Monday, March 20, 2017

Better Technique to Save Paintings from Impacts of Aging

Old_Painting_protection_from_Aging
In the world of art, we often find lots of flourishing artists. However, we can never forget the paintings and art pieces, which had been created by the famous artists in the past. That is why it’s essential to preserve the condition of great paintings of Mondrian and Picasso. The works of these artists may have a negative impact due to aging. So, the researchers have started analyzing the issue in order to sustain the value of all paintings. Recently, some experts have revealed that a white colored pigment i.e. titanium white is speeding up the aging process of paintings. They know an improved process in order to trace out the aging signs. Thus, if preventive measure is taken at the right time, the precious painting may be protected. A journal has also accepted the data, gathered from the research-based analysis.

How Titanium white is affecting the paintings-

Now, before knowing about the protective step, let’s know something about Titanium white. This pigment dries very slowly, and thus, oil painters do not like to apply them at the initial phase of their painting project. Moreover, this is a solid pigment, which is usually blended with another medium in order to maintain a stable flow. In many of the paintings of Mondrian, Jackson Pollock and Picasso, this pigment was used. However, if any good step is not taken, then some undesirable aging effects may be seen on the beautiful paintings. For instance, color, glaze and intensity can get lost because of improper care. Besides, UV ray is also a factor that brings about such aging.

Aging impact is now detectable-

B. V. Driel, who is associated with Rijksmuseum and Delft University, has noticed a concerning fact. He had said that it seemed to be quite hard to know whether a specific binding substance of painting had some aging signs. In other words, when the impact or damage could be noted, the condition of painting might not be restored. However, with the support of many other reputed researchers, an acceptable way has been detected to know the age of any painting. It may also be helpful to reverse the damage in future
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AFM-IR- The latest technique to know the age of all paintings-

Driel applied infrared spectroscopy with different modes, and all the researchers, including Driel, have been successful in analyzing the process of degradation of the stated pigment. This process is mainly called as AFM-IR assessment.

In addition to AFM-IR, some other procedures have also been engaged. The data, obtained from the main analysis, is much useful to know all the essential things. The scientists hope that in the coming years, they will develop more affordable and easier method. You mayapply these methods after a gap of few years to know which canvashas already started showing negative symptoms. Accordingly, you can also reduce the level of exposure to UV rays. Thus, in the domain of painting, AFM-IR process may be highly useful to solve the issues of painting. However, a little investment seems to be essential at the initial stage.

Thursday, March 16, 2017

The Sarah Joe Mystery: Disappearance in the Pacific

Sarah Joe
The Sarah Joe Mystery

We find several stories of various unexplained events in maritime history. Once such event is the Sarah Joe mystery which had started on 11th February 1979 when a group of five friends had boarded a Boston Whaler called Sarah Joe. The vessel is said to be 17 feet in length having an 85 horsepower engine and was unequipped for any main sea voyages. When the vessel had set off from the town of Hana on the Hawaiian island of Maui, its sailing conditions did not appear to be good.

 There was hardly any wind and the surface had been as smooth as glass. Towards noon, which was barely two hours of departure, the local weather seemed to get worse and none of the five members had checked on the local conditions of sailing or the weather reports. Instead they opted in keeping watch on the horizons.

This seems to be the usual practice with amateur sailors who only tend to be out to sea for some few hours. Had they checked on the weather conditions, they would have been aware of a major low pressure system which had been approaching the islands. Had the storm which had hit the town was an indication, then the conditions at sea would have been dreadful and most inappropriate for even the experts at sea.

No Trace of Whereabouts of Five Crew Members

Hurricane force winds together with torrential rain tossed the vessel around like a rag doll Numerous bigger fishing vessels seemed to make it back to port wherein reports recommended that the wells peaked at a height of around 40 feet, Though the hopes were bleak, none of the locals or relatives of the missing boat sat tight without making some attempt in the rescue operation.

 They sent a search along the coastline though the visibility seems to be poor but the weather conditions seemed to be very rough to search further till the storm had subsided. This mystery drove a massive search wherein the day after the disappearance of the vessel, the Coast Guard suggested the mission and over a period of time it developed into a huge fleet of ships, boats together with aircraft.

The search covered 70,000 square miles of ocean for five days though they were unable to trace the whereabouts of the five crew members or the boat. The main issue was that none knew in which direction the group had ventured or where they eventually ended up. Moreover the strong currents of the Alenuihaha Channel seemed to hinder their search.

Family/Relatives not Ready to Abandon Hopes

They also resorted in bringing in homing pigeons that had been specially trained in locating people that had been stranded out at sea. After around a week, the storm experts were of the opinion that the Sarah Joe had wrecked and sank with all on board.

