilla fighting, Kunwar Singh had also travelled with a few soldiers and would stop at villages in order to get a refill of ghee laden chapattis, gur and water.

Latest studies have shown that the circulation of chapattis could have been an attempt of delivering food to people affected with cholera. But considering the inconclusive evidence, it can only be concluded that at the moment the chapattis had just been chapattis and not any secret messages or warning of looming rebellion.

Thursday, June 1, 2017

Quantum Fluctuations Keeps the Universe Swell

Universe

Unsolved Mysteries in Science – Universe Expanding

One of the greatest unsolved mysteries in science is that our universe seems to be expanding and how and why this expansion has been quickening is not known. Academics this month recommended that it was owing to every point in space oscillating between expansion and contraction and instead of these changes cancelling each other out, there is a small net effect resulting in the universe to gradually expand normally.

A PhD student at the University of British Columbia, Canada, Qingdi Wang leading a team looking into these tiny fluctuations stated that space-time was not as static as it appeared and is continuously moving. This tends to take place at very tiny scales, billions and billions times smaller than even an electron.

 Physicists estimate that the expansion of the universe is due to the dark energy pushing matter away and though we are not aware of precisely what dark energy tends to be, there is something known as vacuum energy. It is said to be continuously altered by the fluctuation of virtual particles bursting in and out of way of life. It is said to be background energy created in the universe and is connected to uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics of Heisenberg.

Every Point in Space – Yo-Yoing – Expansion/Contraction

If the theory of quantum mechanics is applied to this vacuum energy concept it turns out to have additional energy than the total energy of all the particles in actuality. This would result in explosion of the place. Wang and Co had calculatedthat vacuum energy tends to be present without blowing apart the universe and have done so in a manner which puts the idea forward that every point in space is yo-yoing between expansion and contraction with a small increase in the direction of expansion.

Their effort had been published in Physical Review D recently. Co-author of their paper and a professor of physics and astronomy at the University, William Unruhhad compared the effects to waves rippling through an ocean.

The vacuum energy procedure is said to be alike the waves seen on the ocean. Unruh stated that they are not affected by the intense dance of the single atoms which makes up the water where the waves tend to ride. The fluctuations occur at the Planck scale at 10-33 cm which is complex to prove. However the researchers expect that it may indirectly be confirmed in the future.

Accelerated Expansion – Recognized Observation

Wang had explained to the Reg that accelerated expansion was already a recognized observation of the universe with tons of experimental consequences and their theory had explained this occurrence successfully. They would be generalizing the theory to be capable of clarifying the evolution of the universe in details, predict some latest patterns that could be examined in the near future in the interplanetary microwave background radiation.

Saul Perlmutter, Brian Schmidt and Adam Reiss, Nobel Prize winning astrophysicist had learned that the universe had been increasing at a fast rate in 1998. They found that the redshift for observed supernovae had been bigger than speculated. It recommended that the blowing up of stars had been moving at a quicker pace than believed earlier and the expansion of the universe had to be hurrying.

Wednesday, May 31, 2017

Mining the Moon Could Give Us Enough Rocket Fuel- Says Student Researcher

mining of moon

2017 Caltech Space Challenge

It’s been forty five years since man had last set foot on space and now the moon is said to be the focus of effort for not only exploring space but alsoto develop aenduring, independent space managing society.Scheduling an expedition to the nearest celestial neighbour of Earth is now no longer just an effort of NASA but the space agency of U.S has ideas for a moon-orbiting space station which would be serving as a performing ground for Mars mission in the early 2030s.

 A joint project – the United Launch Alliance between Lockheed Martin and Boeing has scheduled a lunar fuelling station for spacecraft with the potential of supporting 1,000 people living in space within 30 years. Billionaires Elon Musk, Jeff Bezos as well as Robert Bigelow have companies focussed on delivering people or goods to the moon.

 Many teams competing in partaking in the share on the cash prize of US$30 of Google are intending to launch travellers to the moon. Recently a few together with 27 other students from across the world had contributed in the 2017 Caltech Space Challenge suggesting designs on what a lunar launch and supply station for deep space mission could appear like and how it would function.

Moon – One-Sixth of Gravity of Earth

Presently all space missions depend on and are launched from Earth though its gravitational pull seems to be strong. In order to get into orbit, the rocket needs to be travelling 11 km a second – 25,000 miles per hour.

