Showing posts with label galaxies. Show all posts
Showing posts with label galaxies. Show all posts

Friday, July 7, 2017

Existence Of Orbiting Supermassive Black Holes Confirmed

Black Holes

Research on Interaction Between Black Holes

Astronomers at The University of New Mexico have informed that for the first time they have accomplished observing and measuring the orbital motion between two supermassive black holes hundreds of millions of light years from Earth, a discovery said to be more than a decade in the creation. Krishma Bansal, graduate student of UNM Department of Physics & Astronomy is said to be the first-author on the paper `Constraining the Orbit of the Supermassive Black Hole Binary 0402 +379’ published recently in The Astrophysical Journal.

 Bansal together with UNM Professor Greg Taylor and colleagues at Stanford, the U.S. Naval Observatory and the Gemini Observatory had been researching on the interaction between these black holes for 12 years. Taylor had informed that for a long time they had been looking in space to attempt and find a pair of these supermassive black holes orbiting as a result of two galaxies reunion.

Though they conceived that this should be happening, no one had seen it till now. An international team of researchers in early 2016, comprising of a UNM former student working on LIGO project had identified the presence of gravitational waves endorsing the 100-year-old prediction of Albert Einstein, surprising the scientific community.

The Very Long Baseline Array - VLBA

These gravitational waves had been the consequence of two stellar mass black holes bumping in space within the Hubble time and due to the latest research, the scientists are now in a position of beginning to comprehend what leads up to the merger of supermassive black holes that tends to create ripples in the fabric of space-time.

 They have begun to learn regarding the evolution of galaxies together with the role these black holes tend to play in it. Researchers have been able to observe several frequencies of radio signals emitted by these supermassive black holes – SMBH by utilising the Very Long Baseline Array – VLBA, which is a system made up of 10 radio telescopes all over the U.S. and operated in Socorro, N.M. The astronomers, over a period of time had been capable of planning their course and confirm them as visual binary system.

It meant that they observed these black holes in orbit with one another. Bansal had informed that when Dr Taylor had handed over the data, he had been at the beginning of learning how to image and understand the same. As he learned there was data going back to 2003 and they planned it, determining they were orbiting one another and the same was thrilling.

An Unbelievable Achievement

The discovery for Taylor was the outcome of over 20 years of work with an unbelievable achievement considering the accuracy needed to pull off these measurements. At approximately 750 million light years from Earth, the galaxy called 0402+379 together with the supermassive black holes in it, were exceedingly isolated though were also at the precise distance from Earth and from each other to be observed.

Bansal has informed that these supermassive black holes tend to have a blend of mass of 15 billion times that of the sun or 15 billion solar masses. The incredible size of these black holes means that their orbital period is about 24,000 years. While the team has perceived them for a decade they have still to look out for the slimmest curvature in their orbit.

Roger W. Romani, professor of physics at Stanford University as well as the member of the research team had informed that if one imagines a snail on the recently discovered Earth-like planet orbiting Prixima Centauri – 4,243 light years away, moving at 1 cm per second, it is the lanky motion they are determining here.

Binary Stars Offer Incredible Insights

Taylor had commented that what they have been able in doing is a true chemical achievement over the 12-year period utilising the VLBA in achieving adequate resolution and accuracy in the astrometry to really see the orbit happening, has been a bit of victory in technology to have been able to do so. Though the technical accomplishment of this finding has been really remarkable, Bansal and Taylor have stated that the research could also teach them a lot more regarding the universe where galaxies come from and when they go.

An astronomer with the U.S. Naval Observatory, Bob Zavala stated that the orbits of binary stars offer incredible insights regarding stars and now we will be in a position of using same techniques in understanding supermassive black holes as well as the galaxies they tend to reside in. On-going observation of the orbit and interaction of these two supermassive black holes could be helpful in obtaining an improved understanding of what the future of our galaxy could look like.

 Presently the Andromeda galaxy that has a SMBH also at its core is said to be on a path to run into with our Milky Way. Bansal has informed that the research team would be taking another observation of the system in three or four years and confirm the motion and gain an accurate orbit. The team in the meantime, anticipates that the discovery would encourage related work from the other astronomers across the globe.

