Showing posts with label universe. Show all posts
Showing posts with label universe. Show all posts

Thursday, June 1, 2017

Quantum Fluctuations Keeps the Universe Swell

Universe

Unsolved Mysteries in Science – Universe Expanding

One of the greatest unsolved mysteries in science is that our universe seems to be expanding and how and why this expansion has been quickening is not known. Academics this month recommended that it was owing to every point in space oscillating between expansion and contraction and instead of these changes cancelling each other out, there is a small net effect resulting in the universe to gradually expand normally.

A PhD student at the University of British Columbia, Canada, Qingdi Wang leading a team looking into these tiny fluctuations stated that space-time was not as static as it appeared and is continuously moving. This tends to take place at very tiny scales, billions and billions times smaller than even an electron.

 Physicists estimate that the expansion of the universe is due to the dark energy pushing matter away and though we are not aware of precisely what dark energy tends to be, there is something known as vacuum energy. It is said to be continuously altered by the fluctuation of virtual particles bursting in and out of way of life. It is said to be background energy created in the universe and is connected to uncertainty principle in quantum mechanics of Heisenberg.

Every Point in Space – Yo-Yoing – Expansion/Contraction

If the theory of quantum mechanics is applied to this vacuum energy concept it turns out to have additional energy than the total energy of all the particles in actuality. This would result in explosion of the place. Wang and Co had calculatedthat vacuum energy tends to be present without blowing apart the universe and have done so in a manner which puts the idea forward that every point in space is yo-yoing between expansion and contraction with a small increase in the direction of expansion.

Their effort had been published in Physical Review D recently. Co-author of their paper and a professor of physics and astronomy at the University, William Unruhhad compared the effects to waves rippling through an ocean.

The vacuum energy procedure is said to be alike the waves seen on the ocean. Unruh stated that they are not affected by the intense dance of the single atoms which makes up the water where the waves tend to ride. The fluctuations occur at the Planck scale at 10-33 cm which is complex to prove. However the researchers expect that it may indirectly be confirmed in the future.

Accelerated Expansion – Recognized Observation

Wang had explained to the Reg that accelerated expansion was already a recognized observation of the universe with tons of experimental consequences and their theory had explained this occurrence successfully. They would be generalizing the theory to be capable of clarifying the evolution of the universe in details, predict some latest patterns that could be examined in the near future in the interplanetary microwave background radiation.

Saul Perlmutter, Brian Schmidt and Adam Reiss, Nobel Prize winning astrophysicist had learned that the universe had been increasing at a fast rate in 1998. They found that the redshift for observed supernovae had been bigger than speculated. It recommended that the blowing up of stars had been moving at a quicker pace than believed earlier and the expansion of the universe had to be hurrying.

Tuesday, April 22, 2014

Heat Death Of Universe

Heat Death Of  Universe
Living among Glowing Filaments of Energy

The universe differs in composition in various places and we live among glowing filaments of energy and matter which are collected together in a background of nothingness and the planetary systems, stars, nebulae, black holes, galaxies are all concentrated specks in space.

In the distant future, these hot heavy specks may tend to spread out into cold void mixing till everything will change in a thin mist and like boiling water added to cold content; the two extremes will balance out and thereby leave it lukewarm.

 Heat death began from the work of several physicist who started the study of comprehending how the machines transformed heat to mechanical work and formed an empirical conception on how steam engines and other suppliers of force did this which led them to the understanding of the entire system settling down to an intermediate temperature with no more energy transfer taking place.

This is known as the maximization of entropy. The atoms, subatomic and molecules particles tend to collide in space spreading the energy and momentum from fast to slow wherein the motion of these particles of the universe gradually become random and they collide and interact with no change of energy, finally going out into the empty space.

Universe Reaches Maximum Entropy

The heat death of the universe will take place when the universe reaches a state of maximum entropy when all the available energy like the hot source will have moved to places of less energy as a colder source and when this takes place no additional work will be possible from the universe.

 Since heat will cease to flow, no more work would be acquired from heat transfer while the same sort of equilibrium would also be expected from other forms of energy namely mechanical, electrical etc.; resulting it to be effectively dead especially for the use of humankind. The heat death originated from the second law of thermodynamic which is the entropy that increases in an isolated system being the universe.

 Entropy that can be arranged in a number ways where a system can be arranged should not decrease, but evolve to maximum disorder or thermodynamic equilibrium. When this takes place, it will be divided equally throughout the cosmos leaving no space for any reusable heat or energy to break into existence resulting in the processes which consume energy would cease to exist, including our planet Earth.

Big Freeze/Big Chill

The theory on how the universe will tend to end, the heat death which is also known as the big Freeze or the big chill has been suggested as one of the ways where the cosmos would come to an end especially when it’s expanding.

 The heat death of the universe is considered as the ultimate fate of the universe wherein the universe will tend to diminish to a state of no thermodynamic free energy and will no longer be capable to sustain processes which will consume energy. It does not imply any temperature but needs temperature difference or other processes that may no longer be needed for performance of work.

Monday, January 25, 2010

Big bang Theory Part.II



The term Big bang was coined by the British astronomer Fred Hoyle who was actually a opponent of this theory. He developed an alternative The Steady state theory. According to this steady state theory the universe remains stable since the decreasing density caused by expansion is balance by the constant creation of new matter.

In 1929 after spending many nights in taking photographs of the universe with the latest telescopes he concluded a fascination discovery otherwise called Red Shift theory. According to this the galaxies appear to be moving away from our own and they are receding at faster speed the farther away they are. The spiral arms of the various galaxies are expanding this concludes that at some point of time the universe was a small un imaginable dense mass of matter.