A rocket leaving Earth needs to carry the fuel essential to reach its destination and if needed to return back again. The fuel is said to be heavy and moving with it at such high speeds would take a lot of energy. If the refuelling is done in orbit, the launch energy could lift more travellers or cargo or scientific equipment in orbit.

The spacecraft could then refuel in space where the gravity of the Earth seems to be less powerful.The moon is said to have one-sixth of the gravity of Earth making it a pretty substitute base. Besides this, it also has ice wherein we are aware how to process into a hydrogen-oxygen propellant which can be utilised in several recent rockets.

The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter and Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite missions of NASA have now found considerable quantity of ice in long-lasting shadowed craters on the moon.

Prospector/Constructor/Miners

These would be tricky locations to mine since they tend to be colder and have no sunlight to power wandering vehicles. But big mirrors on the rims of the craters could be installed in order to illuminate solar panels in the permanently shaded regions.

Travellers set to launch in 2020 from Lunar X Prize competition from Google and Lunar Resource Prospector from NASA would also be contributing in locating good areas to mine ice. Based on where the best reserves of ice seem to be, it would be essential to build many small robotic moon bases. Each would mine ice, manufacture liquid propellant as well as transfer the same to passing spacecraft.

A plan of accomplishing these tasks with three various types of ramblers had been developed by the team. The plan also needed some small robotic shuttles in meeting up with nearby deep-space mission vehicles in lunar orbit. One of the rover known as Prospector would be exploring the moon and locate ice-bearing areas.

A second, the Constructor would be following along behind constructing a launch pad and packing down roadways to ease movements for the third kind of rover, the Miners. This would in fact amass the ice, delivering it to the nearest storage tanks and an electrolysis processing plant which tends to split water into hydrogen and oxygen.

Landing Pad – Lunar Resupply Shuttles

Moreover, the Constructor would also be erecting a mooring pad wherein small near moon vehicle spacecraft called Lunar Resupply Shuttles would be arriving for the collection of fuel for delivery as lately launched spacecraft pass by the moon.

The aircrafts would utilise the moon-made fuel and have advanced guidance together with navigation systems for travel between lunar bases and their object spacecraft. With the provision for adequate fuel being produced and the aircraft delivery system is tested and dependable, their intentions are for building a gas station in space.

The aircraft would be delivering ice straight to the orbiting fuel depot after which it would be processed into duel and where the rockets heading to Mars or any other area could dock to refill. The depot would be equipped with large solar arrays powering an electrolysis module for the purpose of melting the ice and later turning the water into fuel together with huge fuel tanks for storing what is prepared.

NASA has been operational on most of the technology essential for a depot such as this comprising of docking and fuel transfer. A working depot is expected to be ready in the early 2030s in time for the first human missions to Mars.

Earth-Moon Lagrangian Point – L1

The depot needs to be placed in a stable orbit probably near the Earth and the moon to be most useful as well as effective.The Earth-moon Lagrangian Point 1 – L1 is said to be a point in space around 85% of the way from Earth to the moon wherein the force of the gravity of the Earth would match the force of the gravity of the moon pulling in the other direction.

It seems to be an ideal pit stop for a spacecraft going on its way to Mars or the external planets. The team also located a fuel-efficient system of getting spacecraft from Earth orbit to the L1 depot which needed much less launch fuel and reducing more lift energy for cargo items. Initially, the spacecraft would be launching from Earth into Low Earth Orbit with empty propellant tank and then it could be towed with its cargo from Low Earth Orbit to the L1 depot utilising solar electric force tug, which is a spacecraft largely propelled by solar-powered electric thrusters and this would triple the payload delivery to Mars.

By assisting us in escaping the gravity of the Earth as well as its necessity on the resources, a lunar gas station can be the initial move to the big leap in making humankind a space civilization.

Friday, May 26, 2017

Rare William Caxton Medieval Text That was Part of One of the First Books Printed in England Discovered

Thrilling Discovery – Medieval Printed Text

An exceptional specimen of medieval printed text by discoverer William Caxton that had earlier been utilised in reinforcing the spine of a book has been considered as a `thrilling’ discovery. Dating back to late 1476 or early 1477, the two pages from a priest handbook had been discovered buried in a box at the collections of Reading University by librarian Erika Delbecque while she catalogued thousands of stuffs regarding the history of printing and graphic design.

Experts had suggested that the treasure was said to be among the first book that had been printed in England by the press of Caxton and could have fetched £100,000 had it been sent to market. Ms Delbecque had mentioned that she suspected that it was `special’ as soon as she had noticed it and informed that it was unbelievably rare to find an unknown Caxton leaf and surprisingly that it had been under our noses for so long.