Wednesday, April 5, 2017

Radiation from Nearby Galaxies Helped Fuel First Monster Black Holes


Presence of Supermassive Blackholes – Confusion of Astronomers

The presence of supermassive black holes towards the beginning of the creation has given rise to confusion to astronomers from the time of their discovery, more than a decade back. A supermassive black hole is considered to be formed over billions of years, though more than two dozen of these behemoths have been seen within 800 million years of the Big Bang 13.8 billion of years ago.

A team of researchers from Dublin City University, Georgia Tech, Columbia University as well as the University of Helsinki, in their new study in the journal `Nature Astronomy’, showed signs of one concept on how these antique black holes which seemed to be around billion times heavier than the sun could be formed and seemed to put on weight rapidly.

The researchers showed that a black hole could swiftly develop towards the core of its host galaxy if an adjoining galaxy and seemed to emit sufficient radiation to switch off its capability to form stars. Hence restricted, the host galaxy is inclined to cultivate till it ultimately collapses, forming a black hole which feeds on the left over gas, and later, dust, dying stars, and perhaps other black holes, that become great colossal.

Collapse of Galaxy/Formation of a Million-solar-mass BlackHole

According to co-author, Zoltan Haiman, an astronomy professor at Columbia University commented that the collapse of the galaxy and the formation of a million-solar-mass black hole took around 100,000 years — a glitch in planetary times and a few hundred million years later, it had grown into a billion-solar-mass supermassive black hole.

This seemed to be much quicker than expected. Stars and galaxies in the early creation had been formed as molecular hydrogen cooled and flattened to primordial plasma of hydrogen and helium. This environment had limited black holes from growing very big since molecular hydrogen would turn gas into stars adequately far away to escape the black holes, gravitational pull.

Astronomers had come up with a number of methods that supermassive black holes could have overcome this obstacle. Haiman together with his colleagues, in their 2008 research had hypothesized that radiation from a considerable nearest galaxy could divide molecular hydrogen into a atomic hydrogen causing the nascent black hole together with its host galaxy to collapse instead of spawning new clusters of stars.

Research - Effects of Gravity/Fluid/Dynamics/Chemistry/Radiation

A study after this, headed by Eli Visbal a postdoctoral researcher a Columbia then had summed that the nearby galaxy could have been around 100 million times much bigger than the sun to emit adequate radiation in order to stop star formation.

 However, being comparatively rare, adequate galaxies of this size seemed to exist in the initial creation to describe the supermassive black holes witnessed so far. Presently the study, headed by John Regan, a postdoctoral researcher at Ireland’s Dublin City University, had displayed the procedure utilising software established by Columbia’s Greg Bryan wherein his study comprised of the effects of gravity, fluid dynamics, chemistry as well as radiation.

 Few days subsequently of crunching the numbers on a processer, the researchers established that the adjoining galaxy could have been smaller as well as closer than earlier assessed. A study co-author John Wise, the Dunn Family Associate Professor in Georgia Tech’s College of Physics, had commented that the nearby galaxy could not be too close, or too far away, and similar to the Goldilocks principle, excessively hot or cold.

Tuesday, January 17, 2017

Radio Signals Traced to Galaxy Billions of Light Years Away

radio signals form galaxy
The search for the extra territorial life isn’t new and it has been theme of a number of science fiction literature. The common theme showcased in discovering the life in space is to send or receive radio signals back from life far away in the galaxy. Over the years of extensive research astronomers are confident enough to pinpoint a number of fast radio signals burst which in coming from the deep space. Radio signals happens to be the best or most sophisticated way of sending information about our planet and to get relatively quick response if it is intercepted from someone lurking in the space. Now scientists and astronomers are confirming that they had received some radio signals from the planets billion light years away from Earth.

The signals from deeper space

The radio signal bursts emerged from the space is extremely short lived which blasts nothing more than a millisecond. This makes it extremely difficult to track and process even given the current scientific and technologies tools but scientists of hopeful of making progress in near future. Scientists are making use of Very Large Array present in New Mexico which is specifically a multi-antenna telescope. This telescope will help in determining the precise location of the radio signal flash.