In 1946 astrophysicist George Gamow suggested that if the big bang theory is correct, the receding energy would have to leave the traces in the form of cosmic noise or backward radiation. The existence of this radiation was conforming in 1965 by two American radio astronomers. They detected a background radiation present in all parts of the heaven.

Years later the uniformity of temperature becoming puzzling for the supporters of the big bang theory the background radiation indicates the matter was distributed uniformly in the space. But the matter is concentrated into galaxies this raised the question of the origin of Spiral galaxies.

The Big bang theory rest pm the quantity of helium present in the universe most of the chemicals are born from the stars. However helium accounts for 23% of all matters of universe, it is impossible that all originated from the stars. Therefore we have to assume that they were existed before the formation of stars.

There are so many unsolved mystery and doubts in the big bang theory:
1) It is not possible to study the first moments of Cosmos- The very beginning of time and space.
2) Many scientists regard the existence of quasars as another obstacle to the big bang
theory. Quasars are the cores of active galaxy and hence some scientists believe that their properties are in conflict to the big bang theory.



The observation made so far revealed the universe is still young but the astrophysical theories based on the assumption that they were 13 thousand million years old.

Big bang Theory Part.I





The creation of the stars and the in the universe had created with a explosion – is called Big bang. In spite of some reservation the big bang theory remains well founded and most convincing theory till date.
According to the cosmologists and astronomers the space and time began with a mighty explosion called as “Big Bang” Most of the scientists supported it. But still we don’t know exactly what happened at the down of universe.
According to the big bang theory the age of our universe is 13thousands million years. If you want to tell more accurately the universe came into existence some (10^-43) seconds after big bang.
When it was 10^-43 seconds old the universe was indefinitely dense and hot. It was 10^32 degree centigrade. By that time matter and energy were in separable densely bonded and they compress to a mass of less than 10^-50 cm in radius. The new born universe immediately expands at a tremendous rate more it expand more it cooled down. Then gradually matter and its opposite antimatter emerged from this energy bundle. After10^-10 seconds the temperature fallen down to thousand billion degrees Celsius impossible to conceive except in theory.
At this point the cosmos contains the basic particles- quarks, electrons, neutrinos, as well as particles of anti matter at 10^6secondsthe temperature had fallen down to 10billion degrees. The particles of matter and antimatter collided with each others. The more the temperature falls down the more the matter and antimatter formed which then collide and disappear since the quarks and electrons are more than the anti matter hence the matter prevailed after about three seconds the last positron was destroyed and the present matter which contain electrons protons neutrons came to existence. After the first three seconds the universe continued to expand and cool only 800000 years after the big bang the temperature had reached the 3000C and the protons and electrons began to combine as hydrogen atom. At this point of time energy separated from the matter and the first photon-light quanta were released.



Over the next thousand years the stars took shape. In their cores, the nuclear fusion was ignited. this the energy that fuels our sun. As the temperature continued to reduce the first galaxies appeared, as did quasars- on the edges. Galaxy after galaxy the universe took its present form. 4.5 thousands million years ago our solar system made its appearance.
(to be continued)

Thursday, January 7, 2010

The unknown mystery about black hole!!!!!!!


What are black holes? You just imagine a void of very very small in size which is enormously dense which engulf the objects which comes with in its surroundings. Here a simple explanation for a black hole. Black hole is a star which collapsed under its own mass few times and it becomes more compact every time. Because of its enormously high density this endless chasm sucks everything with in its vicinity and absolutely nothing can escape from its attraction.

The name 'BLACK HOLE' was coined by John Weeler, a famous astrophysicist of American origin. While deriving the theory of relativity Albert Einstein told about the black holes but none of the scientist thought about it.

While we are discussing about a black hole, we are fully against the Newton's force of attraction between two objects.

For your convenience let me explain to you with sun as an example. If our sun has to be changed to be a black hole the following things has to be take place. First the diameter of the sun has to be compressed to make it a ball of one kilometer radius (now the diameter of Sun is 1392000Km) while doing so its density will be increased and hence it’s mass will be equal to 1000000000000000000000000000000 Kg. Similarly if you convert earth in to a black hole it will be a ball of 1cm radius and of mass 10 power 25Kg( 1 followed by twenty five zeros) Now the earth's diameter of earth is 12756Km.
Now I hope you have a brief outline about a black hole. Now let’s go through the general process of creation of black hole.

Stars are of huge balls of gases mostly Hydrogen. Their energy is derived from nuclear fusion of Hydrogen into Helium (Nuclear fusion is a clear source of energy occurs in very high temperature and pressure). Once the stars weight and the energy produced balances each other then they will be stable. They will not collapse as long as the energy production takes place the will be stars. But once the energy production reduced due to lack of fuels the stars implodes in on itself simultaneously its radius also reduce. After few collapses their radius reduced to a greater extent and becomes a black hole.

Here the problem for astrophysicist is discovering black hole in the universe. Since they are not visible we can not find them as visible object. But they can be finding out by using a different phenomenon of binary stars.

Binary stars are the two stars rotation around each other. If one star become a black hole the other will tumble down and will be absorbed, while it is absorbed there is a disc of dust called accretion disc form around the hole. The very hot matter inside the black hole is extremely accelerated and hence releases strong radio waves. Using these radio waves we can find the black hole. The velocity of disc rotation is directly proportional to the mass of the black hole.

According the scientists the galaxies rotate like a centrifuge. The total mass of the stars and other objects at the centre holds the stars in the outer edges hold them in place. Hence we can arrive at this following conclusion that the mass of all matter of stars is not sufficient to hold the very distant stars therefore some invisible gigantic black holes at the centre are exert force on the stars at the outer

Here a point to note: The time stops inside a black hole which is a unique and very important point in the space and time relationship.