She further stated that this well-preserved item happens to be the only one of its kind and one of just two remaining fragments from this medieval Caxton book in existence. The leaf had earlier been pasted to another book for the improper purpose of reinforcing its spine.

Original Caxton Leaf

She added that they understand that it was rescued by a librarian at the University of Cambridge in 1820 who had no idea that it was an original Caxton leaf. It had been written in MedievalLatin featuring black letter typeface, layout and red paragraph which had marked it out as a specimen of very early western European printing. No more copies of the pages that could have been printed side of a single leaf of paper have been found to have lasted.

Andrew Hunter, early printing specialist of Blackwells Books who had done the valuation had stated that discovery of even a fragment from among the earliest printing of Caxton in England had been thrilling to bibliophiles and of immense interest to the scholars and if this had come to the market, there would have been competition for the same.

 Moreover it would be a boundless prize for private collector as well as a feather in the cap for any institution. As per the British Library, Caxton was said to be the first to print a book in English as well as the first English printer.

Sarum Ordinal/Sarum Pye

At the time of working in the Low Countries and Germany, he comprehended the marketable potential of the latest technology. In late1475 or early 1476, Caxton had put uphis very own printing press in London. The discovery is said to be from a book known as the Sarum Ordinal or Sarum Pye that had assisted priests in prioritising religious feast days for English saints.

It had been part of a collection which had earlier belonged to late John Lewis, a typographer and his wife Griselda, a writer and book designer. The same had been bought by the university at an auction in 1997 for £70,000 with the aid from the Heritage Lottery Fund. As per the Reading University, the leaf then had laid among several thousands of other objects in the collections before it had been identified.

The only surviving fragment of the book is said to be at the British Library in London.This discovery would be on display at Merl Museum of Reading University on London road from May 9 to May 30.

Thursday, May 25, 2017

The Mysterious Flashes of Light Even NASA Can't Explain

Enigmatic Flashes

A spacecraft witnessing Earth had within a span of only one year, spotted hundreds of enigmatic `flashes’ which mirrored off the surface of our planet. The strange spectacle is said to be traced all the way back to the 1990s when Carl Sagan the astronomer had noted identical mysterious glints in images from the spacecraft of Galileo.

Though it was initially presumed that these mysterious flashes of light only seemed over oceans with the possibility of streamlining their source, it has now been discovered by the scientists that they can be viewed over the land also. Researchers have in a new investigation observed that these surges probably tend to be surprisingly small source, tiny, horizontal ice crystals that float high in the sky.

The Earth Polychromatic Imaging Camera – EPIC of NASA aboard the NOAA’s Deep Space Climate Observatory –DSCOVR had spotted 866 surges of light over the land between the launch of the observatory in 2015 and August 2016. DSCOVR deputy project scientist Alexander Marshak, had explained that the flashes which have been observed over the ocean could have simply been the reflection of sunlight over a smooth part of an ocean or lake. However the same could not be said regarding the flashes that were observed over the land.

Surge of Light Due to Water in Atmosphere

Marshak had informed that they had discovered some very bright flashes over land also and when they first witnessed it they thought that maybe there was some water there or a lake the sun seemed to be reflecting on.

 However the flint seemed to be quite big and so the same was not considered. EPIC tends to capture red, green and blue images many images apart resulting in the flashes to seem as tri-coloured fragments. The researchers suspected that if these strange occurrences had been caused due to reflected sunlight, they would be concentrated to distinct locations on Earth where the angle between the sun as well as the Earth would be similar as that between the spacecraft and Earth.

On plotting this it was discovered that the two matched. This seemed to be helpful, according to the researchers, to weed out lightning as a probable cause. Marshak had stated that lightning does not care about the sun and the location of EPIC. The researchers, in their study had imagined that the surge of light could be due to water high up in the atmosphere in the form of ice particles.

Presence of High Cirrus Clouds

In order to get an understanding, they plotted the angles of the reflections, tapping them into two channels on EPIC which enabled them to measure the height of clouds. The study showed the presence of high cirrus clouds 3 to 5 miles where these enigmatic flashes had been noticed. Besides these the angles suggested that they are positioned horizontally.

Marshak had informed that the cause of the flashes was definitely not on the ground and is certainly ice and most probably solar reflection off of horizontally focused on particles. This information is being utilised by the researchers to help in determining whether or not they have an impact on the extent of sunlight which tends to pass through the atmosphere.