However the family members and friends of the missing men were not ready to abandon their hopes and they combined their resources and cash in order to maintain a search for an additional three weeks. They focussed on some of the most remote islands with a hope of getting some information of the missing vessel though they did not get any trace of the boat or the missing men.

Eventually the search had been called off and the Sarah Joe mystery seemed to be a forgotten event. However years later some of the search party members had been on a routine wildlife mission in the uninhabited islands of the Western Pacific for the National Marine Fisheries Services. The Marshall Islands and the remote Taongi islands are about 2200 miles southwest of Hawaii.

Make-Shift Cross Designed from Driftwood

Biologist John Naughton got himself involved himself in this mystery on 10, September 1988 for the second time. He came across an abandoned fibreglass boat on the coastline while working at Taongi Island and he could only define a portion of the registration of the boat though it was sufficient to learn that it had come from somewhere in the Hawaiian Islands. On investigating further, it had been established that Naughton had solved the mystery of what had taken place with Sarah Joe.

Many queries were raised since there was nothing in and around the vessel and they searched for signs of life, notes or sort of equipment which could provide some clues to the mysterious vessel. Unfortunately there were none and Naughton together with his team took some time to decide on the next thing to be done and decided to search the surrounding area. The team then made another discovery about a hundred yards from the boat wherein a make-shift cross designed from driftwood was seen sticking out of the top of a shallow grave together with a human jaw bone bulging from the direction post of coral and shingle stones.

Blank Pieces of Paper on Skeleton

On examining the grave closely, they envisaged blank pieces of paper on top of the skeleton which were loose though arranged like an open manuscript or book. Between the papers was something which Naughton later described as tinfoil. The pack of 3 inch square papers was about ¾ inch thick and did not have any function according to the biology team.

They jointly decided that any more excavation of the grave would be disrespectful and refrained from further attempts of digging. The jawbone sent to forensic lab for testing revealed that they were indeed of Scott Moorman while the other smaller bones discovered beyond the grave also seemed to match with those of Moorman. No other remains were discovered on the whole island. There seems to be much more on the mystery of Sarah Joe than the disappearance and then the appearance of one man out of the five.

 Since the boat was not well equipped and was designed for only coastal use, it seemed a mystery on how it survived one of the worst storms on record and landed on a desolate island many miles away. According to experts who tend to have a better comprehension state that the drift time between Hawaii and the Marshall Island could have been somewhere in the area of three months.

Saturday, March 11, 2017

There Could Be Lava Tubes on the Moon, Large Enough for Whole Cities

Moon Lava Tube
Lava Tubes Beneath Lunar Surface – Bigger and More Stable

A research of networks of lava tubes that tend to wind beneath the lunar surface proposes that they could have been bigger and more stable than presumed earlier. The researchers sculpting the tunnels which are the remains of volcanic activity in the moon’s early stages are of the belief that they could possibly be up to around three miles wide thus raising the hope for subterranean bases.

The lava tubes which have been located in Iceland as well as Hawaii seem to be huge tunnels that have been carved out of the rock by the flowing lava. Geologists are of the opinion that they have been developed from streams of magma that had run dry, leaving channels through the solid rock.

Scientists are of the belief that the same structures are probably found beneath the lunar surface depending on small gravitational changes as well as images of cave openings gathered from lunar orbiters. If the lava tubes are found and seem to be stable they could offer shelter for a lasting lunar base.

Overcome Problems – Potential Hazards

This would help in overcoming the problems pertaining to potential hazards confronted by a base on the surface inclusive of the risk of meteorites as well as the increased solar radiation owing to the absence of protective atmosphere.

A group from Purdue University in Indiana had utilised computer demonstrating procedures in analysing how huge these tunnels could possibly grow. The circumstances on Earth would mean that the tubes tend to be limited to 30 metres across though the gravitational evidence recommends that on the moon they could be much larger. Utilising evaluations of rock density from the samples of moon rock, it was presumed that the width of the tubes would probably be thrice wider than their height.

The effects indicated that the stability is governed by the width of the tube, thickness of the roof together with the physical stress on the rock. In a paper published in journal Icarus, researchers had explained that if adequately deep, the lunar condition would probably generate fissures kilometres wide.

Lunar Base – Twice Commercial Base

It was informed that the theoretical maximum size of a lunar lava tube was based on various factors though with sufficient burial depth – 500 m together with an initial lithostatic stress state, the results portrayed that the lava tubes up to 3 miles – 5 km wide would be capable of staying structurally stable.

The estimates surpassed the earlier sizes that had been provided by the group during the 2015 conference which had recommended that tubes of 0.6 miles in diameter could be adequately steady to house permanent bases below the surface. Nasa scientists had earlier in the year calculated that there could be a possibility of returning to the surface of the moon in the next five to seven years at a total cost of about $10 billion.Spaceflight experts have debated in a series of papers, on the cost of building a lunar base which tend to be much less than anticipated and that there could be a substantial commercial value there.