This group of scientists originated from the McGill University in Montreal and Cornell University in New York. They had already published the finding in the reputed science journal called Nature. They had also presented the very same finding at the annual conference of American Astronomical Society in Texas which left everyone spellbound with the success made by the team. The approximate location of the emerging radio signal bursts has been named as FRB 121102 by the scientists.

On the path to success

FRB 121102 is being studied over six months by the scientists and it has helped in pinpointing its exact position in the galaxy. One of the scientists associated with this research at Cornell University named Dr. Shami Chatterjee has stated that the radio flashes coming from this location is emitting huge amount of energy which is visible even from 3 billion light years, though the reason behind these bursts is mystery for the scientists to unravel.

It has been speculated by the scientists that the burst is a result of jets of matters shooting out of a black hole. Such instances has been seen in the past where an exploding backhole can appear like shiny object in the galaxy with the ability to been billions of light years away. While some scientists believe it to a magnetar closed surrounded with wide amount of debris from a stellar explosion. Since 2007about 18 FRB has been discovered by the astronomers and scientists. FRB 121102 is unique as it is continuously showing bright bursts along with weaker radio emissions coming from its region. If their finding brings some more details regarding the burst of radio signals then they will move further towards uncovering the presence of life in the space.

Thursday, January 7, 2010

The unknown mystery about black hole!!!!!!!

What are black holes? You just imagine a void of very very small in size which is enormously dense which engulf the objects which comes with in its surroundings. Here a simple explanation for a black hole. Black hole is a star which collapsed under its own mass few times and it becomes more compact every time. Because of its enormously high density this endless chasm sucks everything with in its vicinity and absolutely nothing can escape from its attraction.

The name 'BLACK HOLE' was coined by John Weeler, a famous astrophysicist of American origin. While deriving the theory of relativity Albert Einstein told about the black holes but none of the scientist thought about it.

While we are discussing about a black hole, we are fully against the Newton's force of attraction between two objects.

For your convenience let me explain to you with sun as an example. If our sun has to be changed to be a black hole the following things has to be take place. First the diameter of the sun has to be compressed to make it a ball of one kilometer radius (now the diameter of Sun is 1392000Km) while doing so its density will be increased and hence it’s mass will be equal to 1000000000000000000000000000000 Kg. Similarly if you convert earth in to a black hole it will be a ball of 1cm radius and of mass 10 power 25Kg( 1 followed by twenty five zeros) Now the earth's diameter of earth is 12756Km.
Now I hope you have a brief outline about a black hole. Now let’s go through the general process of creation of black hole.

Stars are of huge balls of gases mostly Hydrogen. Their energy is derived from nuclear fusion of Hydrogen into Helium (Nuclear fusion is a clear source of energy occurs in very high temperature and pressure). Once the stars weight and the energy produced balances each other then they will be stable. They will not collapse as long as the energy production takes place the will be stars. But once the energy production reduced due to lack of fuels the stars implodes in on itself simultaneously its radius also reduce. After few collapses their radius reduced to a greater extent and becomes a black hole.

Here the problem for astrophysicist is discovering black hole in the universe. Since they are not visible we can not find them as visible object. But they can be finding out by using a different phenomenon of binary stars.

Binary stars are the two stars rotation around each other. If one star become a black hole the other will tumble down and will be absorbed, while it is absorbed there is a disc of dust called accretion disc form around the hole. The very hot matter inside the black hole is extremely accelerated and hence releases strong radio waves. Using these radio waves we can find the black hole. The velocity of disc rotation is directly proportional to the mass of the black hole.

According the scientists the galaxies rotate like a centrifuge. The total mass of the stars and other objects at the centre holds the stars in the outer edges hold them in place. Hence we can arrive at this following conclusion that the mass of all matter of stars is not sufficient to hold the very distant stars therefore some invisible gigantic black holes at the centre are exert force on the stars at the outer

Here a point to note: The time stops inside a black hole which is a unique and very important point in the space and time relationship.