The scientist state that in addition to the implications for Earth, glints like those spotted by DSCOVR could also be utilised to study exoplanet.

Monday, May 22, 2017

NASA Releases Stunning 'Action Cam' Footage of Astronauts Working 250 Miles Above Earth

Fascinating Recording Released on YouTube

Unbelievable action cam recording from spacewalk on the International SpaceStation has been revealed by NASA, providing a close look at what occurred when astronauts tend to step outside the orbiting craft. Initially it could be easy to overlook that they are 250 miles above the surface, as the astronauts tend to go about their tasks, though a quick change of perception revealing the curve of Earth faraway comes as a shuddering reminder.

Thomas Pesquet of ESA together with Shane Kimbrough of NASA had prepared the pressurized Mating Adapet-3 for a second International Docking Adapter that would permit profitable crew vehicles to berth. The fascinating recording which had been released on YouTube recently had been captured by Pesquet on March 24 in advance of the robotic move ofthe Pressurized Mating Adapter 3, on March 26.

The space agency had explained that the cables as well as the electrical connections had been disconnected by Pesquet and Kimbrough enabling PMA-3 to later on to move from the port side of the Tranquillity module to the space facing area of the Harmony module. The video had portrayed the task from the perception of the astronauts as they carried out the practical mission on the external of the ISS.

Peggy Whitson – Record Breaking Eighth Spacewalk

Besides it also provides a spectacular view of the Earth as perceived from distant above. The spacewalk had been directed to prep the PMA-3 for the docking adapter that would be provided by a SpaceX Dragon freight craft. Moreover, the team also installed a new computer relay box on the starboard zero truss, bringing in the innovative software to the adapter.

According to NASA, they had greased the latching end effector on the Special Purpose Dexterous Manipulator `extension’ for the Canadarm2 robotic arm, examined a radiator valve presumed to be leaking some amounts of ammonia, replaced cameras on the Japanese section of the outpost.It has been the second spacewalk of Pesquet while the fifth one for Kimbrough.

At the time of the interview on NASA TV the week of the spacewalk it had been admitted by Kimbrough that going outside was a gee-whiz moment for him. Days after the spacewalk had featured in the `action cam’ recording, Kimbrough had returned to the outside along with astronaut Peggy Whitson for her record breaking eighth spacewalk which is said to be the most performed ever by a woman.

Lost an Important Piece of Shielding

However the excursion had not been without any accidents. The spacewalking astronauts had lost an important piece of shielding at around 10.30 a.m. which was required for the International Space Station, compelling them to carry out an unplanned patch. The cloth bundle had floated away halfway through the spacewalk.

The lost fabric shield is comparatively huge weighing 18 pounds and when it tends to be folded measure around 5 feet by 2 feet and is around 2 inches thick. Spacewalkers had lost things earlier comprising of an entire tool kit in 2008. However the getaway items tend to be usually small, like bolts. Whitson had broken another record on achieving the longest time spent in space by an American. She had extended her trip by three months.

Wednesday, May 17, 2017

The Unexplained Mystery of Granger Taylor

The Unexplained Mystery of Granger Taylor

Granger Taylor – Mechanical Genius

Granger Taylor was a self-taught mechanical genius, a dropout of school in the eighth grade. But at the age of fourteen he had built a one-cylinder automobile that is kept on display at the Duncan Forest Museum together with a steam locomotive which he had hauled out of the woods and renovated.

At the age of seventeen he had also overhauled a bulldozer which no one could repair. Besides that he had also built a model of a World War II fighter plane which had been snatched up by a collector for $20,000. Granger would always speculate on how Flying Saucer were driven and built his own from two satellite dishes one top and another bottom as a means of inspiration.

This flying saucer became a home away from home with a couch, TV together with a woodstove and he would regularly sleep in his space craft. Later on he informed that he had been in touch with extra-terrestrials who were going to display to him how their technology operated. He even went on to tell everyone that he intends going on a trip on an alien space ship and on one particular night in November 1980 he had disappeared, leaving a note for his family.


Great Canadian Mystery

Till date in spite of a RCMP investigation, he was never found nor did they find any probable clues regarding his whereabouts. This has been a great Canadian mystery and surely a person of his apparent mechanical talents could not go unobserved if he had only just slipped away in the night.

 After an investigation period of four years of thorough checks of hospital, employment, passport and vehicle records, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police did not come across a single lead to know where he could have been.