They had mentioned that a lunar base can be twice a commercial mining base to enable the resources of the moon to be exploited. According to evidence, the moon could be a rich source of water ice, together with rare metals as well as a rare isotope of helium.

Wednesday, March 8, 2017

Man May be Able to Survive on Mars

Mars
Survival is a tough job, no matter you analyze it from whichever perspective. From time immemorial scientists have carried several expeditions on the Fourth planet of the solar family. The evidence of water has germinated the whole crux behind the possibility of sustaining life on Mars.

The scientists have derived an extra element that adds to the idea of sustenance of life on the planet, Mars. The researchers have said that it is difficult to study the mantle of Mars, but they are trying to delve into the matter and make the mars’ mantle as familiar as that of Earth. So that life can exist much easily there. The researchers have said that the mars’ mantle is similar to that of Earth’s and it is not as complicated as it was expected to be.

The scientists have discovered Elysium, which is a magnanimous complex of Volcano on Mars, and is known for being the second largest Olympic Mons and rises to the length of almost 16 km. They have also discovered that the lava that flows round Elysium does persist having an primary mantle that dissolves at dissimilar temperatures as the surface rises differently across time. Researches have revealed that the fourth planet is utterly a much complicated planet in terms of geological evolution than it was expected. Perhaps the change in the surface that takes place due to the rise of volcano is the reason behind several effects of loading.

The entire research was led by David Susko said, who is a researcher at LSU Geology and Geophysics graduate. He said that Mars is more like Earth than like Moon. The expedition that was carried on Moon have revealed the fact that Moon lacks all the subordinate minerals that is vital for the sustenance of life which is present on Earth as a result of igneous-water contacts and weathering. We had witnessed Mars just like Moon that is lifeless, loaded with craters with several inactive volcanoes.

Mars is known as the red Planet and the more we dive into its several folds; we can find that it can sustain life and this planet is not at all identical to the Moon. Research is still being carried on in this field to figure out several more proofs that supports the idea of existence of life on Mars. Varieties of rocks have been discovered that has many geochemical compositions that ensure the fact that human population can exist on the fourth planet of the solar system.

Susko have confirmed that the features of volcano that are present on Mars are reported to be in the range of 3-4 billion years old. He also said that if they could trace the history of this volcano then they can easily figure out which rich ores and minerals are present on Mars that can be beneficial to support life on this planet. Such researches tend to claim that life can be possible on Mars with all the basic amenities.

Monday, March 6, 2017

World War II: Adolf Hitler Gruesome Plan of Destroying London Found In an Attic

World War II
World War II ear map has been unearthed after 75 years which showcases the Adolf Hitler’s plan of bombing the targets in London. This particular rare plan fitted in to a Luftwaffe direction finder and this map carefully labels the prominent targets which building some of the important buildings such as Chelsea Barracks and Battersea Power Station. Germans has also planned to bomb the Duke of York’s HQsas well as Fulham Palace which happens to the household of the Bishop of London.

Quite interestingly this map carefully focuses on the targets following the route of the river which works as an effective guidance for the navigators. This map is dated from November 30, 9141 and it brings forward the gruesome plan of the Germans to get rid of London iconic and strategic landmarks during the war. The ownership of this map has been attributed to a late Second World War air gunner and it is being speculated that map has been carefully taken from the wreckages of a short down Luftwaffe aircraft.

Rare Map can be bought at the auction

The only good thing which can be seen from this map is that Germans has decided not to bomb the hospitals by marking those building with a cross. This map is being sold off by Bernard Pass and it can be bought by anyone to keep a piece of the history with them. It will come as a surprise but even after bombing London for days Luftwaffe pilots were unable to demolish most of the landmarks from the skies.

World War II

A look into the history

Such maps are not meant to be kept safely at all rather it has to be destroyed so it doesn’t fall into the hands of British army. From the history it is widely known that facing the defeat in the Battle of Britain, Germans has attempted to bomb the London right into submission. This rare map shows that they had specially decided to target the major and minor targets in order to generate as much damage as possible. The bombing campaign began in September 1940 wherein London was bombed mercilessly for 57 days.

As we have seen in the history this act of mercilessly bombing didn’t resulted in breaking the morale of the British rather boosted the will of the people towards overthrowing the tyrant. During the bombing a number of iconic and prestigious building in London were destroyed which includes the City of London Hospital in Old Street, The Great Synagogue of London in Aldgate and the Carlton Hotel in Haymarket.

The bombing raids didn’t just damage the targeted buildings but also caused firestorm in many cases and quite incidentally the St. Paul’s Cathedral was narrowly saved. When Germans started preparation to invade the Soviet Union only then the Luftwaffe forces were withdrawn from the west. During the London bombing as many as 30,000 people were killed while 50,000 were left seriously injured in the World War II.