The Granger Taylor Flying Saucer is said to rest on stilts in the backyard area of his home at Duncan on Vancouver Island and is a mute memorial to young Granger Taylor who was its builder. Douglas Curran in his book – In Advance of the Landing: Folk Concepts of Outer Space (1985) had mentioned that `he had built his spaceship out of two satellite receiving dishes and outfitted it with a television, a couch and a wood-burning stove.

 He had become obsessed with finding out how flying saucers were powered, and spend hours sitting in the ship thinking and often falling off to sleep there’.

Disappeared – On Night of November 1984

On a night on November 1984, he had just disappeared leaving behind a yard strewn with old tractors, machine engines, vintage automobiles, a bulldozer together with a note that read- `Dear Mother and Father, I have gone away to walk aboard an alien ship.

As recurring dreams assured a 42 month interstellar voyage to explore the vast universe, then return. I am leaving behind all my possession to you as I will no longer require the use of any. Please use the instructions in my will as a guide to help. Love Granger. He had informed a friend a month before his disappearance that he was in spiritual contact with someone from another galaxy and he had received an invitation to go on a trip through the Solar System.

Curran had mentioned that on the night Granger disappeared, there was a storm which had struck the central area of Vancouver Island and hurricane winds were reported and electrical power had been affected. Granger had disappeared with his blue pick-up truck.

Tuesday, May 2, 2017

The secret room hidden under a trapdoor in Florence that experts believe contains a lost Michelangelo artwork unseen for centuries

Michelangelo artwork
Michelangelo’s Renaissance Secret

A Renaissance secret remained hidden below the Medici Chapels in Florence for hundreds of years, wherein behind a trapdoor beneath a wardrobe, a room with charcoal and chalk was discovered. According to the National Geographic Exclusive report, the room had been discovered in 1975 when Paola Dal Poggetto, the director then, of the Medici Chapels museum of Florence, had come across the Renaissance treasure.

 In the process of locating new options of exit for tourists, he together with his colleagues had found the trapdoor hidden near the new Sacristy which was a chamber intended to house the ornate tombs of Medici rulers. Beneath the trapdoor, some stone steps gave way to an oblong room packed with coal which appeared at first to be more than a storage space.

However, on the walls, they found the sketches which were believed to be the drawings of the famed artist, Michelangelo. Though the room had been closed to the public in order to safeguard the artwork, Paola Wools the National Geographic photographer had been granted exceptional access to capture its amazing content, thirty years after its discovery.So, while some may have been done by Michelangelo himself, the expert says others were likely to be done by some of his many assistants during their breaks
Michelangelo artwork


Removed Layers of Plaster from Wall – Insight to History of City

After discovering the room that had been occupied with coal, the experts started a cautious task of removing layers of plaster from the wall to know what laid beneath and would get an insight to the history of the city. It was then revealed that dozens of drawings seemed identical to some of the famous works of Michelangelo.

According to the National Geographic, from the pictures there was an image resembling a sculpture in the New Sacristy chamber of the chapel which had been designed by Michelangelo. It was also observed by the experts; equivalents between a specific sketch and the artist’s chalk drawing of the Resurrection of Christ, together with sketches significant of the depiction of Michelangelo of Leda and the swan. Others portrayed humans flying across the walls or dropping from the sky while the drawings are presumed to be a version of one of the figures in the paintings of the artist at the Sistine Chapel.

 According to Dal Poggetto together with the other experts, in 1530, Michelangelo had remained hidden in the oblong room for around two months. The artist is said to have been commissioned by the Medici family.
Michelangelo artwork


Betrayal in 1527

However he had betrayed them in 1527, during their exile by aligning himself against their rule with the others, which had put him in danger at a later stage according to National Geographic.

It was presumed that the artwork in the room had been an assortment of work which he had completed already as well as of those which he intended to complete, though this explanation has not convinced all. Moreover the pieces too are not signed and some of them have been considered to be too `amateurish’ to be actually completed by the famed artist.

As in the case of any unsigned centuries-old artwork, it tends to get difficult in confirming the origins of a drawing with confidence. The consensus is of the opinion that some of the sketches on the wall seem to be too unprofessional belonging to Michelangelo though the attribution of others tends to be a matter of opinion.

Monday, April 24, 2017

Scientists Unlock Secrets of Oldest Surviving Global Trade Map

Global Trade Map

Selden Map of China

The`Selden Map of China - origins and secrets of the 17th century, the oldest surviving merchant map in the world has been revealed by scientist who have utilised state-of-the-art imaging modus operandi. The study headed by Nottingham Trent University in association with the Science Section of the Victoria and Albert Museum for the first time were capable of classifying everything from the techniques and materials utilised, to the flaws and re-drawings made by the surveyor.

Writing in the Journal `Heritage Science’, the scientist had even offered a new location for the creation of the map depending on their proof. The map being 1.6 x 1m illustrates ancient maritime trade routes in Asia is presumed to have been made in the middle of 1607 – 1619 which is painted with watercolours and ink on Chinese paper.

 It is said to be an exceptional illustration of Chinese merchant cartography portraying a network of shipping routes with compass directions beginning from the port of Quanzhou, Fujian province getting as far as Japan and India. Not much is known regarding the origin of the Chinese-style map that had reached the Bodleian Library in 1659, at the University of Oxford which had been donated by John Selden, a prominent London lawyer which is said to be there till it was rediscovered in 2008.
Global Trade Map_2

Matching Systematic Schemes Utilised

Selden in his willhave stated that it was a `map of Chinamade there fairly’ and it had been taken by an English commander. The map had been scrutinized in-situ and non-invasively with the use of remote `multispectral’ imaging technique established at Nottingham Trent University.

The technique provided the scientist to view locations of the map utilising various wavelengths of light exposing the composition as well as make-up of materials that were used together with concealed details that were hidden to the naked eye.

A variety of matchingsystematicschemes had been utilised in identifying the materials. The researchers discovered the binding medium utilised for the map had been gum Arabic which was made from the sap of the acacia tree used by European, south and west Asians.

 It was not the animal glue which was always used during that time in Chinese paintings. On investigation of the pigment utilised, it was found that a combination of indigo with orpiment, which is a yellow mineral instead of gamboge, a yellow dye used in making green was also very unusualfor painting during this period in China.

Complete Map not Planned

The discovery of a basic copper chloride in the green regions indicated the impact from south and west Asia where the manuscripts had been utilised very often. Green pigment had not been utilised in paper based paintings in China.

The researchers have informed that the pigments as well as binders utilised had been more consistent with those discovered in manuscripts from a Persian or Indo-Persian tradition as well as the Islamic sphere then the European or Chinese. With comprehensive investigation, illustrations were found where the cartographers had made alterations, some of which were stylistic while other were unintentional, some made as the cartographer’s information of a positive area settled.

They were capable of identifying that the trade routes had been laid down before the land had been drawn in. They were of the belief that the cartographer had not planned the complete map in the beginning which was the reason that they had to redraw some of the routes several times. They also ran out of space towards the southern as well as the western points of the map, compelling the trade routes to clear off the compass directions.

Two Trade Routes Without Corresponding Compass Direction

Two trade routes had been drawn without their corresponding compass direction signifying that the map was incomplete. The researchers proposed another origin for the map with the evidence – Aceh towards the northwest end of Sumatra where it opened out to the Indian Ocean and is the most westerly port in south East Asia. It has been marked on the map and tends to have the longest history of the presence of Islam in the areas of south East Asia.

Moreover it also has a long history of Chinese contact. Beside this it is also one of the six ports on the map noticeable with a red circle probably signifying the main trading network of the owner of the map and is also the only port marked having a magnetic declination in the early 17th century nearest indicated by the tilt of the compass rose of the map. English ship which would have gone back to Europe from south East Asia would have to pass by Aceh either from the east or west coast of Sumatra, thus providing them with the opportunity of obtaining the map.

Chinese Map Evidence of Fusion of Cultures

According to professor Haida Liang, Head of the Imaging & Sensing for Archaeology, Art History & Conservation research group at Nottingham Trent University, this study tends to explain the importance of not judging a book by its cover.

She further added that `a Chinese map had turned out to be the material evidence of a fusion of cultures. It is stylistically a Chinese painting which tends to follow some Chinese as well as non-Chinese cartographic elements though the painting materials together with their usage are more akin to those of Persian of Indo-Persian manuscripts.

Due to its geographic location, Aceh had been frequented by Indian, Arab, Chinese as well as European traders. They were of the belief that the map could have been made there by a Fujianese probably a Muslim in close connection with the Islamic world.

This had been the globalisation in the early years of the 17th century and on focusing on the material confirmation it was discovered that scientific analysis and art history was used. They thus arrived at new conclusion on where the map had been made following the earlier studies based on historical study.

This work portrayed the immense importance of interdisciplinary research and the new visions it could be bringing along.The map has attained an iconic status and has become the focus of international interest and the understanding of the map through its conservation tends to continue in contributing to the research of eminent scholars all over the world.